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Publication numberUS3607341 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 21, 1971
Filing dateNov 28, 1969
Priority dateNov 28, 1969
Publication numberUS 3607341 A, US 3607341A, US-A-3607341, US3607341 A, US3607341A
InventorsGoins Robert E, Morris Phillip M
Original AssigneeGaf Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process for producing a coated substrate
US 3607341 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent lnventors Robert E. Goins;

Phillip M. Morris, both of Chattanooga, Tenn.

Appl. No. 880,990

Filed Nov. 28, 1969 Patented Sept. 21, 1971 Assignee G.A.F. Corporation New York, N.Y.

Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 594,401, Nov. 15, 1966, now abandoned.

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING A COATED SUBSTRATE Primary Examiner--William D. Martin Assistant Examiner-D. Cohen Att0rneysSamson B. Leavitt and Walter C. Kehm ABSTRACT: Improved foam coated textiles and similar materials are produced by (a) foaming an aqueous emulsion polymerized latex composition containing about 1.5 to about 10 parts by weight of a water soluble salt of a saturated organic acid to increase the volume of said latex from about 4 to about 12 times its original volume; (b) applying the thus obtained foam directly to said textile or similar substrate; (c) partially drying the foam and substrate to a moisture content of less than about 20 percent by weight while retaining the foam in its expanded form during the drying process without gelation or curing the polymer; (d) crushing the partially dried and uncured foam, and (e) thereafter drying and curing the resultant crushed foam.

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING A COATED SUBSTRATE This application is a continuation-in-part of our application Ser. No. 594,401 filed Nov. 15, 1966 and now abandoned.

This invention relates to a novel process for producing a coated substrate and the composite articles coated by such a method. More particularly, it relates to the coating of fibrous or nonfibrous flexible sheet material, such as textile fabrics of woven, knitted, felted or other construction, plastic films, fiberglass, paper and the like as well as other flexible sheet material with a froth of a poly emulsion and air or an inert gas, that produces a durable uniform opaque backing on the fabric or film at much lower weights than conventional coatings without excess penetration or strike through that might cause undesirable stiffness.

Polymeric materials such as acrylics, reactive acrylics, vinyl chloride homopolymers and copolymers, styrene-butadiene copolymers, vinylidene chloride, vinyl acetate homopolymers and copolymers styrene-butadiene-acrylonitrile terpolymers have been employed in the textile industry in the production of coated fabrics to furnish said fabrics with a coated backing. In accordance with conventional methods now in use, a drapery or other fabric or substrate is treated with a liquid (as distinguished from a frothed or foamed) emulsion of a polymeric material and then the coating on the treated fabric is cured and dried. However, such resultant coated fabrics have a number of limitations and deficiencies, for example, heretofore conventional polymeric coatings produced by the above method have exhibited disadvantages such as having a tendency to unduly penetrate or strike through the fabric causing a stiffening or hardening of the coated fabric, and may fail to provide a complete uniform backing. Fabric coatings lacking such uniform opaqueness provide only a poor barrier against sunlight, thereby subjecting the fabric to eventual color and strength degradation and are poor insulators against weather elements such as heat, cold and draughts as well. In order to overcome these deficiencies, conventional polymeric formulations may have to be coated onto the fabrics or other substrate in high weight amounts to insure opaqueness. Such high weight coatings may result in bulky fabrics that are objectionably stiff and more expensive than the frothed polymeric coatings.

Previous attempts to apply foamed polymeric backings to various substrates have resulted in backings having poor adhesion and were unable to withstand repeated laundering and dry cleaning.

We have now discovered that the above mentioned disadvantages may be readily and easily overcome by our unique and advantageous method of coating a fabric or other substrate. Thus, it is an object of this invention to provide a process for coating a fabric or other substrate with a crushed polymeric froth. A further object of this invention is to provide a coated fabric, or other substrate, which is soft and pliable and having a low weight, durable, uniform, opaque backing without excess penetration to the face of the fabric or substrate. A further object of this invention is to provide an improved coated fabric or substrate, having an adherent crushed frothed polymeric latex backing (in place of conventional fabric liners or other shielding material) which is an excellent barrier to light (both for opaqueness and to prevent degradation of the fabric or other substrate) as well as possessing other desirable properties, such as good thennal insu lation, good resistance to deterioration from aging or abrasion, and good resistance to repeated washing and dry cleaning operations. Other objects and advantages of the instant invention will be readily apparent from the following description and appended claims.

