|Publication number||US3610770 A|
|Publication date||Oct 5, 1971|
|Filing date||Jun 2, 1969|
|Priority date||May 31, 1968|
|Also published as||DE1927726A1, DE1927726B2, DE1927726C3|
|Publication number||US 3610770 A, US 3610770A, US-A-3610770, US3610770 A, US3610770A|
|Original Assignee||Koninkl Maschf Stork Nv|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (4), Referenced by (19), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent  Inventor Rudolf Hendriks FOREIGN PATENTS Hengelo, Netherlands 829,179
 Appl. No.  Filed June 2, 1969  Patented Oct. 5, 1971 714,135 10/1931 France.................,....... 416/234 Primary ExaminerHenry F. Raduazo AtmrneySnyder and Butrum  Assignee Koniuklijke Machinefabriek Stork N. V. l-lengelo, Netherlands  Priority May-31, 1969  Netherlands  6807690  COMPRESSIBLE FLUID TURBINE ABSTRACT: Centripetal blades of a compressible fluid turbine project into a scroll-like steam induction passage so that their tips lie at or near the tangential centerline of the passage 6 Claims, 3 Drawing Figs.
al to such centerline. A pressure reducing valve in the inlet to the steam induction passage converts steam pressure into kinetic energy 415/159, inlet when each blade tip is disposed in a plane norm and is adjusted to produce a velocity of steam at the inlet which is substantially greater than the peripheral velocity of the blade. There is very little reaction effect of the steam on etal blades as the steam is directed radially inwardly and then axially in opposite directions to axial flow portions of the turbine and, consequently, the efficiency of the d e S a e r C .w m U .E n e e C .m e m m m 3 8 l 1 0 3 wmmow w I l 1 05 5 10 l 04 4 ,O 3 4 0 0 mm n3 u "0 S u 4 m m T m m m9 N m n "5 m u n n 2 mm m n "U C u m m Em m Q T n AW m m mr m m O m m RED m 6 w m m S H L m 2 m m .m M .1 1 1 B 1 0 6 1 5 5 5 t l PATENTED OCT 5 I97! INVENTOR RUDOLF HENDRIKS .JW we? m NEYS COMPRESSIBLE FLUID TURBINE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION My copending application, Ser. No. 669,139, filed Sept. 20 1967, now U. S. Pat. No. 3,479,124, discloses a compressible fluid turbine arrangement having a centripetal steam induction portion in which the tips of the centripetal blades cooperate directly with a scroll-like steam induction passage. A pressure reducing valve at the inlet to the steam induction passage converts steam pressure into kinetic energy so that the steam enters the induction passage at high velocity. This arrangement provides very high efficiencies by minimizing friction losses incidental to the process of introducing the steam centripetally and directing it into the power producing portions of the turbine.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION I have found that if the blade tips of the centripetal petal wheel portion of a compressible fluid turbine are extended so as to lie at or near the extension of the centerline of the tangential inlet portion of the compressible fluid induction passage, a very sharp and further increase in efficiency is effected as compared with the arrangement disclosed in my above copending application. I have further found that the optimum positioning of the tips of the centripetal blades with respect to an extension of the centerline of the inlet to the compressible fluid induction passage downstream of the pressure reducing valve may vary between relatively narrow limits dependent upon the mass rate of flow of the compressible fluid to the turbine assembly. Thus, for low mass rates of flow, the tips of the blades may be disposed slightly above the centerline as much as approximately 2 percent of the diameter of the centripetal petal wheel whereas at high mass rate flows, the tips optimally may be positioned below the centerline by as much as approximately 20 percent of the centripetal wheel diameter.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a vertical sectional view taken transversely through a turbine constructed according to the present invention:
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view taken substantially along the plane of section line 2-2 in FIG. 1, and
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the range of disposition of the centripetal blade tips with respect to the axial centerline extension of the inlet portion of the steam induction passage.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring specifically to the drawing, more particularly to FIG. 2, the compressible fluid turbine shown is of the axial flow type and includes a rotor housed within a casing 12, the rotor 10 being provided with a centripetal wheel portion 14 and, on opposite sides thereof, two series of axial flow blades 16 and 18 which cooperate with fixed blades 20 and 22, respectively, that are carried by the interior of the casing 12. The rotor 10 is joumaled within the casing 12 by any suitable means and is adapted for high-speed rotation relative thereto.
