US 3611648 A
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Efiilfii? Patented (Bet. 112, 119711 3,611,647 PROCESS FOR TREATING SURFACE OF PLYWODD David C. Davis, Aberdeen, Wash, assignor to Evans Products Company, Portland, Oreg. Filed Aug. 25, 1969, Ser. No. 852,618 Int. Cl. 3241b 1/00 US. Cl. SL-SZS 1 Claim "Mam wwwwwwwwwww AliSC'it OF THE DISCLOSURE Architectural finish is imparted to surface of plywood by abrading surface with rapidly moving abrasive gritcarrying flexible belt.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION An architecturally pleasing surface has been imparted to the surface of plywood by subjecting the panel to the abrading action of tools so as to form the appearance of a resawn surface on the plywood. Such surface is characterized by alternating ridges and channels which gives highlights and shadows that are of a pleasing nature in appearance.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a schematic elevation of apparatus for performing the method of the invention;
FIG. 2 is a plan view of the apparatus shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a plan view of a panel produced in accordance with the invention; and,
FIG. 4 is an enlarged section taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 3.
DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to the drawings, the apparatus for carrying out the method of the invention includes a belt sander apparatus including a conveyor for supporting a piece of plywood 12 in its approach to the position where the sanding operation will take place, and an off-bearing conveyor 14. Hold-down rolls in are also provided. A sanding belt 18 is trained over a drum 20 positioned so that the grit on the belt 18 engages the bottom surfaces of the panel 12 as it is carried over the drum on the conveyors Ill, 14. The belt 18 is driven by a roll 22 powered from a suitable motor 24- through a belt 26.
In the conventional sanding apparatus utilized in the manufacture of plywood, the drum 20 which supports the abrasive belt engaging the surface of the plywood is oscillated in a direction parallel to its axis of rotation. In contrast, in apparatus for performing the process of the invention, it is important that the: drum Ztl be not oscillated but instead be fixed so as to have no movement in the direction parallel to its axis.
The grit on the belt 18 should have a coarseness at; least as great as No. 12 grit, and preferably greater, such as No. 16, and the grit should be relatively widely spaced apart, that is, at random intervals of from one-quarter to one inch apart. i
In accordance with the method of the invention, a panel 12. is positioned on the conveyor 10 with the grain on the surface of the panel extending parallel to the axis of the drum 20. The panel 12 is then advanced in a direction perpendicular to its grain and perpendicular to the axis of the drum Ztl whereupon the grit on the belt 18 will remove material in the form of grooves and scratches 30 of irregular depth to impart an architecturally desirable surface to the panel.
In a typical process the panel is preferably advanced at a rate of about 28 feet per minute while the belt is driven with a drum speed of about 1200 r.p.m. with a drum diameter of 11 /8 inches. The surface is free of slivers and, therefore, is easily handled without injury to the handler and may also be easily painted or stained. Because of the uncomplicated nature of the equipment upon which the method may be performed, the panels may be handled by relatively unskilled operators in the course of performing the process of the invention.
Having illustrated and described a preferred embodiment of my invention, it is apparent that it permits of modification and arrangement in detail.
1. The method of producing an architectural finish upon the surface of a sheet of plywood which comprises moving a sheet of plywood horizontally in a direction at right angles to its grain while abrading said surface with a rapidly moving flexible belt carrying abrasive grit trained over a roll having its axis of rotation extending at right angles to the said direction of movement of said sheet, said grit being of a coarseness at least as great as No. 12 grit and being relatively widely spaced apart.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,932,692 10/1933 Hijo 51137 2,706,873 4/1955 Gifford 51-137 2,762,173 9/1956 Bottcher 5l-138 X 3,125,461 3/1964 Hoffmann 51-281 X 3,277,937 10/1966 Miles 144-l15 LESTER M. SWINGLE, Primary Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 51-139;144-115 IF. W. BARNETT FALLOUT SHELTER Oct. 12, 1971 6 Sheetsz-Sheet 1 Filed Nov. 22. 1967 Oct, 12, 19M F.=W. BARNETT FALLOUT SHELTER Filed Nov. 22. 1967 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 W EUWMW INVIzN'l'UK.