The above objects may be readily obtained by the instant invention which involves the surprising discovery of coating a fabric or substrate with a crushed polymeric froth. More particularly, the instant invention may be described as a process for producing a coated fabric or substrate having an adherent liner, i.e. backing of a crushed polymeric froth which .com-

prises (1) foaming an emulsion-polymerized latex composition; (2) applying the resultant froth directly to the fabric or substrate; (3) partially drying (without appreciable gelation or curing) the polymeric froth adhering to the fabric or substrate while retaining the froth in its expanded form; (4) crushing the partially dried polymeric froth adhering to the fabric or substrate and (5) finally curing and drying the resultant crushed polymeric frothed backing adhering to the fabric or substrate in order to produce a coated fabric or substrate that is soft and pliable and which has a durable low weight uniformly opaque backing with very little penetration or strike through.

It could hardly be foreseen that utilization of the instant frothed and crushed polymeric materials would result in a soft, durable fabric or substrates having the unique properties described above. Indeed, one would expect just the opposite, since it would appear that a frothed backing by its nature would be very susceptible to degradation and not be durable to aging, abrasion or repeated laundering and dry cleaning operations. Moreover, it would appear that crushing a frothed backing on the fabric or film would result in an increased penetration or strike through of the coating and in stiffening the coated fabric. However, contrary to such obvious initial assumptions, applicant have discovered that just the opposite occurs.

Emulsion-polymerized latex compositions employed as the base material in the crushed foam backings of the instant invention comprise a mixture of a polymerized latex emulsion or mixtures thereof with a water soluble surfactant, i.e., a soap or emulsifer or detergent or mixtures thereof. Criticality of the instant invention does not lie in the particular polymerized latex composition per se, However, it is obvious that such conditions and factors as the particular properties desired in the resultant coated fabric or substrate, because of the fabrics or substrates desired end use; the cost and availability of different polymerized latex emulsions; the ease of use of various specific latex emulsions in the different types of coating and other processing machinery that may be used; etc., will in many instances dictate a preference for one type of polymerized latex emulsion over others.

The polymerized latex emulsion utilized in the instant starting compositions may be any natural or synthetic latex emulsion preferably one which contains about 40 percent to about percent by weight of solids. Such polymerized latex emulsions are well known and readily recognizable in the art. These latexes are conventionally prepared by polymerizing at least two ethylenically unsaturated monomers. Examples of such monomers that may be mentioned are acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, ethyl acid maleate, 2-sulfoethyl acrylate, 2-sulfoethyl Methacrylate, 2- aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride, 2-aminoethyl acrylate hydrochloride, vinyl benzylamine, glycidyl methacrylate, hydroxystyrene, acrolein, methacrolein, allyl alcohol, vinylbenzyl alcohol, Z-hydroxyethyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate acrylamide, bis'N-methylol acrylamide, N- methylolacrylamide, N-methylolmethacrylamide, bis-N- methylolmethacrylamide, methacrylamide, N'B-hydroxyethyl acrylamide, N-fl-hydroxyethyl methacrylamide, fl-hydroxypropyl acrylate, B-hydroxypropylmethyaerylate, 6-hydroxyhexyl acrylate, 6-hydroxyhexyl methacrylate, sodium styrene sulfonate, sodium a-methyl styrene sulfonate, 2- methylaminoethyl acrylate hydrochloride, 2 methylaminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride, 3- methylaminopropyl acrylate hydrochloride, 3- methylaminopropyl methacrylate hydrochloride, 3-

methylaminobutyl acrylate hydrochloride, 3-methylaminobutyl methacrylate hydrochloride, 3-ethylaminopropyl acrylate hydrochloride, and styrene sulfonami de.

