US 3602020 A
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United States Patent  Inventor Tomomasa Kajita 545 Oska-shi, Abeno-ku, Maruyama-dori 2-chome 3 ban lfi-go, Osaka, Japan  Appl. No. 810,191  Filed Mar. 25, 1969  Patented Aug. 311, 1971  Priority Jan. 20, 1969 J p [31 44/4241  LUCK 9 Cflaims, 31 Drawing Figs.
 U.S. Cl 70/276, 70/153, 70/360, 70/386, 70/413, 292/150  lint. Cl 1105b 47/00, EOSb 27/00  Field of Search 70/276, 413, 360, 361, 376, 386
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,116,011 5/1938 Bugg 70/289 2,189,880 2/1940 Bugg 70/289 3,473,835 10/1969 Boyriven. 292/252 X 428,247 5/1890 Fenner 70/276 2,177,996 10/ 1939 Raymond 70/386 2,732,703 1/1956 Noregaard. 70/276 X 3,234,767 2/1966 Allander 1 eme OTHER REFERENCES Popular Science, February 1951, pages 219 and 220, article by Walter E. Burton; Published by Popular Science Publishing Co., Inc., 355 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY. 10017, copy in class 70, subclass 290 Primary Examiner-Albert G. Craig, .lr. Attorney-Edwin E. Greigg SCT: The present invention relates to a locking instrument efi'ective to be easily constructed with simple structure, wherein said locking instrument can be released or locked by depositing floating balls to a predetermined position through magnetic attraction exerted by a magnetic key, said floating balls being freely movably mounted in cylindrical spacings formed between cylindrical barrels having one end closed and pistonlike members relatively slidably engaging each other defining therewith a shallow ball chamber, the diameter of each floating ball being smaller than that of each bottom plane of said cylindrical barrels and slightly less than the depth of the ball chamber while locking axial sliding of said pistonlike member, said floating balls being efiective to enter into and snugly be accommodated in the interior of a recessed portion provided on the free end plane of the pistonlike member, additaments being provided in said free end plane to oppose movement of said ball into a position aligned with said recess and means coupling said barrel member and pistonlike member to an actuating member whereby when said ball is aligned with said recess said pistonlike member is freed to penetrate into said barrel member and said actuating member is conditioned to move from said locking to said unlocking position.
PATENTED M631 [9?! SHEET 8 [1F 9 PATENTEB M83] 19?: 3. 602.020
SHEET 7 BF 9 Fig 15 PATH-HEB AUBBI I97! 3,602,020
sum 8 OF 9 LOCK BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a locking instrument effective to be released or locked by retaining floating balls in predetermined positions in the presence or absence of magnetic attraction exerted by the magnetic key.
The locking instrument of this type constructed so as to be released by depositing said floating balls to the predetermined positions, while the locked stage can be maintained so long as said floating balls do not position thereto. Accordingly, in order to minimize the probability of natural positioning of said floating balls to the predetermined releasing positions, areas for said balls to freely reside should be preferably large. In addition, for the purpose of minimizing the size of the locking instrument, the structures for retaining said balls within the above-mentioned areas and the structures for restricting the movement of the lock releasing members in the one-dimensional direction by means of said ball retained within said areas should be simple and compact.
According to a conventional locking instrument of a type similar to this type of locking instrument of the present invention, there is provided on relative contact surfaces of a pair of plates a pair of grooves extending in the secondary one-dimensional direction opposed to the primary one-dimensional direction in which two plates are relatively slidably in contact with each other, in order to establish the release stage by the movement of one plate of said two plates, said grooves being provided to serve as passages. Movable members mounted in said passages are freely rollably provided in the secondary one-dimensional direction which is the lengthwise direction of any one of said passages. With these constructions, supplementary grooves for receiving said movable members extending in parallel relation to said primary one-dimensional direction are provided on one of said pairs of plates in the intersectional relation to the grooves provided thereon.
Hence, the locked stage in said conventional locking instrument is established when the movable members prevent said pair of plates from relatively moving while said movable member resides in said passages apart from said supplementary grooves. On the contrary, when said movable members are attracted to said supplementary grooves through magnetic attraction exerted by the magnetic key employed to the predetermined position, said movable members can fall in said supplementary grooves whereas said pair of plates commences to relatively move in said primary one-dimensional direction and thereby convert the locking instrument from the locked stage to the released stage.
However, in this type of locking instrument, because said movable members can move only in the one-dimensional direction so that the areas for said movable members to freely move are considerably narrowerly defined, the probability of unexpected positioning of said movable members at the releasing positions in which they can fall will increase. There fore, there may be higher possibilities of being released without the key. Moreover, partly because said grooves should be provided on both pairs of plates, while one of said pairs of plates should be provided with said supplementary grooves, and partly because said grooves and supplementary grooves should conform to each other between said both plates, in addition that the structures for retaining said movable members therein, that is, the structures for restricting the relative movement of said pairs of plates are essential, the locking instrument may be so complicated that it may be difficult to manufacture or its size may be too large.