In the particular embodiment shown, as is seen in FIG. 1, a pair of steam induction passages 24 and 26 are diametrically disposed between the rotor 10 and casing 12, said passages being of scroll-like form and respectively having inlet portions 28 and 30 which have axial centerlines 32 and 34 and discharge tangentially into the respective passages 24 and 26. The inlet portions 28 and 30 are provided with pressure reducing valve members 36 and 38, respectively, to convert the pressure of the steam supplied into kinetic energy so that the steam enters at relatively high velocities at the inlets to the passages 24 and 26.
High-pressure steam inlets 40 and 42 communicate with the inlet portions 28 and 30 and the valves 36 and 38 are of generally bulbous form so as to minimize friction losses. Automatic or other type of control assemblies 44 and 46 may be as- LII sociated with the respective valves, serving to shift the valve members axially and form greater or lesser restriction of the inlets 28 and 30 to control the mass rate of flow of steam entering the passages 24 and 26. Steam entering the passages 24 and 26 is directed by the blades of the centripetal wheel 14 first radially inwardly and then axially in opposite directions, as indicated by the arrows 48 and 50 in FIG. 2, to flow through the axial flow portions of the turbine assembly and ultimately for discharge, as indicated by the arrows 52 and 54.
The individual blades 56 of the centripetal wheel 14 have paddlelike tips located at or nearthe extensions 'of the centerlines 32 and 34 of the inlets 28 and 30 to the steam induction passages or chambers 24 and 26, as, for example, is indicated with respect to the blade tips 58 when each individual blade is positioned so that its tip lies within a plane normal to the extension lines 32 or 34, as shown in FIG. 1.
l have discovered that there is a sharp increase in the efficiency of the turbine assembly if the blade tips are positioned to lie within a range spanning the respective centerlines. This range is diagrammatically illustrated in FIG. 3 wherein the extension 32 of the axial centerline of the inlet passage 28 is selected for representation relative to axis 60 of rotation of the centripetal wheel 14. g
The limits of the range within which the blade tips must lie to achieve the markedly increased efficiency according to this invention are represented by the lines 62 and 66, the plane normal to the centerline extension 32 being represented by the dashed line 64. The maximum distance above centerline 32, that is the distance between the blade tip position 62 and the centerline extension 32, may be as great as 2 percent of the diameter of the centripetal wheel 14. The other end of the range, that is the low limit thereof, may be such as to locate the blade tip position 66 at a distance below the extension 32 by an amount as great as 10 percent of the diameter of the centripetal wheel.
With the foregoing relationships prevailing, and utilizing steam pressures in the order of 10 to I00 atmospheres, it is necessary that the valves 36 and 38 effect a pressure reduction sufficient to establish, at the inlets 28 and 30, an entrance velocity for the steam which is in the order of 1% to 3 times the peripheral velocity (i.e., blade tip velocity) of the centripetal wheel 14. These relationships establish high efficiencies for the turbine assembly inasmuch as there is very little reaction effect at the centripetal wheel. There may be a slight negative reaction effect at low mass flow rate of steam and a minor amount of positive reaction at high flow rates of steam.
The mass flow rate of steam into the turbine is of course a function of the turbine design and an exact relation between the blade tip positions and the centerline extension of the steam inlet cannot be established. However, low mass flow rates will dictate a position tending toward the position 62 in FIG. 3 while high mass flow rates will tend toward the blade tip position 66 in FIG. 3.
To illustrate this, we can define a so-called specific mass flow number m,.
where: F, total throat area of the valves (2,, critical velocity as given by local fluid conditions at the throat area. c,, speed of sound as given by fluid properties and static conditions at the throat area. w =specific weight of the fluid as given by the local fluid conditions at the throat area. d =the diameter of the centripetal wheel. F, and a have the same dimensions. I In practical embodiments of the invention at a low mass flow rate of m,#).00l(c,,) w maximum efficiency of the turbine occurred with the blade tips positioned 0.02 d outwardly from the centerline extension, whereas at a high flow rate of mF0.03 (c ,w maximum efficiency was obtained with a blade tip location which was 0.10 d inwardly from the centerline extension.
