US 3609916 A
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Oct. 5, 1971 P. HAMMELMANN 3,609,918
APPARATUS FOR TREATING SURFACES 0F SHIPS HULLS OR THE LIKE Filed March 26, 1969 6 Sheets-Sheet l Fly. 7
In remar Oct. 5, 1971 P. HAMMELMANN 3,609,916
APPARATUS FOR TREATING SURFACES OF SHIPS HULLS OR THE LIKE Filed March 26, 1969 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 Fly- 2 lnren/on- Oct. 5, 1971 p HAMMELMANN 3,609,916
APPARATUS FOR TREATING SURFACES OF SHIPS HULLS OR THE LIKE Filed March 26, 1969 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 lnrenfor PA Ul IMHHH "AMY Oct-5, 1971 p HAMMELMANN 3,609,916
APPARATUS FOR TREATING SURFACES OF SHIPS' ULLS OR THE LIKE Filed March 26, 1969 6 Sheets-Sheet L lnrenfor:
Oct. 5., 1971 Filed March 26, 1969 P. HAMMELMANN APPARATUS FOR TREATING SURFACES OF SHIPS HULLS OR THE LIKE 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Fig- 5 lnrenfan- Oct. 5, 1971 P. HAMMELMANN 3,609,916
APPARATUS FOR TREATING SURFACES OF SHIPS HULLS OR THE LIKE Filed March 26, 1969 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 lnrenlar:
United States Patent Olfice US. Cl. 518 18 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A cleaning apparatus for surfaces of ships hulls or the like wherein one or more working nozzles discharge jets of highly pressurized water through intercepting nozzles which direct the jets against the surface to be cleaned in such a way as to create therein suction which counteracts the reaction forces and causes rollers or like distancing elements of the apparatus to bear against the surface and to maintain the latter at a predetermined minimum distance from the outlets of the intercepting nozzles. A turbine which is driven by pressurized water can be employed to drive a distributor for one or more jets of granular material which impinge against the surface to be treated in the interior of a large intercepting nozzle and to rebound into the jets ofpressurized water to be thereby propelled for the second time against the surface in order to assist the cleaning action of water.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to an apparatus for treating surfaces of ships hulls, columns which are immersed in water, sluice gates, metallic structures above and/or below water level and others. More particularly, the invention relates to an apparatus for cleaning such surfaces. Still more particularly, the invention relates to improvements in cleaning or similarly treating surfaces of ships hulls or the like by jets of highly pressurized hydraulic fluid, particularly water.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION An object of the invention is to provide for the cleaning of large surfaces, especially exposed surfaces on ships hulls or the like, by jets of pressurized hydraulic fluid.
A more specific object of the invention is to provide an apparatus for effecting such cleaning and to construct and assemble the apparatus in such a way that it automatically compensates for reaction forces which develop when one or more jets of highly pressurized hydraulic fluid are discharged from working nozzles to impinge against a surface to be treated.
A further object of the invention is to provide an apparatus wherein the reaction forces are utilized to perform a useful function.
An additional object of the invention is to provide a self-propelled apparatus for cleaning of surfaces above and/or below water level.
Still another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus which can be readily steered along a surface and which is designed to treat a substantial part of a surface in a single pass.
Another object of the invention is to provide a cleaning apparatus wherein reaction forces which develop when jets of highly pressurized fluid issue from one or more working nozzles to impinge against an exposed or submerged surface can effect propagation of the apparatus along such surface: as well as retention of apparatus at an optimum distance from the surface.
Patented Oct. 5, 1971 A further object of the invention is to provide an apparatus which can treat submerged or exposed surfaces with two or more jets at least one of which does not consist of hydraulic fluid.
The improved apparatus comprises one or more working nozzles each arranged to discharge a jet of pressurized hydraulic fluid toward a surface to be treated, hollow guide means preferably including one or more intercepting nozzles located in front of working nozzles for directing the respective jets against the surface to be treated, and distancing means for maintaining the guide means at a predetermined minimum distance from and out of contact with the surface to be treated.