Another conventional locking instrument different in structure from the abovementioned locking instrument is constructed in such a way as to provide in the lock housing a pair of movable members effective to relatively slide in the onedimensional direction, said pair of movable members being faced to each other in a separated condition, whereas the locking instrument can be released when these relatively movable members commence their relative approaching movement, otherwise the locked stage is maintained. One of the relatively movable members is pivoted with needles effective to command the relative approaching movement of these relative movable members. Said needles are supported at the center of the length thereof, while permitting their points to swing in the two-dimensional direction of a plane substantially parallel to a plane vertical in said one-dimensional direction. In other words, said needles can freely point in any direction. The back ends of said needles are constructed with magnets and said needles are maintained in the predetermined posture relative to one of said relatively movable members through magnetic attraction between the magnets provided in said needles and the magnets provided in the magnetic key at the predetermined position while said key is osculated against the predetermined portion of the outer wall of said lock housing. At this moment, the points of said needles are directed toward holes or recesses provided on the other one of said relatively movable members. Only in this state can said points pass through said holes or recesses permitting both relatively movable members to approach each other. On the contrary, other than in said state said point may contact the facing wall of the other one of said relatively movable members apart from said holes or recesses, whereby projection of said needles will prevent both of the relatively movable members from approaching each other.
However, in this type of locking instrument, a structure effective to permit the center of each of said needles to be supported by one of said relatively movable members results in a complicated structure and, because the locking instrument is of such a character that, when one movable member approaches the other movable member while said needles are in the inclined state, the points of said needles abut against said movable members and thereby prevent said movable member from approaching and said needles are forced to meet with possible bend or fracture when said movable member is forcibly or impactedly brought into approaching movement and said points are pressed thereagainst in the inclined state.
The present invention is to eliminate these defects and thereby provide a magnetically operable locking instrument.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a magnetic lock having an actuating member movable between a locking position and an unlocking position and comprises in combination at least one cylindrical barrel member having one end closed, a pistonlike member axially slidable within the barrel member and defining therewith a shallow ball chamber of substantially cylindrical shape, a magnetizable ball having a diameter slightly less than the depth of the ball chamber and freely movable in said ball chamber while blocking axial sliding of said pistonlike member within the barrel member, a ball receiving recess provided in one of the surfaces delimiting said ball chamber for snugly accommodating at least a portion of the ball therein, an additament opposing movement of said ball into a position aligned with said recess and means coupling one of the barrel members and pistonlike member to the actuating member, whereby when the ball is aligned with the recess, the pistonlike member is freed to penetrate into the barrel member and the actuating member is conditioned to move from the locking to the unlocking position. Thus, even if the locking instrument of this invention is roughly shaken while said recessed portions face upward under the intention of releasing it without the key, the projecting peripheral edges from the free end planes of the pistonlike members will prevent the floating balls from passing over said peripheral edges into the recessed portions. Therefore, said locking instrument is so secure that without the key, it can hardly be released.
The present invention relates to locking instruments comprising at least one cylindrical barrel having one end closed and at least one pistonlike member effective to relatively slidably engage each other and operable in two stages as hereinafter described, a floating ball residing in a shallow chamber formed between the free end plane of the respective pistonlike member and the bottom plane of the respective cylindrical barrel, the diameter of said floating ball being smaller than the diameter of each of said bottom plane and slightly less than the depth of said chamber, and a recessed portion provided on a portion of the free end plane of the pistonlike member and having an additament to oppose movement of said ball, for accommodating said floating ball, whereas when said floating ball is accommodated in the recessed portion, said pistonlike member can be advanced deep in said cylindrical barrel in the axial direction thereof to establish the first stage, or when said floating ball is not accommodated in the recessed portion, the second stage is established with respect to the cylindrical barrel and the pistonlike member wherein said spacing is formed between the free end plane of the pistonlike member and the bottom plane of the cylindrical barrel so that said pistonlike member cannot be advanced deep in said cylindrical barrel in the axial direction thereof because of the interference of said floating ball. Therefore, the locking instrument of the present invention can be released in said first stage when said pistonlike member is advanced deep in said cylindrical barrel and at the same time accommodate said floating ball in said recessed portion by means of the magnetic force of a magnetic piece provided at least in a key and/or in the floating ball residing adjacent to the bottom plane of the cylindrical barrel, the peripheral wall of the cylindrical barrel or the free end plane of the pistonlike member while said cylindrical barrel and pistonlike member are included in the interior of the cylindrical housing, said floating ball being defined in its position by said magnetic force so as to engage with said recessed portion.
The locking instrument of the present invention is thus designed so that the floating balls, considering several pistonbarrel combinations, can freely roll in the cylindrical spacings formed between the free end planes of the respective pistonlike members and the bottom planes of the respective cylindri cal barrels whereby the probability of unforeseen engagement of each of said floating balls into the associated recessed portions provided on one portion facing said cylindrical spacing can be reduced.