Frederic/r 0m. 12, WW PW. BARNETT FALLOUT SHELTER 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Nov. 22, 1967 f f m I W Hm W N .6 M d m F 0 w T T E N R A B w R Oct 12, 1971 R E T L E H S T U 0 L L A F 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Nov. 22, 1967 Fig. /2
F. W. BARNETT FALLOUT SHELTER Oct. 12, 1971 Filed Nov. 22, 1967 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Frederick M. Barrie/f IN Vii/\"FOK United States Patent 3,611,648 lFAlLLOUT SHELTER Frederick W. Barnett, Corpus Christi, Tex., assignor to Robert I. Sechrist and Joe J. Hall, Corpus Christi, Tex. Filed Nov. 22, 1967, Ser. No. 685,002 lint. Cl. E0419 1/345 US. Cl. 52-2 15 Claims ABSTRACT 015 THE DISCLOSURE Radiation protection construction involving the utilization of liquid inflated or solid particle filled flexible bags or envelopes which are formed so as to define an enclosed area, either stationary or movable, for the reception of persons, animals, materials, food, etc. The fluid or particle containing envelopes will be collapsible and of a quickly erecting nature. Frame-like supporting structures will normally be utilized in connection with the support of the envelopes, however support may also be achieved by exerting internal pressure on the envelope.
The instant invention relates to new and useful improvements in fallout or radiation shelters, and is more particularly concerned with shelters wherein protection is afforded by the provision of a fluid or particle barrier as a radiation excluding means.
It is a primary object of the present invention to provide a radiation barrier adaptable for utilization in a plurality of forms, including habitable shelters, storage shelters and mobile shelters In conjunction with the above object, it is also a. sig nificant object of the instant invention to provide an adaptable radiation barrier which can be selectively collapsed for storage purposes, in conjunction with being easily and quickly expanded for use should the need therefor arise.
Likewise, a significant object of the instant invention resides in the utilization of liquid, normally water, or solid particles, normally sand, as the radiation barring medium.
Basically, the instant invention provides for the utilization of a water containing envelope or bag as a radiation barrier with the liquid containing bag, either itself or in conjunction with similar bags, being arranged, normally upon a collapsible frame, to provide a protected enclosure, either in the nature of a stationary structure, or as a mobile unit. The bag or bags are readily inflated utilizing a conventional source of pressurized water, and are likewise capable of being deflated for storage purposes, thereby providing what may be considered a portable shelter adaptable for use in schools, homes, oflices or in fact any locale wherein the need for such a shelter might at one time arise, including military operations and defense plants.
Likewise, the instant invention also contemplates a similar shelter with the same advantages of protection by mass which would be filled with solids such as sand or other particled solids such as lead pellets. These would feed into the envelope shelter preferably by gravity from storage above, a second floor closet or attic space for example. The envelope itself would be structurally compartmented and either supported by a structural frame similar to the fiuidsystem or suspended by cables.
These together with other objects and advantages which will become subsequently apparent reside in the details of construction and operation as more fully hereinafter described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, wherein like numerals refer to like parts throughout, and in which:
a rim FIG. 1 illustrates a tent-like radiation shelter constructed in accordance with the instant invention;
FIG. 2 is an enlarged perspective view of the collapsible supporting framework associated with the structure of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an enlarged partial cross-sectional view taken generally on a plane passing along line 3-3 in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is an exploded perspective detail illustrating the barrier mounting construction of the structure of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional detail taken substantially upon a plane passing along line 55 in FIG. 2;
FIG 6 is a partial exploded perspective view of the elements of the supporting frame;
FIG. 7 is an enlarged cross-sectional detail taken substantially on a plane passing along line 7-7 in FIG. 2 and illustrating the mounting structure for the liquid barrier;
FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a second embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 9 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken substantially on a plane passing along line 9-9 in FIG. 8;
FIG. 10 is a transverse cross-sectional view taken substantially on a plane passing along line 1.01tl in FIG. 9;
FIG. 11 is a perspective view of a mobile embodiment of the invention;
FIG. 12 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken substantially upon a plane passing along line 12-12 of FIG. 1 1;
FIG. 13 is :a cross-sectional view taken substantially on a plane passing along line 13-13 in FIG. 12;
FIG. 14 is an enlarged cross-sectional view of the solid particle shelter envelope illustrating a cable suspension system therefor and an associated filling means;
FIG. 15 is a cross-sectional view taken substantially on a plane passing along line 1515 in FIG. 14; and
FIG. 16 is a cross-sectional detail illustrating the particle envelope in association with a supporting frame.