The arrangement is preferably such that the particles of the jet of granular material are caused to rebound on the surface to be treated to enter the jet of pressurized fluid and to be thereby propelled for the second time against the surface. The distributor means for granular material preferably comprises a rotary member which is installed in the interior of guide means and is driven by a turbine or the like. Such turbine is preferably further utilized to drive rolling elements which can constitute the aforementioned distancing means. Furthermore, the apparatus may include steering means (for example, one or more double-acting hydraulic cylinders) for changing the orientation of rolling elements and for thereby controlling the direction of movement of the apparatus along the surface.
'If the jet or jets of hydraulic fluid are directed against the surface at an oblique angle, they can serve to advance the apparatus along such surface. The guide means is preferably designed to create at least some suction to thereby counteract the reaction forces and to attract the apparatus against the surface to be treated. Such suction is created due to acceleration of fluid which flows between the outlet or outlets of the guide means and the surface to be treated.
:The novel features which are considered as characteristic of the invention are set forth in particular in the appended claims. The improved cleaning apparatus itself, however, both as to its construction and its mode of operation, together with additional features and advantages thereof, will be best understood upon perusal of the following detailed description of certain specific embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawing.
BRIEF DESORIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a partly side elevational and partly vertical sectional view of a cleaning apparatus which embodies one form of my invention;
FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view of the apparatus as seen in the direction of arrow II in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a vertical sectional view of a second cleaning apparatus:
FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view of the second apparatus as seen in the direction of arrow IV in FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a horizontal sectional view of a third cleaning apparatus:
FIG. 6 is a smaller-scale rear elevational view of the third apparatus as seen in the direction of arrow VI in FIG. 5; and
FIG. 7 is a view of a detail in the structure shown in FIG. 5.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The cleaning or treating apparatus of FIGS. 1 and 2 comprises two working nozzles 1, 2 which discharge jets of highly pressurized water or other liquid in directions indicated by phantom lines 13, 14. Such jets impinge against a surface 8 to be treated, for example, the exter- 1121 surface of a ships hull, of a submerged body or of a column which is anchored in the bottom of a river or harbor. As shown in FIG. 2, the nozzles are located at diflerent levels and are laterally offset with reference to each other so that the apparatus automatically cleans two adjacent strips of the surface 8 when the nozzles are caused to move downwardly or upwardly. These nozzles respectively receive pressurized fluid from two supply conduits 3, 4 which branch at 5 from a main supply conduit 6. The latter can receive pressurized fluid from an apparatus of the type disclosed, for example, in the commonly owned copending applicaion Ser. No. 788,420 filed on Jan. 2, 1969 by Hammelmann and Barnowski, now Pat. No. 3,556,688, dated Jan. 19, 1971.
Each working nozzle is associated with a hollow guide means here shown as an intercepting nozzle 7 which is located in front of the respective working nozzle and flares outwardly in a direction toward the surface 8. The cross-sectional configuration of intercepting nozzles 7 is such that they produce an accelerated inner or central jet of fluid and a slower external or outer jet. As shown in FIG. 1, the upper wall 9 of each intercepting nozzle 7 is of airfoil profile. The curvature of the lower walls 10 of the nozzles 7 is more pronounced. In order to produce directed or oriented jets of fluid, the lower walls 10 of the intercepting nozzles 7 are placed adjacent to arcuate deflecting members or baffles 11 which define therewith channels or passages 12 wherein the fluid flows along the surface 8. If desired, the baflles 11 can be adjustably connected with the intercepting nozzles 7 or with the frame F of the cleaning apparatus. The jets of fluid produced by the intercepting nozzles 7 cause the apparatus to adhere to the surface 8 to thus overcome the reaction forces.