Other monomers that may be mentioned are the alkenylaromatic compounds (the styrene compounds), the derivatives of ethylenically unsaturated acids such as the acrylic esters, acrylic nitriles, maleic esters, fumaric esters, unsaturated al cohol esters, unsaturated ketones, the-conjugated olefins and other compounds containing one or more ethylenic linkages capable of addition polymerization. Specific examples of such ethylenically unsaturated compounds are styrene, a-methylstyrene, ar-methylstyrene, a-ar-dimethylstyrene, ar, ardimethylstyrene,'ar-t-butylstyrene, vinylnaphthalene, methoxystyrene, cyanostyrene, acetylstyrene, monochlorostyrene, dichlorostyrene and other halostyrenes, methyl methaerylate, ethyl acrylate, butyl acrylate, hexyl acrylate, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate, lauryl methacrylate, phenyl acrylate, acrylonitrile, methacrylonitrile, ethyl 60-chloroacrylate, diethyl maleate, polyglycol maleate, vinyl chloride, vinyl bromide, vinylidene chloride, vinylidene bromide, vinyl methyl ketone, methyl isopropenyl ketone, vinyl ethyl ester, l,3-butadiene, isoprene and the like.

it will be noted that said monomers may or may not contain pendant reactive substituent groups such as carboxy, sulfo, primary amino, secondary amino, carboxamido, methylolcarboxamido, sulfonamido, primary hydroxyl, secondary hydroxyl, phenolic hydroxyl, aldehydic, and epoxy groups or which have substituent groups which, subsequent to polymerization, can be converted to such reactive substituent groups, e.g., ester, nitrile, amide, or salt groups which can be hydrolyzed to reactive acid, amine, or hydroxyl groups.

Among the more preferred polymerized latex emulsions that may be used in order to insure optimum results, particularly with regard to sunlight degradation and repeated laundering and dry cleaning operations are those latexes commonly referred to as reactive latexes such as earboxylated latexes, especially arcylic latexes, and nonreactive latexes, such as halogenated vinyl latexes, preferably vinyl chloride latexes and vinylidene chloride latexes, which due to their fire retardant properties and affinity for fiberglass provide fire resistant fabrics or substrates.

Again such latexes are readily recognizable to those skilled in the art and may be found under such trade names as Union Carbides Ucar 891, Goodrich Rubber Companys Hycar 267i and Hycar 2679 and Rohm & Haas K32 and K87, and the like.

As mentioned above, the polymerized latex emulsion employed in practicing the present invention must contain a water soluble surfactant. Such water soluble surfactant func tions both as a foaming aid and as a foam stabilizer.

We have found that when the water soluble surfactant consists of or contains a substantial amount of a water soluble salt (or soap) of an 18 carbon atom aliphatic carboxylic acid, the foram produced may readily be processed (e.g., dried, crushed and cured) in accordance with the present invention, to produce coated fabrics or substrates having the desired properties discussed above. We, therefore, particularly prefer to employ the water soluble salts of 18 carbon atom aliphatic acids or mixtures of aliphatic carboxylic acids of from about 16 to 20 carbon atoms, but containing a substantial amount, at least about 40 percent, and preferably over 50 percent, by weight of an 18 carbon atom aliphatic carboxylic acid. As examples of preferred commercially available acids of this type, there may be mentioned stearic acid, tallow fatty acids, oleic acid and the like. We have also found it to be particularly advantageous to employ the water soluble salts or soaps of essentially saturated fatty acids of 18 carbon atoms, since the presence of substantial amounts of unsaturated acids are apt to introduce color problems, particularly in white or paste] colored foams. We, therefore, particularly prefer the salts or f soap's of stearic acid or of partially or fully hydrogenated fatty acids of natural origin which contain a major amount of stearic acid such as hydrogenated tallow acids, hydrogenated tall oil fatty acids, hydrogenated soybean oil fatty acids, and hydrogenated tung acids. Our preferred water soluble salts or soaps of the above-mentioned acids are the alkali metal (usually sodium or potassium) salt, the ammonium salts and the amine salts such as alkanolamine salts, e.g. mono, di and triethanolamine salts. if desired, other water soluble surfactants may be incorporated in the polymerized latex emulsions used in practicing the present invention, such as the salts and soaps of fatty acids of from 12 to 24 carbon atoms, salts of aliphatic or alkylaryl sulfonic acids of sulfates such as sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate and the like, as well as nonionic surfactants such as the polyethylene oxide condensates of higher fatty alcohols; higher aliphatic acids, alkylphenols and the like, but such auxiliary foaming agents or foam stabilizers should not be used in an amount greater than the salt of the C aliphatic carboxylic acid.

It has been found that emulsion polymerized latex compositions containing from about I to 10 and preferably about L5 to 8 parts by dry weight of water soluble surfactant per hundred parts by dry weight of polymer in the latex emulsion, are satisfactory to produce coated fabrics or substrates having the desired properties discussed above.