Referring now more specifically to the drawings, reference numeral 20 is used to generally designate a fallout or radiation shelter. The actual radiation excluding means of the structure or shelter 20 comprises a plurality of flexible water impervious plastic or fabric envelopes or bags 22, filled with an appropriate liquid 24, normally water. Each of the filled envelopes 22 is of sufficient thickness so as to provide a positive barrier to the passage of radiation.
With particular reference to FIG. 3, it will be noted that each envelope 22 includes laterally spaced parallel inner and outer panels 26 and 28 interconnected by full width diagonal and transverse bracing panels 30 and 32, secured thereto in any suitable manner, such as by sewing, heat welding or the like. These bracing panels 30 and 32,, in conjunction with transverse top and bottom panels, as well as end panels, act so as to retain the inflated envelope 22 in a generally rectangular configuration as illustrated upon an inflation thereof through the introduction of an appropriate liquid 24. The actual inflation of each of the envelopes 22 will in most instances be effected by means of the introduction of water, from any conventional pressurized source, into the lower end of the envelope 22 through an appropriate hose line 34 communicated with the interior with the lower end of the envelope 22 and including an appropriate check valve means 35. The water 24, upon being introduced into the envelope, travels through and fills the internal chambers 36, defined by the bracing panels or partitions 30 and 32, through flap covered access ports 38, the flaps 40 thereof overlying the port and acting in the manner of one-way valves whereby any air entrained within the envelope 20 will be continuously discharged upward for ultimate discharge through a vented outlet 42 associated with each envelope or bag 22. The flaps 40 will prevent a return flow of the introduced water 24 should one of the lower chambers break or otherwise lose the water contained therein. Incidentally, in the light of the utilization of diagonal partitions between adjacent transverse partitions 32, it will be appreciated that the loss of liquid in either of the two chambers 36 defined by a. single diagonal partition :30, will still leave one liquid barrier in tact. In FIG. 1, it will be noted that the structure or shelter 20 actually includes four of the water filled envelope barriers, two constituting opposing inclined side walls 44 and two constituting generally triangularly shaped end walls 46. The walls 44 and 46 are mounted on an internal supporting framework 48 and are releasably interconnected through a series of flaps 50 mounted on selected ones of the walls and carrying snap fasteners or the like 52 for engagement with mating elements on the adjacent Walls. As will be appreciated from FIG. 1, one of said snap fastener bearing flaps is secured to the top panel of one of the side walls 44, extending along the full length thereof, for snap engagement with the upper panel of the adjacent inclined side wall 44, as well as the top panels of the two end walls 46. In addition, flaps are provided at spaced points along each edge of each of the side Walls 44 for releasable engagement with the edge of side panels of the two end walls 46.
The supporting frame associated with the structure 20 includes a plurality of laterally spaced collapsible triangular units 54, each including a pair of upwardly converging side angle beams 56 pivotally interconnected, as at 58, at the apex end of the units 54 and similarly pivotally connected, as indicated by reference numeral 60 at the lower ends thereof, to the opposite ends of a transverse bottom beam 62. The bottom beam 62 actually comprises two portions 64 pivotally interconnected at a mid-point 66 in the vertical plane of the pivotally interconnected apex whereby a folding of the unit 54 in the manner suggested in phantom lines in FIG. 2 is possible.
In forming the frame 48, a plurality of the units 54 are arranged in laterally spaced aligned relation with each other in of course their expanded position, and are rigidly interlocked by both a top or ridge beam 68 and by floor beams 70 which form a part of the floor unit 72. In order to mount the ridge beam 68, which is in the nature of a downwardly opening channel bar, the upper end of one of the side beams 56 associated with each unit 54 includes a laterally directed rigid apertured lug 74 which receives a mounting bolt 76 extended through a bolt receiving aperture 78 in the web of the ridge beam, the lug aperture 74 either being internally threaded for the reception of the associated bolt 76 or a suitable lock nut being utilized. The floor beams 70, which can comprise wooden beams to which the plywood deck or floor panel 80 is rigidly affixed, will each include a series of notches 82 therein for the snug reception of the vertical flanges 84 of the two sections 64 of each bottom beam 62, this stabilizing and properly positioning the bottoms of the units 54 relative to each other just as the upper ends thereof are stabilized and properly orientated by bolted engagement to the ridge beam 68. Further stability can be introduced utilizing releasable turnbuckle tensioning cables 86 extending diagonally, in both directions, across the inner faces of both the left and right groups of side beams 56 as will be readily apparent from FIG. 2.
