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Publication numberUS3613258 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 19, 1971
Filing dateSep 15, 1969
Priority dateSep 15, 1969
Publication numberUS 3613258 A, US 3613258A, US-A-3613258, US3613258 A, US3613258A
InventorsThomas A Jamieson
Original AssigneeDraper Brothers Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Felt for papermaking machine
US 3613258 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

1 .4. nn-mm u 0a. 19, 1971 A E O 3,613,258

FELT FOR PAPERMAKING MACHINE Filed Sept. 15, 1969 2 Sheets-Sheac 1 (Hwymul /mu, ,0

30 I i d 6 m 0. I, 12 k lld 4 Inventor; ThomasA.

Jamz'esorz,

Aug s.

o 19, 1971 T- A. JAMIESON 3,613,253

FELT FOR PAPERMAKING MACHINE med Sept. 15, 1969 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 mm zmmu w:

y/azzo 1M Atg s.

Unlted States Patent O Int. Cl. F26b 13/26 US. Cl. 34-95 12 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A felt for use in a papermaking machine including an endless belt on the back side of which a plurality of monofilaments are adhered in spaced relation, the monofilaments defining water-conveying channels into which water expressed from a paper sheet located on the face of the belt is directed when the endless belt and the paper sheet are moved through a press section of the papermaking machine.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention has particular application in papermaking machines and provides for the effective removal of water from a paper sheet as the paper sheet and felt on which the paper sheet is carried are directed into a press section of the papermaking machine.

Normally water is removed from the paper sheet in two ways, that is, mechanically in a press section of the papermaking machine or by evaporation in a dryer section of the papermaking machine. The most practical solution for removing the water from the paper sheet is by press removal as the sheet and felt are squeezed between rolls in the press section. The felt in common use heretofore that carried the paper sheet through the press section was formed so as to direct the water out of the sheet at the press nip, the water moving laterally through the felt for dispersement thereof. In another type of press design, a suction area was located within one of the rolls at the press section and communicated with the press nip through a plurality of holes. The water was directed through the felt into the suction area through the holes and was received in the suction roll shell for dispersal.

Although the prior-known techniques for removing water from a paper sheet were effective under certain conditions, it has been found in recent times, with the improvement of papermaking machinery, that the speed of the paper sheet as it is directed through the various sections of the machine produces problems in removing the water therefrom. Thus, because of the high speed of the rolls in the press sections, the water was not able to escape effectively and, as a result, it was necessary to reduce the speed of the paper making machinery so that sufficient time was available for evaporation of the remaining water in the drying section. In some instances crushing occurred in the paper sheet unless lower speeds were employed in movement of the paper sheet through the papermaking machine.

Some efforts have been made to increase the rate of dispersal of the water from the paper sheet at increased speeds of the papermaking machinery and equipment known as a fabric press and a grooved press were developed. In the fabric press, a relatively imcompressible synthetic fabric was placed under the felt and water that was squeezed out of the sheet and felt was received in the fabric rather than being squeezed backwardly longitudinally through the felt. The water was stored in the fabric until the fabric had left the pressure area of the nip of the press, at which time the water was thrown out or removed by vacuum. In the grooved press, a plurality of helical grooves were cut in one of the press rolls, the grooves being vented to atmosphere on both sides of the 3,613,258 Patented Oct. 19, 1971 nip. As the water was forced into the felt on the nip section, the grooves provided a place for the expressed water to enter and, since the grooves were vented to atmosphere, water handling capacity was not limited by groove size in the nip area. Although these prior-known systems did increase the water handling capacity of the felt as the felt and sheet moved through the press section, they were still not totally effective in removing the water from the felt when the equipment was moving at very high speeds.

ice

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The felt for use in a papermaking machine as embodied in the present invention is comprised of an endless belt that is composed of a weave having warp and filling yarns or warp yarns only, the belt including a face for receiving a paper sheet in contact therewith and a back side that defines the inside surface of the belt. In order to provide channels for conducting water that is expressed from the paper sheet in contact with the belt, a plurality of monofilaments are located in spaced relation in contact with the back side of the endless belt. The monofilaments are preferably formed of a synthetic plastic material and are extruded in hot melt form so that when they are applied to the back side of the endless belt they are permanently adhered thereto. The spacing of the monofilaments define a plurality of channels that preferably extend in the warp direction, and since the monofilaments are resistant to abrasion and can be effectively squeezed between the rolls in the nip section and still retain their shape so that the water expressed from the paper sheet is effectively transferred through the channels to a dispersal area.

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to remove water from a paper sheet before the paper sheet reaches the drying section so that less drying by evaporation in the drying section is required.

Another object of the present invention is to provide a felt for use in a papermaking machine on the back surface of which a plurality of monofilaments are adhered in spaced relation to define water conveying channels.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a papermaking felt to the back of which a plurality of monofilaments, formed of a synthetic plastic material, are adhered to define a plurality of channels, the channels forming water-conveying paths through which water expressed from a paper sheet carried by the felt is directed when the felt and paper sheet are moved through a press section of a papermaking machine.

Still another object is to provide a felt for use in a papermaking machine having monofilaments adhered to the back surface thereof to define water-conveying channels, the monofilaments being formed of a synthetic plastic material and having a diameter in the range of .0l0.100.

Still another object is to provide a felt for use in a papermaking machine that is formed in an endless belt and that is provided with a batt surface that is needled to the warp and filling yarns on both sides thereof, a plurality of monofilaments being adhered directly to the batt surface on the back of the felt and defining water-conveying channels therebetween.