Whenever a magnet instead of a specific magnetic key is employed to release the locking instrument of the present invention in such a way as to cause said floating balls to position in alignment with the respective recessed portions, said locking instrument cannot be released because of the less probability that said floating balls will engage thereinto. Therefore, the present invention provides a locking instrument that cannot be released without the specific magnetic key.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIGS. 1-7 and 28 show the main embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 1 is a side elevation of an assembled locking instrument in accordance with the present invention representing the locked stage;
FIG. 2 is the same as FIG. 1 but representing the released stage;
FIG. 3 is a section taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4a, 4b, 4c are front views of a front cover, collar and y FIG. 5 is a section taken along line 5-5 of FIG. 1;
FIGS. 6 and 7 are illustrative diagrams showing the operational mode of the locking instrument shown in FIGS. 5 and 6 from the locked stage as indicated by dotted line to be released stage as indicated by full line, while in FIG. 7 there is shown the reversal operation thereof relative to FIG. 6;
FIG. 8 in conjunction with FIG. 28 illustrates another embodiment according to the principles of this invention and is a side section, on an enlarged scale, of a portion wherein each of the pistonlike members is inserted in each of the cylindrical barrels;
FIG. 9 in conjunction with FIG. 28 illustrates another em- 1 bodiment according to the principles of this invention and is a being a section taken along line 13-13 in FIG. 12;
FIG. 14 in conjunction with FIG. 28 illustrates another embodiment of this invention and is a front elevation of a portion wherein a group of pistonlike members and a group of cylindrical barrels are in engagement with each other;
FIGS. 15-18 in conjunction with FIG. 28 illustrate another embodiment of this invention, FIGS. 15 and 16 being side elevations of the assembled locking instrument, FIG. 15 being in the locked stage and FIG. 16 in the released stage but in the ready-to-be-released stage as shown by dotted line;
FIG. 17 is a section taken along line 17-17 in FIG. 15;
FIG. 18 is a section taken along line 18-18 in FIG. 15;
FIGS. 19 and 20 illustrate another embodiment of this invention, FIG. 19 being a perspective view, on an enlarged scale, of a portion wherein a pistonlike member is to be fitted to a frame body, while FIG. 20 is a back view of a portion in which said pistonlike member is fitted to said frame body;
FIG. 21 illustrates another embodiment of this invention and is a front elevation, on an enlarged scale, of a portion wherein a pistonlike member is fitted to a frame body;
FIG. 22 illustrates another embodiment of this invention and is a side elevation, on an enlarged scale, of a portion wherein a pistonlike member is inserted in a cylindrical barrel;
FIG. 23 illustrates another embodiment of this invention and is a side elevation wherein a pistonlike member is inserted in a cylindrical barrel;
FIGS. 24 and 25 in conjunction with FIG. 28 illustrate another embodiment of this invention, FIG. 24 showing a portion wherein a pistonlike member is inserted in a cylindrical barrel in side elevation on an enlarged scale, and FIG. 25 showing a section taken along line 2525 in FIG. 24;
FIGS. 26 and 27 in conjunction with FIG. 28 illustrate another embodiment of this invention, FIG. 26 showing a portion in front elevation wherein a group of pistonlike members is inserted in a group of cylindrical barrels, while FIG. 27 is a section taken along line 27-27 of FIG. 26;
FIG. 28 illustrates a side elevation, on an enlarged scale, of a portion wherein a pistonlike member is inserted in a cylindrical barrel;
FIG. 29 in conjunction with FIG. 28 illustrates another embodiment of this invention and is a side developed view of a portion wherein a group of pistonlike members is inserted in a group of cylindrical barrels;
FIG. 30 illustrates another embodiment of this invention and is an elevation of a portion wherein a group of pistonlike members is fitted to a disc plate; and
FIG. 31 illustrates another embodiment of this invention and is a modification of the embodiment shown in FIG. 8.
DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION In order that the invention may be clearly understood and readily carried into effect, it will now be more fully described with reference to the attached drawings, especially FIGS. 1-7 and FIG. 28 depicting the main embodiment of the invention. Other illustrated embodiments are only modifications of this main embodiment.
Numeral 103 indicates a plurality of cylindrical barrels substantially laterally secured to and suitably annularly spaced on the back plane 102 of a front disc plug 101 for securely locking the device disclosed by the present invention. Each of said cylindrical barrels 103 is formed complementally to receive the pistonlike member 104 therein. These cylindrical barrels and pistonlike members can be operated alternatively to two stages which will be described later. Each projecting end 105 portion of the pistonlike members 1041 is secured to the front wall 107 of a disc plate 106, with each of said pistonlike members 1 being rigid with said disc plate 106. In each of the means defining the apertures 108, a cylindrical spacing 111 is formed between a portion of the back plane 102 of the front disc plug and a free end plane 110 of said pistonlike member 1041, the portion being designated as bottom plane 109 of said cylindrical hole 100. Floating balls 112, which are smaller in diameter than the diameter of each of the bottom planes 109, are freely movable in each of the cylindrical spacings 111. Each terminal portion of the pistonlike member 1041 is provided with a ball receiving recess 1113 for completely accommodating said floating balls 1112. F116. shows an additament 002 which opposes movement of said ball into a position aligned with said recess.
When each of said balls 112 is correspondingly accommodated in each of said recessed portions 113, each pistonlike member 113 is advanced its full length into the barrel 103. On the other hand, when the balls 112 are not accommodated in the ball chambers they are interposed between the terminus of the pistonlike members 1104 and the wall 109.
