Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.


  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS3611650 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 12, 1971
Filing dateMay 12, 1969
Priority dateMay 12, 1969
Publication numberUS 3611650 A, US 3611650A, US-A-3611650, US3611650 A, US3611650A
InventorsHorvath Louis W
Original AssigneeHorvath Louis W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Prefabricated structure for shelter or storage
US 3611650 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 12, 1971 L. w. HORVATH 3,611,650


LOUIS W. HORVATH m" ATT'YS Oct. 12, 1971 L. w. HORVATH 3,611,650

PREFABRICATED STRUCTURE FOR SHELTER OR STORAGE Filed May 12, 1969 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 4 52 21 FIG. 5 1' 25 f 33 J. 3! 3 39 T 32 4 38 J FIG. IO

2 l l lO5 74 H '08 l II 6 9 LOUIS W. HORVATH flmwm www ATT'YS Oct. 12, 1971 w. HORVATH 3,611,650

PREFABRICATED STRUCTURE FOR SHELTER 0R STORAGE Filed May 12, 1969 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 8 FIG? 9| J L all i INVIL'N'I ()R' LO UIS W. HORVATH m' ATT'YS United States Paten 3,611,650 PREFABRTCATED STRUCTURE FOR SHELTER OlR STORAGE Louis W. Horvath, 4304 Choctaw Circle Huntsville, Ala. 35801 lFiled May 12, 1969, Ser. No. 823,621 llnt. Cl. E04c 1/30 US. CI. 52-90 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Shelter or storage space is provided by a prefabricated structure which is easily erected without the need for field fabrication and simply dismantled; yet the structure is strong and highly resistant to wind forces, etc. The roof and side walls are formed from individual panels of aluminum sheet material which are provided about their periphery with extruded male connecting strips having a connection flange extending longitudinally of each strip. The superstructure is formed by means of interconnected tubular members which carry extruded female strips with elongated U-shaped channels for receiving the connection flange of the male extruded strips substantially along their respective lengths. The U-shaped receptacles are provided with apertures which align with corresponding apertures in the connection flanges of the male connecting strips. Lock pins are inserted through each set of aligned apertures; and the pins are held in place by removable retainer members for easy disassembly. The structure is secured to the ground by re-useable footings resembling a paddle-wheel in horizontal cross section.

BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY The present invention relates to an easily-erected, prefabricated, all-aluminum shelter which may be insulated, if desired.

A portable hangar for aircraft which has structural stability when erected, yet is easily disassembled for storage or movement is disclosed in my Pat. No. 3,270,755 entitled Portable Hangar. When erected, the enclosure is stabilized against wind forces by means of guy wires secured to tie-down castings. My Pat. No. 3,389,514 for Tubular Frame Shelter, issued June 25, 1968, discloses a tubular frame superstructure consisting of a number of tubular members, adjacent ones of which are connected at their ends to define side wall supports and roof trusses. Four tubular members are connected at each truss corner by integral fittings having four separate receptacles-one for each of the tubes. A similar connection is provided for the four tubular members which define the truss ridge. The tubular members are secured in their respective fittings by pins which extend through aligned openings in the tubular members and the fittings.

The present invention represents an improved easilyerected, prefabicated shelter which requires no fabrication in the field and is more easily disassembled for storage or movement, yet which will more readily withstand higher forces produced by incident winds and rough weather.

As is known, a building may be designed to withstand the loading caused by a wind in a number of different ways. In one structure the load-bearing members are vertical columns spaced-apart about the periphery of the building, cross braces may be provided between adjacent columns so that incident wind forces are transmitted either directly to the vertical columns or to the cross braces, to the columns and then to the footing.

A second known type of wind-loaded structure uses an integral side walls so that each wall member (which may be a sheet of material) acts as a diaphragm. An incident wind causes the diaphragm to flex thereby transmitting a stress force to the periphery of the sheet material. Along the ground periphery, the force is transmitted to the foundation or other footing. The stress forces which are transmitted to the other peripheries of the wall panel (namely, the vertical edges and the upper horizontal edges if the panel is rectangular) are transmitted to adjacent panels which have a perpendicular orientation and thence to the footings. Thus, the forces transmitted through the perpendicularly-oriented panels are transmitted to the ground eventually. This provides a very rigid box parallel to the wind direction (or a component of the wind vector). Obviously, any given wind can be broken up into orthogonal components and the same result would be effected for each of the two orthogonal components by perpendicular building wall sections.