Each of the side beams 56, constructed of an angle bar as noted previously, includes an outwardly directed flange 88 which have a series of mounting notches 90 extending inwardly from the outer edge. The series of notches 90 in each side beam 56 along a corresponding side of the structure 20 are in longitudinal alignment with similar notches in the remaining side beams 56 with each aligned set of notches 90 receiving an elongated mounting rod 92 seated therein and retained by upstanding retaining lips 94 associated with each recess '90. Each of the rods 92 has downturned opposite ends 96 which engage behind the endmost beam flanges 88 so as to prevent a longitudinal sliding of the rod 92. These rods 92 are utilized in the mounting of the liquid containing bags or envelopes 22 on what might be called the side walls of the frame. Each rod 92 receives thereover a downwardly opening generally channel-shaped mounting bar 98, the inner flange 100 of the bar 98 being received between the corresponding rod and the back walls of the notches 90' and the outer flange 102 of the bar 98 being positioned over and engaged with the forward edges of the side beam flanges 88, while the retaining lips bear against the web of the bar 98. The outer flange 102 of each mounting bar 98 includes a series of mounting hooks 104 thereon at longitudinally spaced points therealong, these hooks in turn being received through mounting flaps 106 on the bottom panel 26 of the corresponding liquid envelope 22, which flaps, if so desired, may be located in a slightly recessed portion formed in the rear or bottom panel 26 as suggested in FIGS. 4 and 7. With this arrangement, the envelope 22 can be conveniently mounted by individually attaching the mounting bars 98 to the bag by an engagement of the hooks 104 with the apertured flaps 106, and subsequently slipping each mounting bar 98 over the corresponding mounting rod 92 therefor.
With reference to FIG. 3 it will be noted that the two bags 22 forming the side walls 44 have upper ends of a configuration so as to form a pair of smooth abutting surfaces 108, with the lower ends thereof formed so as to seat flat on and be secured in any appropriate manner to a supporting surface, this, in the illustrated embodiment, comrising wooden planks or beams 110, slotted as at 112 so as to allow for introduction of air into the structure. With continued reference to FIG. 3, it will be noted that the floor beams 72 can also include air flow passages 114 therethrough with the air discharging upwardly through apertures 116 provided in the floor panel for subsequent exiting through a suitable shielded vent 118 provided through one of the barrier forming liquid envelopes 22 adjacent the upper end thereof.
There has been defined a collapsible radiation shelter which utilizes, as the barrier medium, water or other readily available liquids which can be introduced under pressure into enlarged wall defining envelopes hung on a selectively collapsible and erectable frame. Incidentally, it is preferred that the material of the envelope be transparent in nature which, while not detracting from the radiation protection provided, will allow for the introduction of a substantial amount of light, thus reducing the necessity for artificial light. With regard to access into the erected structure 20, it is contemplated that one of the end walls 46 be provided with a narrow access slit 119 through which a person can in effect force himself due to the flexible nature of the liquid containing bag which comprises the end wall 46. In addition, this access slot 119 will be protected by a suitable lead impregnated flap 120.
At this point attention is particularly directed to FIGS. 14, 15 and 16, wherein a form of the basic invention particularly adapted for the reception of solid particles has been illustrated. In this form, the envelope 21 which may have the same basic external configuration as that illustrated in FIG. 1, is compartmented into a series of vertical tubular chambers 23, preferably formed in three banks as suggested in the cross-section view of FIG. 15. The individual tubular chambers 23 all communicate, at the upper end of the shelter, with an enlarged filler tube portion 25 which in turn is in direct communication with an overhead storage compartment 27. This storage compartment 27 can be in the nature of an enlarged closet or the like located on the floor immediately above the room within the shelter or envelope 21 is to be erected, with the flow of the solid particle barrier material being selectively controlled through a suitable readily operable gate construction 29.
The envelope 21 will preferably be collapsible in nature with the peripheral base thereof fixed to a supporting