The pistonlike members 1041 and cylindrical barrels 103 are mounted in a cylindrical housing 114 with the barrels being closed by the disc plug 101. At one end of housing 1141 remote from the lock operating knob 150, a collar portion 115 is availed of to retain the disc plug 101 in said housing. The peripheral edge 116 of the plug 101 projects toward the collar portion 115, and is provided as shown in FIG. 41a with two en gagement grooves 117. The said collar portion 115 is provided with a groove 1119.
A key 1121 is provided with two engagement projections 122l122 corresponding respectively with said engagement grooves 117, said key being in the form of a disc and effective to freely osculate with the front plane 120 of said disc plug. The key 1121 is provided with powerful magnetic pieces 1123 at suitable positions corresponding to the recessed portions 113 which are provided in the free end plane 110 of the pistonlike members 104. In addition, the floating balls 112 are magnetizable so that when the magnetic key 121 is osculated into contact with the front plane 120 in the second operational stage heretofore described, the balls 112 then lying in the cylindrical spacings 111 are attracted by the magnetic force of pieces 123 thereby lifting the balls 112 to an elevated position adjacent to the magnetic pieces 123 thereby establishing the first operational stage.
The backing plug 11241 is telescoped into the cylindrical housing 11 1 and secured therein by screws 125. The backing plug 1241 includes an annular projection 1127 which is provided with a cam surface 120. Another cam plane 129 complemental to cam plane 120 is provided on an annular projection 131 which is integral with and projects from the backwall 130 of the disc plate 100. A compression spring 1341 is interposed under tension in a chamber formed of the front wall 107 of the disc plate and a seat 1133 provided in the disc plug 101. When said spring 1341 is energized as shown in MG. 1, the plug 101 is pushed toward collar portion 115 while said disc plate 106 is pushed toward the backing plug 1241, and at this moment the cam planes 120 and 120 are in engagement with each other.
A pillar 135 projecting from the center of the backwall of the disc plate 100 includes a fork member 1130 and one end of a lock-operating member 130 is swingably pivoted to said fork member 1110 through a transverse pin 1317 while the other end thereof extends through a hole 139 provided substantially in the center of said backing plug 1241. The outer wall 1410 of said backing plug 12d and the inner wall M2 of a boxlike housing M1 arranged adjacent thereto are rigidly connected by means of a plurality of screws 109 to form an integral unit therebetween. In the center of the inner wall 1412 of said boxlike housing 11411 is provided an aperture M13, coaxial with said opening 130, within which aperture 1413 is provided a rotatable boss member 14141 having a rectangular window M5 through the axis thereof. The lock operating member is inserted through the axis thereof. The lock operating member 1138 is inserted through said rectangular window and is effective to swing in the axial direction thereof. The major arc edge of a segment 146 which is integral with the boss member 141 1 extends radially into the boxlike housing. Coaxial with aperture 143 is an opening M01 in housing 11411 and within which a revolvable shaft 149 is retained. One end of said shaft extends through the aperture 1410 and is provided with a lock operating knob 150, while the other end thereof is rigid with a segment 151 carrying a pin 113.
Referring at this time to FlG. 5, one or the other of the edges 152 of said segment 151 is constantly pressed by a V- shaped plate spring 153, one leg ofwhich is received in groove 154 while the reentrant bent portion is seated in groove 1150' in the upper portion of the housing 141. In housing 1411, a locking plate 155 is transversely shiftably provided between the segments 1416 and 151, and an integral locking element projecting from the locking plate 155 in the direction of the shifting action of said plate 155 can reciprocate through a passageway 150 provided on one sidewall 157 of the housing M1 and an opening 160 provided on a locking element receiving member 159 located beside the housing 1 11.
The locking plate 155, is slotted at 1161, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 and 5, 6 and 7, and arranged to receive a locking pin 163. One end of pin 163 is secured to a wall adjacent to the minor arc edge 164 of said segment 151 and is positioned out of the axis of the shaft 11419 which is the rotational center for said segment 151.
The locking instrument of the present invention is thus constructed as heretofore described, and is commonly adoptable to doors, covers, windows, etc., for security or any other purposes. However, in the attached drawings, the locking instrument of the present invention is provided in connection with a door frame in such a way as to rigidly fit the cylindrical housing 1% to a complementally formed aperture 160 provided in a door frame 165 and is so arranged that the collar portion 115 and the front disc cover 101 are exposed outside the door, and the outer wall 147 of the housing 1411 and the lock operating knob 150 are exposed inside the door.
Hereinafter, the manner of handling and functions of the locking instrument of the present invention will be fully described.
The function of the locking instrument according to the present invention principally consists of two stages, one of which is the released stage or the first stage, and the other of which is the locked stage or the second stage. F168. 1 and 5 show the second stage, while F 168. 2 and 6 show the first stage and the description with regard to the function of the parts inside the locking instrument will be made in the order of the second stage to the first stage, that is, from the locked stage to the released stage.
During the released or second stage as shown in FIGS. 1 and 5, if one of the engagement projections 122 provided on a lower portion of the magnetic key 121 is inserted downwardly and obliquely into the engagement groove 117 provided on a lower portion of the front plug 101 and the key is then moved into an osculating position with the front plug 101, it will then rest in a posture as shown with the broken line in F IG. 1.