It is desirable from the standpoint of rigidity and stability to have a shelter or other storage structure exhibit the above-described diaphragm effect-namely, that of having sufficiently rigid wall panels to transmit the force of incident wind via stresses of the wall panel to its periphery and from there, either directly into the footings or to perpendicularly-oriented panels from which the force is ultimately coupled to the footings. This effect may be combined with the other design wherein vertical column members are also employed; and in a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is such a combination.

The provision of a true diaphragm is easy if one employs a solid continuous material for covering-such as a heavy corrugated metal sheet material. But this complicates site fabrication of the shelter in some cases. That is to say, fabrication and dismantling is facilitated with panels, but the use of panels heretofore has made it difficult to form a wall structure that acts like a rigid diaphragm in resisting winds.

The present invention provides for a portable, easilyerected prefabricated structure for shelter or storage wherein the wall and roof panels are formed in modular sections which are easily assembled or disassembled. When in an assembled state, the walls form a rigid structure so as to act as a diaphragm in the transmission of incident wind forces. Each of the modular panels is essentially rectangular in form (some panels are aligned to conform to the roof and or side walls pitch contour) and it is provided about its periphery with a male panel connector which is a strip of extruded metal having a first flat, elongated piece to which a face panel of aluminum sheet metal is secured, an elongated flange member extending perpendicularly of the panel-receiving strip, and a second strip parallel to the flange and located at the interior edge of the panel-receiving strip for containing insulation foamed onto the panel, if such is used.

These male panel extruded connecting strips on opposing sides of a panel form mirror images; and adjacent panel connecting extrusions are joined and locked together by means of an elongated, female panel connecting strips which define a channel receptacle for receiving the flange of the male panel connecting extrusion. Each female panel connecting extrusion is joined to two adjacent male panel connector strips by means of removable lock pins to form an integral, rigid structure of the two adjacent panels along the joint between them.

Roof panels are joined to adjacent roof panels and to side wall panels in a similar fashion; and roof panels on one side of the A'shaped roof are connected along the ridge to roof panels on the other side of the structure by the same method.

In a preferred embodiment, a unique, re-useable footing is used as a support for the structure and to anchor the same to the ground. Other features and advantages of the present invention will be apparent to persons skilled in the art from the following detailed description of a preferred embodiment accompanied by the attached drawing wherein identical reference numerals will refer to like parts in the various views.

THE DRAWING FIGS. 1-3 are respectively rear, side, and front elevation views of a completed structure incorporating features of the present invention;

FIG. 4 is an interior view of a wall or roof panel;

FIG. 5 is a horizontal cross section view of the connection of two corner panels;

FIG. 6 is a vertical cross section view of the interconnection between two panels forming the ridge of the roof;

FIG. 7 is a horizontal cross section view of the interconnection between two adjacent panels extending in the same plane;

FIG. 8 is a side view of the connection shown in FIG. 7;

FIG. 9 is a vertical cross section view of a side panel as it rests on the ground;

FIG. 10 is a partially broken away vertical elevational view of a preferred footing of the inventive structure; and

FIG. 11 is a horizontal cross section view of the footing of FIG. 10.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION FIGS. 1-3 show the exterior of an assembled, prefabricated shelter or structure, generally designated 10, incorporating the principles of the present invention. In FIG. 1, the panels forming the back wall are designated by reference numeral 11 with the joint between adjacent of the panels 11 covered by the strip of aluminum sealing tape designated 12. The left side of the structure is generally designated 10a and the right side is generally designated 10b. The roof which has a broad A-shape; and it includes a first inclined side 10c and a second inclined side 10d. The left side 10a of the structure is shown in FIG. 2 as comprising additional panels 11 with the joints again covered by a strip of aluminum sealing tape 12. The panels for the roof are identical and also identified by reference numeral 11, the juncture between adjacent roof panels also being sealed with aluminum tape 12.