The emulsion-polymerized latex composition starting material may be foamed or frothed by any of the known conventional mechanical or chemical foaming processes. While it is preferred to accomplish foaming by the air whipping method due to its easy procedure which may be carried out around room temperature and its production of a very fine, uniform cell structure froth, other methods such as releasing a noncoagulating gas such as nitrogen or causing the decomposition of a gas-liberating material to chemically react with an ingredient in the composition with the liberation of a noncoagulable gas as a reaction product or by use of an apparatus having commercially available foam heads and the like, may also be employed.

In order to produce coated fabrics or substrates having the desired properties described above, the volume of the latex composition should be increased from 4 to 12, preferably 8 to 10, times its original volume, by the foaming or frothing step.

The resultant frothed polymeric latex may then be applied directly to the fabric or film or substrate by any method utilizing any conventional procedure, apparatus or machinery known to the art. The technique or method of applying the froth to the fabric or substrate is not in any way critical and obviously depends merely upon the judicious choice of the operator and equipment at hand. Once applied to the fabric or substrate, the frothed polymer latex may be leveled to the desired thickness which will satisfy that ultimate thickness dictated by economic considerations, the equipment used and the desired end result. Leveling of the frothed coating may be accomplished by using a doctor knife or roll or the like.

The partial drying step of the instant invention is carried out merely by subjecting the frothed polymeric latex adhering to the fabric or substrate to heat in order to obtain a frothed coating having a moisture content of less than about 20 percent by weight. The manner in which heat is applied is not critical, since all that is required is that sufficient heat be used to dry the frothed latex to the desired moisture content without effecting appreciable curing of said frothed latex coating. Fore example, the desired moisture content may be obtained by allowing the frothed fabric or substrate to dehydrate at room temperature or by placing it in a hot air oven or by use of radiant heat or by use of any suitable textile drying apparatus. Since higher temperaturesaccelerate the rate of drying and removal of water, the drying step is generally carried out at oven temperatures of from F. to 400 F., preferably at from 250 F. to about 300 F. for about one-half to about 4 minutes. As mentioned, care should be exercised during the drying step that no appreciable curing of the frothed latex takes place therein. So long as water is present in the foam and is being evaporated therefrom, it is obvious that the temperature of the foam will not rise to any appreciable extent above 212 F., the boiling point of water, and therefore, theoretically it would be possible to dry the foam to zero moisture content even in a hot oven of up to 400 F. before any appreciable curing of the latex would take place. However, for better control and to avoid the possibility of excessive curing taking place during the drying step, it is preferable to dry only down to a moisture content of 2 to 3 percent by weight of the foam, and in any event to stop the drying step before there is any sudden rise in temperature of the foam itself above 212 F. The instant drying step should not be confused with the conventional gelation procedure utilized by the prior art, for while gelation is the precess of inversion of the two phases of a system containing a liquid continuous phase and a solid discontinuous phase without the removal of water as illustrated by U.S. Pat. No. 3,215,647, the instant drying step may be defined as a coagulation procedure in which the moisture content of the frothed polymeric latex coating is reduced below percent by weight.

The crushing step of this invention is essential to provide the necessary and desirable durability properties of the coated fabric or substrate as well as providing a means for reducing the bulky nature and difficult handling problems of conventional noncrushed foam coated drapery fabrics. The crushing of the partially dried frothed polymeric latex coating may proceed by passing the partially dried froth coated fabric or substrates through any conventional crushing or calendering textile apparatus known in the art using hard rolls, hard and soft rolls or pad rolls and the like under such conditions of pressure and speed that will provide the desired thickness required by the ultimate intended end use of the coated fabric or substrate. By the term crushing as used in this invention, we mean the application of sufficient pressure for sufficient time to obtain a compressed frothed backing with a final density between 30 to 65 pounds per cu. ft. in which the cellular structure of the froth will not have a regain of more than about percent of its original uncrushed thickness, described above.

The curing step of the instant invention may be carried out by conventional known procedures. Since higher temperatures accelerate the rate of cure, generally the curing step is carried out at oven temperatures from about 200 F. to about 400 F., normally from about 280 F. to about 320 F. and from about seconds to about 4 minutes. lt will of course be understood that the time and temperature of curing must be below that at which the polymer, used in making the crushed foam backing melts or decomposes. It should be noted that conventional vulcanizing agents, together with other additives such as catalysts or accelerators, while not required for the practice of the instant invention, may if desired be utilized in the instant curing step.