At this moment, that is, when the key and the front plug completely contact each other, the powerful magnetic pieces embedded in the key 1121 attract the floating balls in the cylindrical spacings 11111 to the respective positions corresponding to the recessed portions 113. In this state, said floating balls 1112 are ready to enter the recessed portions respectively, in other words, the second stage wherein the pistonlike members 1100 cannot advance deep in the respective cylindrical holes 100 and are ready to be converted to the first stage wherein they can enter deep therein.
As the key 1211 is subsequently turned one-fourth revolution in the left direction, the disc plate 100 is also rotated through the front plug, cylindrical barrels 1031, and pistonlike members 1041 and thereby the cam 129 on said disc plate we is pressed by the cam plane 128 on the backing plug 124, with the result of causing said pistonlike member 104 to advance deep in said cylindrical hole while said balls 112 are moved to the recessed portions 113. The rotation of said disc plate 106 is transmitted to the lock operating member 138 through the means explained previously thereby to cause the operating member 138 to swing the segment 146 with the major arc edge. Therefore, the locking instrument of the present invention is effective to rigidly fasten the door with a sense of security as can well be appreciated. In FIG. 8, the locking instrument designed as heretofore fully described with respect to the first embodiment of the present invention is modified in such a way as to provide recessed portions 204 for accommodating balls 203 on portions of the bottom planes 202 corresponding to free end planes 201 of pistonlike members. If a lower sidewall 205 of each recessed portion 204 is imparted with a gentle slope toward the opening of the cylindrical spacing 206, said balls 203 can easily escape from the recessed portion 204 and return to space 206.
Referring to FIG. 9, this embodiment of the present invention will be described. In this third embodiment, the locking instrument of the first embodiment is modified in such a way as to provide a plurality of cylindrical barrels integrally constructed with a single element 251 and also to provide a plurality of pistonlike members 252 integrally constructed with a disc plate 253 by having each of the pistonlike members projecting therefrom. This structure has an advantage that said cylindrical barrels and pistonlike members can be easily manufactured.
Referring to FIG. 10, the locking instrument of the main embodiment is modified in such a way as to provide each aperture 301, with a vertex 302, the cross section thereof being provided as shown in FIG. 10 through the length thereof, so that the balls 304 can be returned to the vertices when not influenced by themagnets.
In another embodiment of the present invention, the structure of the locking instrument is largely modified so that a full description is hereinafter (see FIGS. with reference to FIGS. 11-13.
A plurality of cylindrical apertures 353 are provided in housing 363, as shown. These apertures 353 are equally spaced (see FIG. 13) and each receives therein a slidable pistonlike member 355. This embodiment of the invention is quite similar to FIGS. 1 and 2 except that in this instance some of the elements are made integral rather than assembled from complemental pieces. Pistonlike members 355 are integrally constructed with disc plate 361 with each extending substantially parallel to the disc plug 351. At an optional position on the front plane 364 of plug 351, a setting projection 366 is provided which is complemental to recess 368 carried by a key 367 and effective to osculate with the front plane 364 of the disc plug 351. It now will be appreciated that this embodiment, as thus far described, functions in the same manner as that described in FIG. 1, so that when the key is brought into contact with the surface 364 the balls move into the chambers 360.
Housing 363 is provided with internal threaded grooves 371 and external threaded grooves 372 are provided on the outer periphery of the backing plug 373 which is screwed thereinto to shut the opening. As in the first embodiment of this invention there is provided a compression spring 393 which functions in the same manner as that-shown in FIG. 1. Also, it will be noted that FIG. 1 shows the general arrangement of the operation of FIG. 11 and FIG. 2 shows that shown in FIG. 12.
Further in FIGS. 11 and 12, locking rod guide members 375 are fastened adjacent to the outer plane 374 of backing plug 373. Said guide members 375 comprise a disc 377 arranged parallel to the backing plug 373 and channel member 378 is integrally formed with said disc 377. As shown in FIGS. 11 and 12, the plug 373 and disc 377 are each provided with aligned apertures and arranged to have extend therethrough the bar members 380, said bar being associated with the disc plate 361.
In the locking rod guide spacing 382 between said channel 'member 378 and disc 377 is provided a locking rod 383,
which is slidably arranged in slot 382 and is formed at one end with a chamfered contact surface 385 for engagement with an edge of bar 380 and at its terminal end it can be reciprocated into a locking rod-receiving position with socket 388.
The locking instrument of the present invention is thus con structed as heretofore described and in this embodiment is rigidly fitted into a fitting hole 390 on a frame of a hinged door 389. While on one hand the front plane 364 of the front plug is exposed outside the door 389 and on the other hand the locking rod guide members 375 are exposed inside the door 389.
Hereinafter the manner of handling and functions of the locking instrument of the present invention will be fully described in subsequent order.
When the locking instrument of the present invention is in the locked stage as shown in FIG. 11, the key must be brought into engagement with plate 364 and with the projection 366 in registration with recess 368. The balls are then attracted by the magnetic pieces 369.so as to position them at the respective positions corresponding to the recessed portions 360. While in this state the locking rod 383 can be moved, by means of a handle member (not shown) provided on the outside of the door 389, to shift the rod out of socket 388. Since the balls are now positioned in chambers 360 the chamfered edge of the rod will pass over the end of element 380 overcoming the spring 391 and, thus, retain the balls in their confined location.