The front of the structure, shown in FIG. 3, is similar in elevation view to the rear as shown in FIG. 1 except that a door opening generally designated by reference numeral 10a is provided. However, aluminum panels 11 form the nonmovable wall portions of the front of the structure.

In a preferred embodiment, the basic framing plan includes an end-connected frame of tubular members as is disclosed in the above-described Pat. No. 3,389,514. Although in plan view, the structure there had a T-shape; nevertheless, the formation of the roof trusses and vertical framing columns may be the same as shown there. For example, with the illustrated embodiment wherein an endto-end ground dimension for the rear elevation of FIG. 1 might be 33'8", there would be five approximately equally spaced apart tubes extending in a vertical direction and linked together to form a rigid frame at their top and bottom ends. The center tubes are shown schematically by indicating their vertical center lines as the chain lines 13. The side tubular framing members are designated 13a. Four such vertical tubular columns form the basic framing for the front wall of the structure (center lines designated 14 in FIG. 3); and four tubular columns 15 form the basic framing for each of the side walls. The front and rear walls are preferably cross-braced as shown for additional support.

The four tubular columns bracing each side wall are intermediate the front and back ends of each side wall to form five separated spaces over which the panels are extended. There are no supporting tubular columns at the corners of the building; rather, the corners of the building are formed by angle irons which are supported by weldments (see 16 in FIG. 1) to the vertical column at either edge of the front and side wall frames. Thus, for this structure there are a total of six roof trusses, the front and rear trusses being supported respectively by the front and rear vertical framing sections and the four intermediate trusses being supported by the four intermediate tubular columns in the side walls. Again, the trusses are preferably made of a tubular construction similar to the one shown in the latter of the above-described patents.

Turning now to FIG. 4, there is shown a detailed construction for a typical individual panel section as viewed from the inside as it is intended to be placed on a structure. The panel contains a solid sheet of aluminum generally designated by reference numeral 20 which is rectangular in shape. It will be appreciated that the length and width of the sheet 20 is any convenient 'value. A male connecting strip of extruded aluminum is formed about the entire perimeter of the sheet 20 and secured thereto by means of a high strength modified epoxy adhesive widely used in the aircraft industry. The panels covering the superstructure have a normal width of 4 feet and a length, depending upon the intended use, of up to 13 feet. Preferably, the sheet material is an aluminum sheet having a thickness of 0.25 inch and may be stucco embossed on its exterior surface.

The male connecting strip or frame of extruded aluminum includes a lower section designated 21, a left side 22, an upper side 23, and a right side 24 in FIG. 4. In cross section, each of the framing members 2124 is similar except that the cross section view of a framing member on one side of the panel is a mirror image relative to the cross section of the framing member on the opposing side. That is, a horizontal cross section view of the frame member 22 is the mirror image of the cross section of the section 24. The surface panel may extend slightly beyond the frames in order to make a better joint, as will be made clear herein. This cross sectional shape will presently be described in detail.

A plurality of horizontally oriented, vertically-spacedapart aluminum bars 25 extend between the side framing members 22 and 24 to add support and rigidity to the aluminum sheet 20. Preferably, the interior of the sheet 20 is sprayed with a one-inch thick layer of rigid, high strength, closed-cell urethane plastic foam having a density of about 2.2 lbs./ft. and a K factor of 0.11 to 0.14. The foam, in addition to adding supporting strength to the aluminum covering panel provides an excellent insulation for the structure.

Turning now to FIG. 5, the panel 19 is shown as the upper panel which extends across the width of the page; and the aluminum sheet is again designated 20, the urethane foam is designated 26, and the left-side extruded framing member is generally designated 22. In this vertical cross section looking down, the extruded aluminum framing member 22 is seen to have the general cross sectional shape of an F, including a back strip 27 to which the panel 20 is bonded, a top strip 28 extending at right angles to the back strip 27 at its upper edge and confining the foam 26 and a second flange or strip 29 perpendicular to the strip 27 and spaced from the top strip 28. The distal edge of the top strip 28 is formed at a right angle away from the flange strip 29 as at 28a for further confining the sprayed foam 26.