It should be understood that various modifications of the above detailed description of this invention may be readily accomplished by the use of various additional auxiliary agents, proportions and combinations, which while not required for the practice of the instant invention, may be employed if desired to give products with properties desired for specific applications, and are intended to be covered by the scope of this invention. For example, for the sake of cost reduction or for other reasons, from 0 to 150 parts by weight (per 100 parts dry weight of polymer solids in the latex) of common filler additives such as clays, barytes, whiting, aluminum hydrate, silica, and the like may be employed as well as whiteners and brighteners such as titanium a dioxide, etc. Moreover, dyestuffs, inorganic and organic pigments and the like may be used for the sake of aesthetic beauty of the final product. The amount of such fillers or pigments, when the same are employed, should as stated not exceed 150 parts by weight thereof per 100 parts dry weight, of polymer solids in the latex, since larger amounts of such fillers or pigments tend to lower the resistance to washing and dry cleaning of the final coating. Moreover, viscosity can be increased by the use of thickeners such as Gantrez, alkali metal polyacrylates, natural gums, etc., while plasticizers such as tricresylphosphate and the like are normally employed when the emulsionpolymerized latex is derived from a halogenated vinyl latex. Furthermore, detackifiers such as waxes, dusting talc, silicone oils, aliphatic oils, thermosetting resins, soluble polyethylene polymers, polyethylene emulsions and the like, while also not essential may be used, if desired, for the purpose of eliminating or at least materially reducing any tackiness or tacky feeling that may be exhibited by the backing of the final coated fabric or substrate.

While the above mentioned additive agents, if employed, are generally added to the emulsion-polymerized latex composition, they may be added at a later stage in the process.

The following examples are illustrative of the present invention and are not to be regarded as limitative. It is to be un' derstood that all parts, percentages and proportions referred to herein and in the appended claims are by weight unless otherwise indicated.

EXAMPLE] An emulsion-polymerized latex composition was prepared by thoroughly blending 100 parts (dry basis) of an acrylic latex emulsion, Hycar 2679, obtained from B. F. Goodrich Co. with 3 /2 parts (dry basis) of a water soluble ammonium stearate surfactant. The latex composition was then mechanically foamed into a stable froth having an extremely small bubble size by air-whipping the composition in a planetary mixer. The resultant polymeric froth was then applied directly to one side of a drapery fabric and leveled using a doctor knife to obtain foam layer, having a smooth uniform surface, of about oneeighth of an inch in thickness. The thus treated fabric was placed in an oven and partially dried at 280 F. for about 3 minutes until about percent of the moisture in the froth adhering to the fabric was driven off. The partially dried froth was then crushed by passing the coated fabric through calendering rolls under a pressure of about 20,000 pounds at the nip until the cellular structure of the froth was completely compressed at the nip and on leaving the calendering rolls the coating had a height of about 0.02 inches. The resultant crushed polymeric frothed backing adhering to the fabric was then finally cured and dried by subjecting it to a temperature of about 325 F. for IV; minutes. A durable, soft and pliable coated drapery fabric was obtained having an off-white, slightly tacky, uniform opaque crushed polymeric backing liner having excellent light fastness, washing and dry-cleaning properties.

The above process was repeated, only this time the partially dried polymeric frothed backing was not crushed and a drapery fabric was obtained containing a noncrushed polymeric foam backing, which differs from its above crushed polymeric counterpart in that it does not possess as good dura bility properties.

Similar results may be obtained by substituting other water soluble surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate, ammonium lauryl sulfate, ammonium oleate, potassium oleate, potassium stearate, sodium stearate, and the like, for the above ammonium stearate detergent.

EXAMPLE Ill The procedure in Example I was repeated utilizing an emulsion-polymerized latex composition comprising lOO parts (dry basis) of Hyacr 2679, an acrylic latex emulsion, 3% parts (dry basis) of water soluble ammonium stearate surfactant and 15 parts (dry basis) of titanium dioxide as a filler and whitening agent. A durable soft and pliable coated drapery fabric, similar to the product of Example I was obtained, having enhanced whiteness and opaqueness.

The above process was repeated, only this time the partially dried polymeric frothed backing was not crushed and a drapery fabric was obtained containing a noncrushed polymeric foam backing which differs from its above crushed polymeric counterpart in that it does not possess as good durability properties.