Referring again to FIG. 2, it will be seen that the lefthand vertical marginal portion 7a of the upper intercepting nozzle is aligned with the right-hand marginal portion 7a of the lower intercepting nozzle. Thus, the area swept by fluid issuing from the upper nozzle 7 is immediately adjacent to one side of the area swept by the lower nozale 7. When the apparatus is moved up or down, the nozzles 7 insure that the apparatus cleans two strips of the surface 8 without any gaps between such strips. If desired, the area swept by one of the intercepting nozzles 7 can slightly overlap the area which is swept by the other intercepting nozzle. The distancing elements which are provided on the frame F of the cleaning apparatus are indicated at D. These elements prevent the open ends of the intercepting nozzles 7 from hearing directly against the surface 8, i.e. they hold the nozzles 7 at a predetermined minimum distance from and out of contact with such surface.
FIG. 1 shows that the directions (lines 13 and 14) in which the orifices of the working nozzles 1 and 2 discharge jets of pressurized fluid makes an oblique angle with the surface 8. This causes such jets to impart to the frame F a component of movement in the direction of the smaller of the two angles between the lines 13-, 14 and the line representing the surface 8. Thus, the appariatus is caused to travel downwardly, as viewed in FIG.
The fluid is accelerated in the gaps between the nozzles 7 and the surface 8. This causes in the nozzles 7 a drop in pressure so that the cleaning apparatus is pressed against the surface 8, i.e., suction in the noules 7 counteracts reaction forces which develop when the working nozzles 1, 2 discharge jets of highly pressurized fluid.
F-I GS. 3 and 4 illustrate a second cleaning apparatus with two mutually inclined and laterally offset working nozzles 15, 16. These nozzles are positioned in such a way that the jets of fluid issuing from their orifices cannot effect any movement of the apparatus along the surface 8. The central horizontal symmetry plane 17 of the cleaning apparatus halves the angle between the lines 118, 19 which indicate the directions of jets issuing from the working nozzles 16, 1'5. of the lines 18, 19 makes with the surface 8 an oblique angle and these lines make with each other an acute angle. The two hOHOlW guide means or intercepting nozzles 20, 21 which are respectively mounted in. front of the working nozzles 15, 16 flare outwardly in a direction toward the surface 8. The inner walls of these intercepting nozzles are formed by the curved walls of a collecting chamber 22 which receives fluid by way of two channels 23, 24 and discharges the thus collected fluid from the apparatus. The numeral 25 denotes a supply conduit which supplies pressurized fluid to the wonking nozzles 15, 16. A distancing element D' is shown in FIG. 3. This distancing element defines portions of aforementioned channels 23, 24 and insures that the open ends of the intercepting nozzles 20, 21 cannot hear directly against the surface 8. Some of the fluid, namely, that fluid which does not enter the chamber 22, is permitted to escape along the edges of outer walls of the intercepting nozzles.
The intercepting nozzles 20, 21 again insure that suction produced therein causes the apparatus to adhere to the surface 8 and to thus overcome the reaction force which develops in response to discharge of pressurized fluid through the orifices of the working nozzles 15, 16.
Referring to FIGS. 5 to 7, there is shown a third cleaning apparatus which comprises a single hollow guide means 26 resembling a funnel or housing which flares outwardly toward the surface 27 to be cleaned and is provided with a curved marginal portion or bead 28 whose convex side faces the surface 27. The housing 26 accommodates a set of working nozzles 34. The distancing means of this cleaning apparatus comprises four roller-shaped distancing members 29 which hold the bead 28 at a predetermined minimumdistance from the surface 27. Each roller 29 is mounted at the outer end of a radial supporting arm 30' which is welded or otherwise secured to the housing 26. The latter is surrounded by an annular frame member 31 which is provided with an inwardly curved marginal portion 32 having a concave side facing the head 28. The parts 28, 32 define between themselves an annular channel 33' through which the cleaning fluid and the impurities leave the interior of the housing 26. The concave side of the marginal portion 32 deflects the fluid rearwardly, i.e., away from the surface 27.
The working nozzles 34- in the interior of the housing 26 receive pressurized fluid from a ring-shaped header 36 which in turn receives fluid from a supply conduit 35. The fluid is normally water. FIG. 7 shows that the jets of fluid issuing from the orifices of the working nozzles 34 flow in substantial parallelism with the outwardly flaring internal surface of the housing 26 and that they reach the surface 27 in a region close to the channel 33'. These jets are then united into a substantially annular stream which passes through the channel 33 and is deflected by the marginal portion 32 to flow in a direction away from the surface 27.