Thus, it will be appreciated that the specific construction shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 is intended to represent a turbine of the axial type operating at relatively high mass rates of flow, as evidenced by the fact that the blade tip extremities are positioned somewhat below the centerline extension 32. Therefore, the ratio Fjd', where F is the total cross-sectional area of the two inlet throats 28 and 30, is relatively large, i.e. it is closer to the value 0.03 than to the value 0.001 which represent the extremes set forth above. In any event, it will be understood that the centripetal wheel of a compressible fluid turbine is, according to this invention, so constructed as described above that losses originating in the region of compressible fluid inlet leading to the power producing portion or portions of the turbine are reduced, resulting in increased efficiency for the turbine assembly.
Although FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate a preferred embodiment wherein two inlets are employed, it will be appreciated that a greater or lesser number of inlets is contemplated.
The construction according to the present invention can be expected to yield approximately 8 percent relative average increase in efficiency as compared to the efficiency attained by a turbine constructed in accord with the aforesaid copending application.
I claim: I
1. In a turbine assembly adapted to be driven by pressurized compressible fluid, said turbine assembly being of the type having a casing and a rotor within said casings; said rotor having a centripetal wh wheel portion presenting a series of centripetal blades having paddlelike tips; said casing also having a a chamber presenting chamber paddlelike said blade tips and having an inlet portion with the cross section of said chamber tips of each blade when positioned to be within a plane normal to said extension of the axial centerline of said inlet portion terminates relative to said extension within a range extending from 0.10 d inwardly of said extension to 0.02 d outwardly of said extension, wherein d is the diameter of said wheel portion.
3. In the turbine assembly as defined in claim I wherein the velocity of said driving fluid issuing through said discharge mouth is in the order of one and one-half to three times I greater than the peripheral velocity of said blade tips.
decreasing from said inlet portion circumferentially around said casing; said inlet portion being connected at one end to a source of driving fluid and having a discharge mouth at its other end opening tangentially into said chamber, the improvement comprising:
the tip of each centripetal blade being of radial extent to terminate in the region of an extension of the axial centerline of said inlet portion when each blade tip is rotationally positioned to be within a plane normal to such extension, and regulating valve means in said inlet portion for reducing the pressure of the driving fluid within said inlet portion to produce a velocity of compressible driving fluid issuing through said discharge mouth into said chamber which is substantially greater than the peripheral velocity of said blade tips. 2. in the turbine assembly as defined in claim 1 wherein the 4. A turbine assembly adapted to be driven by pressurized compressible fluid, comprising in combination,
an elongate casing having radially inwardly rotor stator blades,
a rotor within said casing, said rotor having radially projecting blades cooperating with said stator blades to convert axial flow of the driving fluid into rotor rotation, said rotor also having a centripetal wheel portion, said wheel portion presenting a series of centripetal blades having paddle like tips and root portions for directing radially incoming fluid in axial direction within said casing toward said stator blades,
said casing having a circumferentially extending portion presenting a chamber receiving said blade tips, and said casmg also having an inlet portion leading tangentially into said chamber, the cross section of said chamber decreasing from said inlet portion circumferentially around said casing, said inlet portion being connected to a source of driving fluid and having a discharge mouth at its inner end opening into said chamber, said blade tips being of radial extent to terminate in the region of an extension of the axial centerline of said discharge mouth when each blade tip is rotationally positioned to be withing a plane normal of such extension,
and regulating valve means in said inlet portion for reducing the pressure of the driving fluid within said inlet portion to produce a velocity of compressible driving fluid issuing through said discharge mouth into said chamber which is substantially greater than the peripheral velocity of said blade tips.
5. In the turbine assembly as defined in claim 4 wherein the tips of each blade when positioned to be within a plane normal to said extension of the axial centerline of said inlet portion terminates relative to said extension within a range extending from 0.10 d inwardly of said extension to 0.02 d outwardly of said extension, wherein d is the diameter of said wheel portion.
6. in the turbine assembly as defined in claim 5 wherein the velocity of said driving fluid issuing through said discharge mouth is in the order of one and one-half to three times greater than the peripheral velocity of said blade tips.
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|U.S. Classification||415/159, 415/203, 415/103, 415/151|
|International Classification||F01D3/02, F01D9/02, F01D1/08, F01D1/00, F01D3/00|
|Cooperative Classification||F01D9/026, F01D3/025|
|European Classification||F01D3/02B, F01D9/02C|