Similar results may be produced using other additives and fillers such as clay, whiting, barytes, aluminum hydrate, blancfix, lithophone, silich, magnesium silicate, and the like, with or in place of the above titanium dioxide.

EXAMPLE ill The procedure in Example I] was repeated except that 5 parts (dry basis) of Cyred 933, a melamine formaldehyde curing agent and detackifier supplied by American Cyanamid,

i was also blended into the emulsion-polymerized latex starting composition. A durable soft and pliable coated drapery fabric, similar to the product of Example 11 was obtained which was essentially tack-free.

The above process was repeated, only this time the partially dried polymeric frothed backing was not crushed and a drapery fabric was obtained with a noncrushed polymeric foam backing, which differs from its above crushed polymeric counterpart in that it does not possess as good durability properties.

Similar nontacky coated drapery fabric products may be obtained by replacing Cyred 933 with other conventional detackifiers such as waxes, parrafin oil, silicone oils, ureaformaldehyde resins, and the like.

EXAMPLE IV The procedure in Example Ill was carried out except that the detackifier was coated on the frothed latex composition after it had been applied to the fabric instead of being added directly to the emulsion-polymerized latex starting compositron.

No noticeable difference in properties was observed between the resultant coated drapery fabric and the coated drapery fabric produced by the process of Example Ill.

The above process was repeated, only this time the partially dried polymeric frothed backing was not crushed and a drapery fabric was obtained containing a noncrushed polymeric foam backing which differs from its above crushed polymeric foamed counterpart, in that it does not possess as good durability properties.

EXAMPLE V An emulsion-polymerized latex composition was prepared by thoroughly blending 100 parts (dry basis) of an acrylic latex emulsion, Hycar 2671, which was obtained from B. F. Goodrich Co. with 3% parts (dry basis) ofa water soluble ammonium stearate surfactant and 15 parts (dry basis) of titanium dioxide. The latex composition was then mechanically foamed into a stable froth having an extremely small bubble size by airwhipping the composition in a planetary mixer. The resultant polymeric froth was then applied directly to a drapery fabric and leveled using a doctor knife to obtain a smooth uniform surface of about one-eighth of an inch in thickness. The thus treated fabric was placed in an oven and partially dried at 280 F. for about 1% minutes until about 80 percent of the moisture in the froth adhering to the fabric was driven off. The partially dried froth was then crushed by passing the coated fabric through calendering rolls under pressure of 20,000 pounds at the nip until the cellular structure of the froth was completely compressed at the nip and on leaving the calendering rolls the coating had a height of about 0.02 inches. The resultant crushed polymeric frothed backing adhering to the fabric was then finally cured and dried by subjecting it to a temperature of about 325 F. for 1% minutes. A durable soft and pliable coated drapery fabric was obtained having white, slightly tacky uniformly opaque crushed polymeric backing or liner with excellent light fastness, washing and dry cleaning properties.

The above process was repeated, only this time the partially dried polymeric frothed backing was not crushed and a drapery fabric was obtained containing a noncrushed polymeric counterpart in that it does not possess as good durability properties.

EXAMPLE Vl An emulsion-polymerized latex composition was prepared by thoroughly blending 100 parts (dry basis) of an acrylic latex emulsion, Ucar 891, obtained from Union Carbide Corp., with 4% parts (dry basis) of a water soluble ammonium stearate surfactant and 15 parts (dry basis) of titanium dioxide. The latex composition was then mechanically foamed into a stable froth having an extremely small bubble size by airwhipping the composition in a planetary mixer. The resultant polymeric froth was then applied directly to a drapery fabric and leveled using a doctor knife to obtain a smooth uniform surface of about one-eighth of an inch in thickness. The thus treated fabric was placed in an oven and partially dried at 280 F. for about 1% minutes until about percent of the moisture in the froth adhering to the fabric was driven off. The partially dried froth was then crushed by passing the coated fabric through calendering rolls under pressure of 20,000 pounds at the nip until the cellular structure of the froth was completely compressed at the nip and on leaving the calendering rolls the coating had a height of 0.02 inches. The resultant crushed polymeric frothed backing adhering to the fabric was then finally cured and dried by subjecting it to a temperature of about 325 F. for 1% minutes. A durable soft and pliable coated drapery fabric was obtained having white, slightly tacky uniform opaque crushed polymeric backing or liner with excellent light fastness, washing and dry cleaning properties.