FIG. 5 is, of course, a horizontal cross section of a corner of the structure of FIG. 1; and the rear panel which is perpendicular to the side panel 19 is generally designated by reference numeral 30. It is similar to the panel illustrated in FIG. 4thus including an exterior sheath of aluminum 31, a layer of urethane foam 32 and a side extruded frame member generally designated 33.

The cross sectional shape of the extruded framing member 33 shown in FIG. 5 would be the same shape as a horizontal cross section view of the framing member 24 in FIG. 4 looking in a downward direction, as previously explained. The extruded framing strip 33 includes: a back strip 34, similar to the previously-described back strip 27, for receiving the aluminum panel 33; a top or inner strip 35 having a right-angle end portion 35a for confining the foam 32; and an intermediate flange strip 36 similar to the flange strip 29 of the extruded framing member 32.

An aluminum angle iron generally designated 38 and including first and second perpendicularly-oriented flanges 39 and 40 forms a corner brace for the structure; and it extends substantially the entire length of a corner. Secured to it by means of bolts 41 is a female extruded connecting strip 42 which includes first and second perpendicularly-disposed flange strips 43 and 44 for engaging respectively the outer surfaces of the flange strips 39 and 40 of the angle iron 38. It is these flange strips 43 and 44 of the female connecting frame 42 that are secured to the angle iron by means of the bolts 41. At the corner of the female connecting strip 42 are first and second elongated channels generally designated respectively 46 and 47 for receiving respectively the connector flange 36 of the male connector strip 33 and the connector flange 29 of the male connecting strip 22.

The U-shaped channel 46 includes a number of transverse apertures in each of the channel sides which are aligned and which permit attachment to the panel 30 by means of similar aligned apertures in the connector flange 36 of the male connecting strip 33. A smooth lock bolt or pin 49 fits through aligned apertures to secure the panel 30 to the female connecting strip 42 and, thus, to the angle iron 38. A similar lock pin 50 secures the male extruded connecting strip 32 to the flange 40 of the angle iron 38. The bolts 49 and 50 are held in place by means of a vertically-extending thin aluminum retaining member 51 having perpendicular flanges for engaging respectively the heads of the bolts 49 and 50 and holding the same in place. The distal edges of the angle iron 51 are prevented from being moved by means of the aprons of the panels 31 and 20 extending slightly beyond the framing members. Hence, the angle iron 50 may be removed only by vertically displacing it; and the retainer 50 functions as a light weight, removable retainer means for holding the lock pins securely in place. Weather scaling is accomplished by merely rolling over the joints a pressuresensitive aluminum foil tape marketed under the name of Tedlar and manufactured by Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company of Minneapolis. The tape is designated 52 in FIG. 5.

Turning now to FIG. 6 there is shown in vertical cross section, the interconnection between roof panels along the ridge of the structure. A tubular ridge member is designated 55; and secured to it is a ridge casting 56 to which is secured by means of a bolt 57 a female ridge extruded connecting strip 59. The ridge female connecting strip includes left and right side U-shaped channel receptacles generally designated 60 and 61 respectively which are angularly oriented relative to each other so that each channel extends generally perpendicular to the roof of the panels which are designated 62 and 63. A male extruded connecting strip 64 associated with the panel 62 includes a connector flange 65 which fits into the U- shaped channel receptacle 60 for attachment thereto by means of a pin 66, as previously described. Similarly, a male extruded connecting strip 68 includes a connector flange 69 which fits into the channel receptacle 61 and is secured thereto by means of pins 70. An aluminum retainer strip 73 having a generally inverted U-shape holds the pins 66 and 70 in place; and the joint between the aprons of panels 62 and 63 is covered with tape 74.

The juncture between a side panel and a roof panel (that is, along an eave) is similar to the connection shown in FIG. 6 except that, of course, the female extruded connector strip defines a greater angle between its two U- shaped channel receptacles because the angle between the side panel and the roof panel is greater than the angle formed by roof panels along the ridge.

