US 3612609 A
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United States Patent Inventor Josei Reuls Kt. Bern, Switzerland Appl. No. 838,810 Filed July 3, 1969 Patented Oct. 12, 1971 Assignee Hydrel A.G. Maschineniabrik Romanshorn, Switzerland Priority July 9, 1968 Switzerland 10504/68 DEVICE FOR THE DEMOLISHING AND REMOVAL OF EARTHWORK 7 Claims, 9 Drawing Figs.
US. Cl 299/33, 299/67, 299/72 Int. Cl E0lg 31/03 Field of Search 299/31, 33,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,987,982 1/1935 Wheeler 299/67 X 2,606,013 8/1952 Acker 299/67 3,032,325 5/1962 Peterson 299/67 3,332,721 7/1967 Samoilov et al. 299/31 X 3,404,920 10/1968 Tabor 299/3l 3,506,310 4/1970 Gruere 299/33 X Primary Examiner-Emest R. Purser Attorney-Karl F. Ross ABSTRACT: A soil excavator includes a framework supporting a tubular boom for universal motion, a shovel being rotatably and extensibly carried on the free end of a nest of telescoped tubes lodged in the boom. The framework may be anchored to a concrete shell introduced into the tunnel wall behind an advancing cutter shield.
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SHEU 7 UF 7 ATTORNEY removal of soil, in particular for tube-advancing and gallery 7 construction.
In machines known heretofore for the excavation and handling of soil in the case of subterranean and shield-advancing installations, the disintegration tool generally performs a rotary cutting movement. These rotating and cutting tools, however, ensure satisfactory work only in fine earth, free from stones. If such machines are worked in stony, variable and damp earthwork, their capacity falls rapidly, so that it is preferable to excavate by hand.
The invention has for its object the provision of means for the rational disintegration and handling of any kind of soil. For this purpose, according to the invention, the shaft or stem of an excavating shovel is rotatably and longitudinally displaceably carried in a boom or jib which is suspended by a universal joint and capable of swinging to any side by means of servomotors. Further,according to the invention, the shaft or stem of the excavating shovel works together with a servomotor for its advance, as well as together with another servomotor for deviating or tipping the excavating shovel about an axis extending transversely to the direction of excavation, while between jib and shovel stem there is arranged a motor-driven gear by means of which the excavating shovel and stem can be transposed in turning about the stem axis.
The jib of the excavating device is preferably arranged on an undercarriage which is equipped with a conveyor belt for carrying off the removed soil, a chute being fitted on the front end of the conveyor belt.
Normally the framework carrying the extensible and cmnidirectionally swingable shovel is disposed behind an advancing tubular cutter shield, this framework being advantageously fitted with rollers, as well as with anchoring elements by means of which the device can be immobilized in a concrete tube thrust into the tunnel in the wake of the advancing cutter.
The accompanying drawing shows by way of example two embodiments of my invention; In the drawing;
FIGS. 1 and 1A togethershow a side view of a disintegrating or removing device according to the first embodiment, with some parts in axial section;
FIGS. 2 and 2A together show the rear part of the device, not visible in FIGS. 1 and 1A, also in side view;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view of the disintegrating or removing device;
FIGS. 4 and 4A together represent a perspective view of the second embodiment of the disintegrating or removing device;
FIG. 5 is a view of the device as seen in the direction of the arrow A indicated in FIG. 4A, with some parts in cross section taken on the line V-V of FIG. 4A; and
FIG. 6 illustrates various shovel settings as seen from the advance-cutter in the direction of the arrow B of FIG. 4.
In the embodiment of my invention illustrated in FIGS. 1-3, reference numeral 1 designates the undercarriage of the integrating or removing device provided with inclined bottom rollers 2. The undercarriage has built thereon two pairs of vertically adjustable supporting columns 3 and 4 interconnected by a yoke. This yoke (FIG. 3) comprises a fixed axle 5 having two upper rollers 6 rotatably carried thereon. Axle 5 serves at the same time as a support for a journal hearing or swivel mount wherein a fork 8 is rotatably centered on a vertical axis 9.