As the locking instrument of the present invention operates in a heretofore described manner, said released state as shown in FIG. 12 is converted from the locked state as shown in FIG. 11.
The reversal operation from the released state to the locked state can be made by shifting said locking rod 383 in the opposite direction, that is, in the direction of the top end 387 thereof. When the locking rod 383 is completely shifted to enter in the locking rod-receiving socket 388, the locking state can be established while the sidewall 395 leaves the projecting end 394 of the square bar 380 is permitted by means of the compression spring 393 to enter the locking rod guide spacing 382. At the same time, the pistonlike members 355 are moved out of the respective apertures 353 while causing the balls to move out of the chambers into spacings 358.
Hereafter, another embodiment of the present invention will be described with reference to FIG. 14.
The locking instrument in the sixth embodiment is modified as to the embodiment number five in such a way as to provide a plurality of apertures 401 and a plurality of pistonlike members 402 for association therewith.
As shown, there may be arranged in one or more rows or on a curved line.
Another embodiment of the present invention will be hereinafter described with reference to the attached drawings, particularly FIGS. 15-18.
In this embodiment, a plurality of cylindrical apertures 453 are provided on the back plane 452 of a thick front plug to furnish cylindrical barrels 454. These apertures 453 are suitably annularly spaced thereon and carry respective pistonlike members 455 slidable in the axial direction thereof. In each of these holes 453, a spacing 458 is fonned between a free end plane 457 of each of the pistonlike members 455 and the bottom plane 456 of each of the holes 453. In these cylindrical spacings, balls 459 each smaller in diameter than either of the bottom planes 456 of the cylindrical barrels 454 are provided. On each free end plane 45') of the pistonlike members, chambers 460 effective to completely accommodate balls 459 are provided at optional positions. Said pistonlike members 455 projected into the apertures 453 from the front plane 462 of a disc plate 461. In this form of the invention cylindrical housing 463 is integral with the cylindrical barrel 454. The front plane 464 of the front plug 451 is provided with a recess to receive the key 468.
A notch 400 for receiving an extension 407 provided on the key 408 coincides with the front plane 404 of the plug and is provided at a suitable position on the annular sidewall 400. As explained earlier, the magnetic elements 409 are used also here to control the balls 459 and lift them from their blocking positions into positions where they may be received in the chambers 400 provided in the pistons 455.
The peripheral inner surface of the front 470 of the cylindri cal housing is undercut and arranged to receive an annular member 472, the latter being retained therein by screws 473. As in the earlier form of this invention, there is a spring 470 positioned in the chamber provided between the front plug 451 and the element that carries the pistons 455. Lock means 481 are provided at two optional positions about the annular outer plane 479 of the annular member 472 and opposite each other. The depth of these locking means 401 is less than the diameter of each of the balls 459. A locking recess 403 engageable with said locking means is provided on the locking disc 482 which are slidably fitted in the inner peripheral wall of the annular member. The locking disc 402 includes an offstanding pillar 488 and an operator means or knob 409.
The locking instrument of the present embodiment of the invention is thus constructed and to fasten together the complementally perforated plates 492 and 493, said locked plates 492 and 493 being interposed between the cylindrical housing 463 and the locking enlarged head 409 and adapted to receive therethrough the disc 402.
The locking instrument of this embodiment functions in the hereinafter described manner.
When the magnetic key 408 is osculated to the front plane 464 of the front plug 451 by engaging the setting extension 407 in the notch 400, said key provided with the magnetic pieces 409 attracts the floating balls 459 in the respective cylindrical spacings 450 to the positions corresponding to the respective recessed portions 400. In this state the pistonlike members 455 can advance into the respective apertures 453.
At this time, the locking head 409 can now be pressed in the direction of the cylindrical housing 403 overcoming the pressure of spring 470 and then when the disc 402 is in the position shown in full lines in FIG. 10 the knob 409 can be rotated to withdraw the disc by means of aligning the grooves 400 with the locking means 481. Thereafter the entire knob 489 can be withdrawn (see dotted lines in FIG. 10) so that perforated members 492 and 493 can be separated.
In order to reestablish the locked stage, the reversal of operation just described is performed. After the grooves of locking disc 402 are aligned with locking means 401 and moved inwardly until the disc is once again in the position shown in FIG. 10, the knob 409 is turned to lock the disc in position. Thereafter the key is removed and the spring causes body 4011 to move forward so the balls can fall from the chambers and once again block the pistons 455.
As a locking instrument of the type having heretofore little possibility of releasing without the magnetic key, this locking instrument has been proposed wherein, as hereinbefore described, the needles are pivoted to be freely turnable in respect to their pointing direction and the points thereof are freely shiftable in the two-dimensional space.
Another embodiment will now be described with reference to FIGS. 19 and 20.