The above process was repeated, only this time the partially dried polymeric frothed backing was not crushed and a drapery fabric was obtained containing a noncrushed polymeric foam backing, which differs from its above crushed polymeric counterpart in that it does not possess as good durability properties.

EXAMPLE V11 An emulsion-polymerized latex composition was prepared by thoroughly blending parts (dry basis) of vinyl chloride emulsion polymer, Geon 376, with 35 parts (dry basis) of tricresyl phosphate plasticizer, 3% parts (dry basis) of a water soluble ammonium stearate surfactant and 15 parts (dry basis) of titanium dioxide. The latex composition was then mechanically foamed into a stable froth having an extremely small bubble size by airwhipping the composition in a planetary mixer. The resultant polymeric froth was then applied directly to a fiberglass drapery fabric and leveled using a doctory knife to obtain a smooth uniform surface of about one-eighth of an inch in thickness. The thus treated fabric was placed in an oven and partially dried at 280 F. for about 1% minutes until about 80 percent of the moisture in the froth adhering to the fabric was driven off. The partially dried froth was then crushed by passing the coated fabric through calendering rolls under pressure of 20,000 pounds at the nip until the cellular structure of the froth was completely compressed at the nip and on leaving the calendering rolls had a height of about 0.02 inches. The resultant crushed polymeric frothed backing adhering to the fabric was then finally cured and dried by subjecting it to a temperature of about 325 F. for 1% minutes. A durable soft and pliable coated fiberglass fabric which is nonflammable with a white, crushed polymeric backing or liner having excellent light fastness, washing and dry cleaning properties was obtained.

The above process was repeated, only this time the partially dried polymeric frothed backing was not crushed and a drapery fabric was obtained containing a noncrushed polymeric foam backing which differs from its above crushed polymeric counterpart in that it does not possess as good durability properties.

EXAMPLE Vlll An emulsion-polymerized latex composition was prepared by thoroughly blending 100 parts (dry basis) of a vinyl chloride emulsion, Geon 576, with 35 parts (dry basis) of tricresyl phosphate plasticizer, 4% parts (dry basis) of a water soluble ammonium stearate surfactant and 15 parts (dry basis) of titanium dioxide. The latex composition was then mechanically foamed into a stable froth having an extremely small bubble size by airwhipping the composition in a planetary mixer. The resultant polymeric froth was then applied directly to a fiberglass drapery fabric and leveled using a doctor knife to obtain a smooth uniform surface of about one-eighth of an inch in thickness. The thus treated fabric was placed in an oven and partially dried at 280 F. for about lr minutes until about 80 percent of the moisture in the froth adhering to the fabric was driven off. The partially dried froth was then crushed by passing the coated fabric through calendering rolls under pressure of 20,000 pounds at the nip until the cellular structure of the froth was completely compressed at the nip and on leaving the calendering rolls had a height of about 0.02 inches. The resultant crushed polymeric frothed backing adhering to the fabric was then finally cured and dried by subjecting it to a temperature of about 325 F. for 1% minutes. A durable soft and pliable coated fiberglass fabric which is nonflammable, was obtained having a white, crushed polymeric backing liner having excellent light fastness, washing and dry cleaning properties.

The above process was repeated, only this time the partially dried polymeric frothed backing was not crushed and a drapery fabric was obtained containing a noncrushed polymeric foam backing, which differs from its above crushed polymeric counterpart in that it does not possess as good durability properties.

EXAMPLE IX A coated drapery fabric having a colored backing liner was obtained by following the procedure of Example ll except that one-half parts (dry basis) of phthalocyanine green pigment was also blended with the emulsion-polymerized latex starting composition in order to obtain a durable soft and pliable drapery fabric having a green, slightly tacky uniform opaque backing liner. It is obvious that coated drapery fabrics having various colored crushed polymeric backing liners may be ob tained merely by varying the dyestuff or pigment used.

The above process was repeated, only this time the partially dried polymeric frothed backing was not crushed and a drapery fabric was obtained containing a noncrushed polymeric foam backing, which differs from its above crushed polymeric counterpart in that it does not possess as good durability properties.

EXAMPLE X In order to demonstrate the unique properties possessed by the coated drapery fabrics of this invention, the product of Example Il was subjected to the ultraviolet light of a conventional fadeometer and after 200 hours the drapery fabric exhibited no visible colored physical degradation. Moreover, the drapery fabric of Example ll was also subjected to a series of six repeated commercial laundering and dry cleaning applications without any noticeable degradation to the crushed polymeric backing liner.