In FIG. 7 there is shown a connector formation between adjacent panels wherein the panels extend in the same plane. The left and right hand panels are designated respectively by reference numerals 77 and 70, The panel 77 is provided with a male extrusion connecting strip 79; and the panel 78 is provided with a male connecting strip 80 which is the mirror image of the strip 79, as illustrated. A base casting 81 is fitted around a tubular frame member 82 which extends in a horizontal direction as seen in FIG. 2, along the base of the structure. Secured to the base casting 81 by means of a bolt 84 is a straight panel extrusion connector 85 having left and right side U-shaped channel receptacles similar to the ones previously described and designated 86 and 87 respectively. The channel 86 receives the connector flange of the male connecting strip 79; and the channel receptacle 87 receives the connector flange of the male connecting strip 80 of the panel 78. The straight connector strip 85 is then secured to the panels 77 and 78 by means of pins 89; and an inverted U-shaped retainer member 90 holds the pins 89 in place. A tape 91 covers the joint between the aluminum face sheets for the panels 77 and 78 as illustrated.

The base connector 81 is seen in side view in FIG. 8; and it comprises a hub 81a which is fitted about the tubular member 82, a flange 81b for attachment to the vertically-extending straight strip connector 85, and braces 81c (only one of which is seen) for supporting the flange 81b on the hub 81a.

Referring now to FIGS. 9, l0 and 11, a preferred method for securing the above-described shelter to the ground will be described. In FIG. 9, a vertical back panel is designated generally by reference numeral 93; and it is received in a bottom extrusion generally designated 94 and adapted to be set on the grade about the periphery of the structure. The bottom extrusion 94 includes a gen erally horizontal plate member 95, an intermediate, upstanding flange 96 and an outer flange 97. The upstanding flanges 96 and 97 cooperate to define a horizontal channel for receiving the vertical back panel 93; and a strip of sealing tape 98 covers the joint between the surface sheet of the panel 93 and the outer flange 97 Inward of the flange 96, a connector 99 is secured to a footing and anchorage by means of a vertically-extending anchor bolt 100, nut 101 and washer 102. The connector 99 defines a socket 103 for receiving a tubular frame member 104 which runs along the lower corner of the back wall above the inwardly-projecting flange portion of the base plate of the ground extrusion 94.

Turning particularly now to FIGS. 10 and 11, structure is shown for anchoring the shelter to the ground. As mentioned above, the base extrusion 94 is held down by means of a connector 99 through which a vertical anchor bolt extends. The threaded anchor bolt 100 is secured at least five feet below ground level in an anchor 104.

Secured to the anchor bolt 100 just beneath the surface level is a paddle-shaped footing 105. Further details regarding the anchorage method may be found in the lastidentified patent, but the paddle-wheel footing 105 represents an improvement over the method illustrated therein that this footing permits easy assembly, removal and reuse of the entire anchorage. The anchor bolt 100 is threaded over an extended area of its top portion 80 as to receive a second bolt 106 and washer 107 beneath the footing 105 to adjust its vertical location. In plan view, the paddle Wheel 105 includes a Y-shaped upper plate 108 and a lower, similarly-shaped bottom plate 109. Referring to FIG. 11, three radially-extending ribs 110, 111, and 112 extend from a central hub 113 outwardly of each of the three branches of the Y shape and provide a ribbing between the upper plate 108 and lower plate 109. A second set of three ribs including members 114, 115, and 116 extend transverse respectively of the ribs 110, 111, and 1 12 at the distal ends of the branches of the Y. The hub 113 defines an aperture 113a for receiving the anchor bolt 100; and the connector 99 rests on the upper surface of the top plate 108 at grade level.

Having thus described in detail a preferred embodiment of the inventive prefabricated structure, it will be appreciated that the structure is easily assembled with a minimum of field fabrication; and that it comprises lightweight, rust proof elements which combine to provide a strong, durable shelter or storage place. Further, the side panels are easily separated from each other, yet, when connected together and forming part of the structure, these panels and their interconnection are rigid enough to form a unitary wall surface which acts like a diaphragm in resisting incident winds. Further, with the cross bracing, a combined effect of a diaphragm together with column bracing is achieved.