In this embodiment, the locking instrument is modified in such a way as to provide a recessed portion 503 extending inwardly from the free end plane 502 of each of the pistonlike members 5011. Also, this locking instrument is modified in such a way as to provide two legs 505 on another end plane 504 of each of the pistonlike members 5011, said end plane projecting from the associated cylindrical barrel. These two legs 505 are symmetrically arranged while the center of symmetry is the central point of the projecting end plane 504. A plurality of perforation 500, 509 and 510 are provided in a pistonlike member 507 comprising the disc plate 500 effective to rigidly retain said pistonlike members 501, and said legs can be positioned in pairs of the perforations 500, 509 and 510.
These perforations 503510 are arranged around the axis of point 111 as described in the first embodiment, that is, around the central point 511 of the pistonlike member 507 with a different relative angle 512.
A pair of said legs 505 are inserted in any compatible pair of perforations 500, 509 or 510 whereby said pistonlike member 501 is assembled in said structural member 500 while the relative angle 512 around the central point 511 is alternatively selected, and therefore can alternatively select the position for the recessed portion 503 around the axis of point 111.
In another embodiment, referring to FIG. 21, the locking instrument in the first embodiment previously described is modified in such a way as to provide an integral single leg 551 which projects from a hexagonal-shaped pistonlike member 552. Said single leg 551 thus formed is of the same hexagonal cross section as that of said pistonlike member 552. On the other hand, in order to enable a hole 553 to receive said hexagonal' leg 551, said hole 553 is also formed hexagonally. When said leg 5511 is inserted in said hole 553, the relative angle around the central point 555 of the pistonlike member fitting plane 554 with respect to said lleg 551 shall be adjusted relative to said hole 553 whereby the position of the recessed portion 550 around the axis of the cylindrical spacing 111 can be alternatively defined.
Therefore, since the position for the recess 503 around said axis can be defined by selecting the position around said axis for thebottom plane 109 (FIGS. 1 and 2) of the cylindrical barrel or the free end plane 502 of the pistonlike member provided with said recessed portion 503 and rigidly assembled to the structural member 500, a plurality of unitary bodies of the bottom plane 109 of the cylindrical barrel or the pistonlike member 501 of the same shape provided with the recessed portion 503 at one portion can be prepared in the course of manufacturing process. When these unitary bodies are to be assembled, only the position therefor around said axis is selected so that the position for said recessed portion 503 around said axis can be simply defined. Therefore, the locking instrument can be easily manufactured and simply assembled.
This is different from a locking instrument of the type wherein positions for recessed portions 503 are determined and subsequently said recessed portions are formed on each of the free end planes 502 of the pistonlike members or on each of the bottom planes 1109 of the cylindrical barrels. However, the locking instrument in these embodiments is of die type wherein unitary bodies of the same shape are prepared in advance and when they are to be assembled in the locking instrument, adjustment of assembling said unitary bodies therein can define the desired positions for said recessed portion. Thus, the desired locking instrument of the present invention can be obtained.
Another embodiment will be hereinafter described with reference to FIG. 22 in which one of the pistonlike members 0011 and its associated portion are shown.
In this embodiment, each free pistonlike member 001 is modified in such a way as to provide in a pistonlike member 0011 an enlarged bore 004 communicating with the chamber 003 into which the ball 0114 will be received. Positioned within said base 004 is a spring urged headed pin 005, the shoulder portion 007 of which engages an annular seat 000 thus retaining it in the bore.
The locking instrument is thus designed so that, even if each floating ball 014 is attracted to the position facing said chamber 013, said ball 014 cannot enter the chamber unless it is thereinto. In other words, said pin 005 is effective to close the opening 013 and prevent said ball 014 from unexpectedly entering the chamber 014. Therefore, even if the locking instrument of this type is roughly shaken, while said chamber 003 is facing upwardly, pin 005 will prevent said ball 0114 from entering the chamber.
In the case of a locking instrument wherein said pin 005 is not provided, the locking instrument can be easily released without the key because the floating ball 014 can easily fall in the recessed portion 003 when said locking instrument is shaken while said portion 603 faces upward. For this reason, said pin 605 is provided therein to prevent said ball 614 from unexpectedly entering said recessed portion 603, with less possibility of releasing without the magnetic key 615.
FIG. 23 pertains to another embodiment hereinafter fully described.
In this form of the invention the pin 605 shown in FIG. 22 is now numbered 655 and is longer than the depth of the recessed portion 653. As explained in connection with FIG. 22, a spring 662 is mounted under tension between the back 660 of said pin 655 and a disc plate 661 rigidly retaining said pistonlike member 651. Therefore, said pin 655 is pressed toward the cylindrical space 658 and closes the aperture 655 while the top end plane 663 thereof projects out of said chamber.
In another embodiment of the present invention shown in FIGS. 24 and 25, the locking instrument is modified in such a way as to provide each piston end wall 702 with a recess 703 which is offset from the axis of said pistonlike member and in which is embedded a magnet 705. This smaller magnet 705 has a magnetic force which is much less than the magnetic pieces 707 which are embedded in the key.
Alternatively, the combined magnetic force of said magnet 705 and said magnetic piece 707 may be employed therein so as to attract the ball 709 at a certain position in the cylindrical spacing 708 and, in addition, said ball 709 may be a magnet. In this case the total magnetic force of said magnet 705, magnetic piece 707 and magnetic ball 709 must be adjusted so as to attract said ball 709 to the position corresponding to the chamber 703 in order to establish the first stage.