While the above examples deal primarily with coating drapery fabrics, since these final products are of preferred interest, it is obvious that the instant invention may be used to obtain a crushed polymeric frothed backing liner on any fibrous or nonfibrous flexible sheet materials and that the final coated products will find utility in many fields. For example, the final coated products may be used for upholsterings, table cloths, show curtains, wearing apparel, place mats, and the like.

Various modifications and variations of this invention will be obvious to a worker skilled in the art, and it is understood that such modifications and variations are to be included within the purview of this application and the spirit and scope of the appended claims.

1. A soft, pliable and durable coated textile fabric comprising a textile fabric substrate having an adherent crushed foam polymer backing, said backing being opaque with little penetration of strikethrough and having a density of about 30 to 65 lbs. per cubic ft., said polymer being derived from a ethylenically unsaturated monomer.

2. A process which comprises a. foaming by air whipping an aqueous emulsion polymerized latex composition consisting essentially and predominantly of water and polymer of an ethylenically unsaturated monomer and containing a water soluble organic surfactant, said surfactant consisting essentially of at least about 40 percent by weight of a water soluble salt of a saturated alkanoic acid of 118 carbon atoms;

b. applying the resultant polymeric foam directly to a permeable textile fabric substrate;

c. partially drying the foam and substrate to a moisture content of less then about 20 percent by weight and retaining the foam in its expanded form during the drying process without appreciable curing or gelation;

d. completely crushing the partially dried, uncured polymeric foam adhering to the substrate; and

e. thereafter heating the resultant. crushed polymeric foam coated substrate to thereby cure the polymeric coating whereby to produce a soft, pliable and durable coated textile fabric having an adherent crushed foam polymer backing, said backing being opaque with little penetration or strikethrough and having a density of about 30 to 65 lbs. per cubic ft.

3. A process according to claim 2, wherein the polymerized latex emulsion is a reactive latex and the water soluble organic surfactant is selected from the group consisting of alkali metal, ammonium and amine salts of a higher fatty acids and mixtures thereof.

4. A process according to claim 3, wherein the latex is an acrylic latex polymer.

5. A process according to claim .2, wherein the latex is a polyvinyl chloride latex polymer.

6. A process according to claim 2, wherein the water soluble organic surfactant is a stearate.

7. A process according to claim 3, wherein the substrate is a drapery fabric.

8. A process according to claim 2, wherein the substrate is a drapery fabric.

9. A process as defined in claim 2., in which a detackifying agent selected from the group consisting of waxes, dusting talc, silicone oils, aliphatic oils, thermosetting resins, soluble polyethylene polymers, and polyethylene emulsions, is employed and which has been added to the coating prior to the final step ofdrying and curing the crushed polymeric froth.

22 3 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,607,341 Dated September 21, 1971 Inventor(s) Robert E Goins et a1 It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

'1 Column 3, 11116 9, for "60", read on column 10, line 11, for "of", first occurrence, read or and line 12 for "a", read an Signed and sealed this 11 th day of July 1972.

SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD FLFLETCIIER, JR. ROBERT GOTTSCHALK Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

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Classifications
U.S. Classification442/374, 264/50, 264/48, 428/314.2, 264/321, 427/373
International ClassificationC08J9/00, D06N3/00, C08J9/30
Cooperative ClassificationC08J9/30, D06N3/0045
European ClassificationC08J9/30, D06N3/00D2
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 11, 1988ASAssignment
Owner name: BASF AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT, CARL-BOSCH-STRASSE, D-670
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:POLYSAR INTERNATIONAL S.A.;REEL/FRAME:004959/0830
Effective date: 19880919
Owner name: BASF AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT, A CORP. OF THE FEDERAL RE
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:POLYSAR INTERNATIONAL S.A.;REEL/FRAME:4959/830
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:POLYSAR INTERNATIONAL S.A.;REEL/FRAME:004959/0830
Jul 9, 1981ASAssignment
Owner name: POLYSAR INTERNATIONAL SA, A CORP. OF SWITZERLAND
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:GAF CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:003882/0921
Effective date: 19810401
Jul 9, 1981AS02Assignment of assignor's interest
Owner name: GAF CORPORATION
Owner name: POLYSAR INTERNATIONAL SA, A CORP. OF SWITZERLAND
Effective date: 19810401