A feature of the apparatus shown in FIGS. 5 to 7 resides in the provision of a distributor device 38 (here shown as a wheel) which can propel jets of granular material against the surface 27 to thus enhance the cleaning action of water. The pipe which supplies granular material to the wheel 38 is shown at 39. The rim 41 of the wheel 38 has orifices or outlets 40 which discharge jets 42 of granular material in a manner as shown in FIG. 7. Such material rebounds on the surface 27 in a region which is inwardly adjacent to the channel 33 so that the rebounding particles of granular material enter the jets 37 of water issuing from the orifices of working nozzles 34 and are again propelled against the surface 27 in a zone closely adjacent to the channel 33. Such repeated engagement between the granular material and the surface 27, combined with the action of jets 37, produces an unexpectedly satisfactory cleaning action. When the apparatus travels along the surface 27, jets 37 sweep areas previously swept by the jets 42 and vice versa.
The wheel 38 for granular material is driven by a turbine, here shown as a Pelton wheel 43 having a ring of buckets receiving an impact jet from an adjustable nozzle 50. The turbine 43' is incorporated into the distributing wheel 38. The turbine 43 is further provided with a plain worm thread 43a which mates with a worm wheel 44. The worm 44a on the shaft of the worm wheel 44 cooperates with a second worm wheel 44b on the shaft 45a of a spur gear 45. The worms 43a, 44a and worm wheels 44, 44b constitute a reducing gear which drives the gear 45 at a speed Well below that of the turbine 43. The gear 45 drives a toothed belt 46 which is trained over a gear 47a on the shaft 47 of a bevel gear 48. The latter meshes with a bevel gear 49 which drives one of the distancing rollers 29. As stated above, the nozzle 50 which discharges the impact jet for the buckets of the turbine 43 is adjustable so that the output of granular material and the rotational speed of the distributor wheel 38 can be regulated within a desired range. Adjustments in the speed of the wheel 38 bring about proportional adjustments in speed of the driven roller 29.
The discharge end of the aforementioned supply pipe 39 for granular material is in communication with a swiveling nozzle member 1 which feeds granular material to the outlets 40 in the rim 41 of the Wheel 38. A gear 52 on the nozzle member 51 meshes with a toothed belt 53 which is trained over one gear of a gear cluster 54. The other gear of the cluster 54 drives a toothed belt 55 which is trained over gears 56, 57, 5 8. The cluster 54 and the gears 56-58 are respectively connected with forked members 61, 59, 60 and 62. for the shafts of the rollers 29.
The toothed belt 55 is rigidly connected with a clamp 6-3 on the piston rod 65 of a double-acting hydraulic steering cylinder 64. The latter has conduits 66, 67 which can be connected with a source of pressurized fluid by suitable valves, not shown, so that the piston rod 65 can move the belt 55 in either direction. This enables the operator to control the orientation of rollers 29. In other words, the operator can steer the cleaning apparatus by changing the axial position of the piston rod 65".
The cylinder 64 also serves as a means for changing the orientation of the swiveling nozzle 51 by way of belt 55, gear cluster 54, belt 53 and gear 52. The arrangement is such that the discharge end of the nozzle 51 normally faces in the direction of travel of the cleaning apparatus.
If desired, the drive 43a, 44, 44a, 44b, 45, 46, 47a, 47, 48, 49 for one of the rollers 29 can be omitted. The apparatus of FIGS. 5 to 7 is then pulled and/or pushed along the surface 27.
When the fluid flows through the relatively narrow clearance between the surface 27 and the marginal portion 28 of the housing 26, it undergoes considerable acceleration whereby the pressure in the housing 26 drops below the pressure around the frame member 31 and the housing is attracted to the surface 27. The fluid which is deflected away from the surface 27 during flow along the concave side of the marginal portion 32 produces a reaction force which also causes the apparatus to adhere to the surface 27. It was found that the forces which urge the housing 26 and frame member 31 in a direction toward the surface 27 exceed considerably the Weight of the cleaning apparatus plus the reaction forces which develop when the working nozzles 34 discharge the jets 37 of pressurized fluid.