In yet another embodiment of the invention shown in FIGS. 26 and 27, the locking instrument embodiment is modified so that two of the pistons (see FIG. 27) are integrated, as shown at 762, into one element with their end walls being arranged with a slot and the end wall 761, rather than having a smooth uninterrupted surface as shown in the other forms of the invention, are provided with a barrier 755; the barrier functioning to position the balls 753-753 in separate areas adjacent to the chambers 758-758 and into which the balls will be received when the proper magnetic key is used.
In this locking instrument, when the key 757 is placed against the front plane 761 of the disc plug, said floating balls are attracted to the positions corresponding to the chambers 758 and 759 (see FIG. 26) in the spacings 751, and thereafter pistonlike members 762 are ready to advance into said spacings to accommodate said floating balls.
In the main embodiment of this invention shown in FIG. 28, the locking instrument is modified by providing the end wall 803 of the pistonlike members with an offstanding annular projection 802 surrounding the chamber 801.
With this type of locking instrument, even if the locking instrument is roughly shaken with said chambers facing upward as shown in FIG. 28 and with the intention of releasing the lock without the key, the peripheral edge 802 will prevent the floating balls 804 from rolling over the edge into the edge 801. Therefore, said locking instrument is so secure that without the key, it cannot be easily released.
Another embodiment of the invention will hereinafter now be described with reference to FIG. 29.
In this embodiment, the locking instrument is modified to provide a structure somewhat resembling that shown in FIG. 27 previously described. In this embodiment the ball receiving chambers are positioned alternatively between the end wall of the piston and the bottom wall. In other words, by examining FIG. 29 it will be noted that every other chamber for a ball is in the piston, while still other chambers to receive the balls are in the wall, the opposite side of which is arranged to be engaged by the key 855. In view of this, even if persons suffrciently skilled in the art of releasing conventional locking instruments try to release the locking instrument described in this embodiment of the invention they will find it impossible to achieve a condition where the balls can be rolled into the respective slots because either the first and third chambers 854 or the second and fourth chambers 854 expose their Openings upward while th t r weather. .smsni s downward. Therefore, the locking instrument of the present embodiment of the invention cannot be released without the magnetic key.
In yet another embodiment according to the invention shown in FIG. 30, each ball receiving chamber in the end wall of the piston (see FIGS. l7) is displaced from each of the central points of the free end planes 902 while the distances 905 are differentiated from one another and also the center angles 906 to the lines passing through the centers of said chambers are differentiated from one another. Thus, a plurality of unitary pistonlike members 901 of which each free end plane is provided with the differentiated chamber in distance and in angle from the axis thereof are secured to the front plane of the disc plate 907.
Since the locations of the chambers 904 are defined by a combination of the differentiated center angles 906 each between the line horizontally passing through the central point 903 and the line passing through the center of the chamber 904 to said central point 903 and the differentiated distances each between the central point 903 to the center of the chamber 904, each of said locations being on the corresponding free end plane 902 of the pistonlike members 901, a large number of different locations of the chambers 904 can be determined as a whole. Therefore, a large number of different locking combinations with respect to the locking instrument and the key can be advantageously appreciated.
In the embodiment of FIG. 31, recessed portions 210 are respectively provided about root portions of the barriers 213 for the cylindrical barrels 212, said root portions being adjacent to the bottom planes 21 l of the cylindrical barrels.
That which is claimed is:
1. In a magnetic lock having an actuating member movable between a locking position and an unlocking position, the combination of: at least one cylindrical barrel member having one endclosed, a pistonlike member axially slidable within said barrel member and defining therewith a shallow ball chamber of substantially cylindrical shape, a magnetizable ball having a diameter slightly less than the depth of the ball chamber and freely movable in said ball chamber while blocking axial sliding of said pistonlike member within said barrel member, a ball receiving recess provided in one of the surfaces delimiting said ball chamber for snugly accommodating at least a portion of said ball therein, an additarnent opposing movement of said ball into a position aligned with said recess and means coupling one of said barrel members and pistonlike member to said actuating member, whereby when said ball is aligned with said recess said pistonlike member is freed to penetrate into said barrel member and said actuating member is conditioned to move from said locking to said unlocking position.
2. In a lock according to claim 1, means for attaching said pistonlike member in any one of a plurality of angular positions to said actuating member.
3. In a lock according to claim 1, a closing member in said recess resiliently retained in closing position and retractable from said position in response to pressure from said ball.
4. In a lock according to claim 1, said recess being provided in the end surface of said pistonlike member.
5. In a lock according to claim 1, said recess being provided in one of the surfaces of said barrel member.
6. In a lock according to claim I, a plurality of ball chambers having their pistonlike members provided with recesses on the end surfaces thereof and of ball chambers provided with recesses in the surfaces of said barrel members.
7. In a lock according to claim I, a plurality of ball chambers having the recesses thereof at difi'erent distances from the axis of the chamber and in different angular positions relative to said axis.
8. In a lock according to claim 1, a magnet in a surface portion of said ball chamber spaced from said recess and defining a locking position of said ball.
9. In a lock according to claim 1, a plurality of b ll h f