It will be apparent to persons skilled in the art that certain modifications may be made to the detailed embodiment shown while continuing to practice the inventive principle; and it is, therefore, intended that all such modifications or substitutions be covered as they are embraced within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

1. In a prefabricated structure including a skeletal framework of column members, the improvement comprising: a plurality of panels for providing the walls and roof of said structure, each panel including a continuous surface sheet and a first extrusion member attached to the back of said surface sheet and having a first connector means extending along the edges thereof which are to be connected to said frame, a second extrusion member, adapted to be attached to said column members and having a pair of second connector means for receiving and interlacing with a pair of said first connector means of adjacent panels, one of said first or second connector means defining an elongated channel extending parallel to the edge of an assembled panel and the other having a flange for extending into a channel of said one connector means, both of said connector means providing a plurality of aligned holes, the axes of which extend parallel to an associated sheet; a plurality of pins with head flanges for slidably fitting through aligned apertures in both of said connector means with the head flanges of pins for adjacent panels in opposing relation; and elongated retainer mem bers removeably received between the pair of second connector means on said second extrusion member for engaging the head flanges of opposing pins and preventing the dislodgement of said pins.

2. The structure of claim 1 wherein said first extrusion member on said surface sheet includes a male connector having a first elongated portion bonded to said sheet and a connector flange extending inwardly thereof and away from said sheet, and wherein said second extrusion member includes a pair of female connectors each comprising a channel receptacle for receiving the connecting flanges of the male connectors of adjacent panels, each of said connector flanges and receiving channels being provided with aligned holes for receiving pins, and said female connectors being spaced-apart to receive therebetween an elongated retainer member.

3. The structure of claim 2 characterized in that when said panels are interconnected to form walls and a roof, said walls and roof form a rigid structure and act as a diaphragm in transmitting incident wind forces to the ground and to perpendicularly-oriented skeletal column members.

4. The structure of claim 2 wherein each of said panels further comprises an insulating foam interior of said sheet and within the associated male connectors arranged about the periphery of said sheet, each sheet further including a plurality of spaced-apart aluminum ribs extending the width of said panel and between male connector members.

5. The structure of claim 2 wherein said skeletal frame means comprises an aluminum angle iron at each corner defining said structure, a female connector strip extending longitudinally of each angle iron and defining first and second channel receptacles for receiving connector flanges of perpendicularly-oriented side panel members, and means securing said receptacle means to said aluminum angle.

6. The structure of claim 5 further comprising lock pin means for securing said connector flanges to said channel receptacles by fitting through aligned apertures in each, and angle retainer means having first and second perpendicular flanges for engaging respectviely the pins associated with each of said connector flanges for holding the same in place, the face sheets of said panels extending beyond their associated framing strips for retaining said retainer means.

7. The structure of claim 2 further comprising a tubular ridge pole forming the ridge of said structure, a plurality of ridge castings secured to said ridge pole, a female connecting strip attached to said castings and providing first and second angularly oriented receptacle means for receiving respectively first and second connector flanges of roof panels on opposing sides'of said ridge, and tape means covering the joint between said panels.

8. The structure of claim 7 further comprising a plurality of lock pins securing said connector flanges within their associated receptacles, an inverted U-shaped retainer means for retaining said pins in their assembled condition, whereby when said retainer means is removed, said pins may be slipped from their associated flanges.

References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,471,917 5/1949 Wilson 52483 X 3,307,306 3/1967 Oliver 52173 2,427,937 9/1947 Willson 52495 X 2,781,109 2/1957 Mernmler 52-495 X 2,832,445 4/ 1958 Burgin 5290 X 2,862,254 12/1958 Meek 52588 X 3,143,939 8/1964 Gregoire 52588 X 3,270,755 9/ 1966 Horvath -1 3,304,682 2/ 1967 De Moustier 52475 3,376,676 4/1968 Tateuossian 5290 3,389,514 6/1968 Horvath 52-90 3,479,784 11/1969 Massagli 52309 X FOREIGN PATENTS 6712860 3/ 1968 Netherlands 5257 FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner S. D. BURKE, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R. 52281, 499, 588

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3982364 *Aug 23, 1974Sep 28, 1976Spaceair Products, Inc.Prefabricated support and floor system for building
U.S. Classification52/91.3, 52/762, 52/281
International ClassificationE04C2/38, E04B1/343, E04B1/24
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2001/2481, E04B2001/2466, E04B1/34326, E04B2001/249, E04B2001/2463, E04B1/24, E04C2/384
European ClassificationE04C2/38C, E04B1/24, E04B1/343C2