The granular material which is distributed by the wheel ii may be sand, particles of steel or other metal, or the Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can, by applying current knowledge, readily adapt it for various applications without omitting features which fairly constitute essential characteristics of the generic and specific aspects of my contribution to the art.
What is claimed as new and desired to be protected by Letters Patent is set forth in the appended claims:
1. In an apparatus for treating surfaces, particularly of hulls of watercraft, by jets of hydraulic fluid, a combination comprising working nozzle means arranged to discharge at least one jet of pressurized fluid toward a surface to be treated; hollow guide means located in front of said nozzle means and operative for directing the jet against such surface and for preventing displacement of said nozzle means away from the surface due to reaction. forces; and distancing means for maintaining said guide means at a predetermined minimum distance from and out of contact with such surface.
2. The apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said guide means comprises intercepting nozzle means flaring outwardly in a direction toward the surface which is engaged by said distancing means.
3. The apparatus as defined in claim 2, further comprising deflecting means located in the path of the jet in the interior of said intercepting nozzle means.
4. The apparatus as defined in claim 1, further comprising frame means supporting said nozzle means, said distancing means and said guide means, the jet issuing from said nozzle means making with the surface which is engaged by said distancing means an oblique angle so that the jet tends to move said frame means along such surface.
5. The apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said working nozzle means comprises a plurality of discrete nozzles and further comprising supply conduit means for delivering pressurized fluid to said nozzles.
6. The apparatus as defined in claim 5, wherein said working nozzles are offset with reference to each other by distances corresponding to the width of areas swept by the respective jets when such jets impinge against a surface which is engaged by said distancing means.
7. The apparatus as defined in claim 5, wherein said nozzle means comprises two discrete working nozzles and wherein said guide means comprises a pair of intercepting nozzles each located in front of one of said working nozzles, the jets issuing from said working nozzles making an oblique angle with each other.
8. The apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherein said guide means comprises a funnel shaped housing which flares outwardly in a direction toward the surface which is engaged by said distancing means, said working nozzle means including a plurality of discrete working nozzles installed in the interior of said housing.
9. The apparatus as defined in claim 8, wherein said housing has an internal surface which flares outwardly toward the surface which is engaged by said distancing means and wherein said working nozzles are positioned to discharge jets of pressurized fluid in substantial parallelism with said internal surface.
10. The apparatus as defined in claim 9, wherein said housing comprises an outwardly flaring marginal portion adjacent to but spaced from the surface which is engaged by said distancing means and further comprising an annular frame member surrounding said marginal portion and defining therewith an annular channel for evacuation of fluid after such fluid impinges against the surface which is engaged by said distancing means.
11. The apparatus as defined in claim 10, wherein said frame member has an inwardly extending curved marginal portion which flanks said channel opposite said first mentioned marginal portion. I
12. The apparatus as defined in claim 1, wherem said distancing means comprises a plurality of rolling elements.
13. The apparatus as defined in claim 12, further comprising drive means for at least one of said rolllng elements.
14. The apparatus as defined in claim 13, wherein said drive means comprises turbine means.
15. The apparatus as defined in claim 14, wherein said turbine means comprises a Pelton wheel installed in the interior of said guide means.
16. The apparatus as defined in claim 14, wherein said drive means further comprises speed reducing means interposed between said turbine means and said one rolling element.
17. The apparatus as defined in claim 1, further comprising distributor means for propelling granular material against the surface to be treated within the confines of said guide means.
18. The apparatus as defined in claim 17, wherein said distributor means comprises a rotary member in said 1 guide means, means for supplying granular material to said rotary member, and means for rotating said rotary member.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 0 LESTER M. SWINGLE, Primary Examiner U.S. Cl. X.R.