Reference numeral 10 designates a tubular boom or jib which, by means of axle-pins 11 engaging the arms of fork 8, is swingable about a horizontal axis 12. Together with the horizontal bearing pins 11, the vertical bearing 7 forms a car- I danic suspension for the jib 10. A pair of hydraulic cylinders 13 are disposed in the horizontal midplane of the jib at opposite sides of the cutter being attached at one end to the jib l0 and at the other end to the supporting columns 3 by means of bolts 14 and 15. Numeral 16 marks another hydraulic cylinder which is arranged above the jib 10, being universally jointed at one end at 17 to the jib and at the other end by means of a cross-link 18 to bearing 7. Inthe bearings 19 and 19' two square tubes 20 and 21 are rotatably carried and telescoped inside the other. These two telescoped tubes together form the stem or shaft of an excavating shovel 23 swingable around a transverse axis 22 at the front-end of the tubular part 21. The interior of tubular part'21 accommodates a hydraulic cylinder 24 for advancingthe excavating shovel or scoop 23. The piston rod 25 of hydraulic cylinder 24 presses against a stop 26 rigid with the inner tubular part 21. An eye 27 of said stop has pivoted thereto another hydraulic cylinder 28 for the tipping and swinging of the excavating shovel 3.
In jib 10, at the end away from the excavating shovel 23, a gear 29 is fitted and connected with, say, an electric motor. By means of said gear the shovel stem 20, 21 can be set in rotation.
The two pairs of columns 3 and 4 are vertically adjustable and are interconnected by a bar 30. The columns 3, 4 have fitted therein hydraulic cylinders 31 whose piston rods project upwardly, terminating in tips 32. These tips are designed for anchoring the shovel support to a surrounding shell (FIG. 3) lining the inside of the excavated gallery. Other anchoring elements 33 are arranged on the longitudinal members of the under carriage frame. Numerals 34 and 35 designate the operators posts from which it is possible to control not only the movement of the undercarriage but also the advance and all swivel movements of the excavating shovel. Attached to the undercarriage 1, at the front at 36 and at the rear at 37, are conveyor-belt supports 38 and 39 carrying supporting rollers 40 for guiding the conveyor belt 41. Reference characters 42 and 43 denote deflecting rollers arranged at the outer ends of belt supports 36, 37, the rear roller 43 being designed as a tightening roller. Theconveyor-belt supports 38 and 39also carry supporting rollers 44 for the conveyor belt 41. A chute 45 is set underneath the excavating shovel 23 at the forward end of the front support 38, and guard plates 46'are disposed on the longitudinal sides thereof. The rear conveyor-belt support 38 carries a hydraulic aggregate 47 which serves at the same time as an undercarriage and is fitted with two wheels 48 and an electric motor 49 for the hydraulic pump. The aforedescribed device is designed as a so-called tube excavator, being associated for this purpose with a steel shield 50- which has a cutting edge and facilitates the advance of the extensible shovel in known manner.
In consequence of the universal mobility of the excavating shovel it is possible to apply the shovel at any desired location along the entire diameter of the tube or gallery, from top to bottom or from left to right and vice versa. By means of the advancing andretracting cylinder 24, when the excavating shovel has been swung downwardly, the loosened soil can be drawn onto the conveyor belt, which in turn transports the debris into trucks (not shown).
Thus a machine is created with which any kind of soil can be disintegrated and removed. The described tubular excavator, depending on its size, may be inserted into tubes or galleries of, say, 1-1.5 m., 1.2-2.5 and 2.5 to 4 m. in diameter and can increase the rate of advance very considerably with a small number of workmen. This tubular excavator can have a construction that is rugged and requires a minimum of attendance.
Alternatively, it is possible to make the excavator shovel detachable and interchangeable with a cutting head or boring tool. Moreover, the device may advantageously be fitted with a rope-winch for hauling the trucks in and out, or with a tubing locator. It is also conceivable to employ the jib with the universally swivelable excavating shovel in conjunction with other supporting bases and without the conveyor-belt equipment.
Further, as illustrated in FIGS. 4-6, it is possible also to make use of such a disintegrator without undercarriage and without supporting base. In this second embodiment, numeral 10 again designates the tube-shaped jib, and numerals 20 and stem or shaft of the excavating shovel 23, which is hinged to rotatable at the front end of the tubular. part 21 for rotation about the transverse axis 22. Elements 23, 45 and 50 also have the same function as in FIGS. 1-3.
In contrast to the preceding embodiment, the jib 10 of the system of FIGS. 4-6 is suspended from a supporting lug 51 for rotation about a horizontal and a verticalaxis 52, 53. The lug 51 is directly anchored to the upper portion 54 of the surrounding lining tube 55.
The jib 10 is raised, lowered and moved laterally by means of two hydraulic cylinders 56 extending obliquely sideways, with a rearward and downward inclination, while being articulated at one end to the jib by a universal joint. At the other end, these hydraulic cylinders are universally jointed to cylinder pedestals 57 anchored direct to outer tube 55. The anchoring of the pedestals and the lug 51 is effected by screws 58 (FIG. 5) adapted to engage threaded bushings 59. In the manufacture of the concrete tube 55, these bushings firmly welded to the reinforcement skeleton of the tube. In the case of tubes of very big diameter, the difference of the radii between tube and supporting lug and/or pedestal is equalized by inserting shims, i.e. segments of hardwood.
By means of the two hydraulic cylinders 56, the jib along with shaft 20, 21 and shovel 23 can be both raised and lowered, and also swung towards either side. For raising the jib 10, the piston rods 60 of the hydraulic cylinders 56 are uniformly drawn out, and for lowering the jib they are drawn in. The lateral moving of the jib 10 is effected by drawing out the piston-rod of one hydraulic cylinder, while simultaneously drawing in the piston-rod of the other cylinder. Of course it is posible to combine all these movements, both with one another as well as with the tipping movement of the shovel 23. The excavator according to the second form of embodiment has the advantage that the concrete tube which is normally not utilized can be made to serve as a machine part so as to ensure optimum utilization of space. For measuring purposes there is provided a passage for a collimating ray, designed 61 in FIG. 5.
Alternatively, for raising, lowering and lateral moving of the jib it is possible to make use of at least three, but preferably four flexible draw-members, for instance chains or wire-ropes adapted to engage the jib substantially at right angles to the said pointed e ements pushing direction thereof, which extend to the hydraulic cylinders over swingable guide rollers anchored in the lining tube 55 while being tied to the piston rods.
Having now particularly described and ascertained the nature of my said invention and in what manner the same is to be performed, I declare that what I claim is:
1. An assembly for digging tunnels, comprising:
a tubular shield provided with a cutting edge for horizontally advancing into the soil;
a shell in the wake of said shield lining the wall of a tunnel dug by said cutting edge;
a boom in said shell provided with a mobile extension terminating in the vicinity of said cutting edge, said extension carrying a shovel for picking up debris loosened from the soil by the advancing shield;
a framework in said shell supporting said boom with universal mobility;
and anchor means on said framework for immobilizing same with reference to said shell, said anchor means bearing upon the interior of said shell on at least three points peripherally spaced about the shell axis.
2. An assembly as defined in claim I, further comprising a chute connected with said framework and positioned below said shovel.
3. An assembly as defined in claim 1 wherein said framework comprises a roller-supported carriage, a set of columns rising from said carriage, and a set of pointed elements at the top of said columns engageable with the inner wall of said shell.
4. An assembly as defined in claim 3 wherein said columns form upright c linders rovided with fluid-operable pistons mg pro ecting extremities of sai pistons.
5. An assembly as defined in claim 3 wherein said framework includes a yoke spanning said columns and a I swivel mount for said boom on said yoke.
6. An assembly as defined in claim 5 wherein said boom is provided with a fork laterally articulated thereto and journaled in said swivel mount.
7. An assembly as defined in claim 5 wherein said yoke includes a transverse shaft provided with a pair of rollers bearing upon the upper part of the inner wall of said shell.