Still another object is to provide a felt for use in a papermaking machine wherein a plurality of monofilaments are extruded in hot melt form and applied to the back side of the felt for permanent securement thereto.

Other objects, features and advantages of the invention shall become apparent as the description thereof proceeds when considered in connection with the accompanying illustrative drawing.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING In the drawing which illustrates the best mode presently contemplated for carrying out the present invention:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view with portions broken away of the papermaking felt embodied in the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary top plan view of the papermaking felt illustrated in FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along line 33 in FIG. 2;

FIG. 4 is a view similar to FIG. 3 showing a modified form of the invention; and

FIG. 5 is a view similar to FIG. 3 showing another modified form of the invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Referring now to the drawings, and particularly to FIG. 1, the papermaking felt embodied in the present invention is generally indicated at and, as shown, is defined by an endless belt, the general construction of which may be formed in any conventional manner. In this connection, a needled felt is preferred and, as shown in FIG. 3, the

needled felt 10 includes a base material defined by warp yarns 12 and filler yarns 14 and 16. The warp and filler yarns are woven on a loom in any conventional manner and may be formed of any material normally employed in the manufacture of papermaking felts. It is contemplated that wool and suitable synthetic materials will be utilized as the warp and filler yarns; however, the materials that define these yarns and the manner of weaving thereof form no part of the present invention.

Following the conventional splicing or tubular weaving of the warp and filler yarns 12, 14 and 16, the endless belt that defines the felt 10 is placed on a conventional needling machine and the base materials that define the weave have a non-woven batting material needled on one or both sides thereof, as indicated at 18 and 20, the needled material 20 defining the face of the felt and the needled material 18 defining the back side thereof. The batts that are needled into the base weave are normally formed of a blend of wool and synthetic fibers on which a second batt of woolen fibers are needled to form a finished surface. It is understood, of course, that the batt material that defines the surfaces of the felt may be formed of any conventional fibers, depending upon the requirements of use of the felt. The number of layers of the batt material as needled into the base weave will also be determined by the end use of the felt.

As will be described, the felt 10, as embodied in the present invention, provides for the effective removal of water in the press section of the papermaking machine. Water is usually removed from the felt in a press section as the felt and sheet carried by the felt are squeezed between the rolls that define the press nip, thus squeezing Water from the paper sheet into the felt. Heretofore the felt carried the sheet through the press section and the water that was squeezed out of the sheet at the nip was expelled through the felt either laterally in a plane press,

or into the grooves of a grooved press, or through holes drilled in a shell that had communication with a suction area in a suction press. It has been found that when the felt and sheet thereon are moved at high speeds during the papermaking operation, prior-known techniques did not remove a sufficient amount of the water from the paper sheet. In order to avoid the problems experienced heretofore in removing water from the paper sheet, the present invention provides for the application of a plurality of monofilaments that are adhered to the back side of the felt. Referring again to FIG. 3, the monofilaments are indicated at 22 and, as shown, are formed of a synthetic plastic material and extend in the warp direction of the endless belt that defines the felt 10. By locating the monofilaments 22 in the manner as illustrated, a plurality of longitudinally extending channels 24 are defined that form water conduits for conducting water expressed from the paper sheet and felt to a dispersal area as the paper sheet and felt are carried through the press section of the papermaking machine.

The monofilaments 22- are adhered directly to the batt 18 on the back side of the felt and may be extruded in continuous form in the application thereof, the felt being turned inside-out as the monofilaments are applied thereto. In this connection, the monofilaments 22 are preferably extruded in a hot melt condition and, as applied to the back side of the felt, adhere directly thereto for permanent attachment. It is contemplated that the monofilaments, as extruded, will be formed of a synthetic resin, examples of which are polyamids, polyesters, epoxies, polyethylenes, polypropylenes and vinyls. In the extruded form of the monofilament, which is applied to the back surface of the felt in molten condition, it is seen that the adhered area may be somewhat flattened as the molten material flows onto the felt. However, the general configuration of the monofilament is cylindrical and it is contemplated that the diameter thereof will be in the range of .010 to .100 inch. Since the spacing of the mono-filaments 2.2 will determine the channels 24 defined therebetween, this spacing is somewhat critical in that the water-conducting channels must be capable of providing for rapid dispersal of water as it is expressed from the paper sheet and felt, but the monofilaments must also be sufliciently close enough to avoid any marking on the paper sheet as carried by the felt. In this connection, it is contemplated that the spacing of the monofilaments will be approximately .090 inch, but will vary in the range of 1 to 3 times the diameter of the monofilament as applied to the back side of the felt. It is understood that the spacing of the monofilaments as shown in FIG. 1 is for illustration only, since the monofilaments in actual practice will be considerably closer together than that illustrated. As previously mentioned, in the preferred form of the invention, the portions of the monofilaments that engage the felt are somewhat flattened, since the monofilaments are normally applied in hot melt form; thus the tendency to produce marking will be lessened.

Although the described method of application of the monofilaments to the back side of the felt is by extruding the monofilaments in molten form thereon, it is also contemplated that preformed monofilament yarns can be applied by a suitable adhesive; or a solvent can be employed for rendering the preformed monofilament tacky, whereafter the tacky monofilament is applied to the felt for permanently adhering the monofilament thereto.

It is further contemplated that the monofilaments be allowed to penetrate into the felt surface, and in order to accomplish this, the felt itself is heated to a suflicient temperature, wherein the viscosity of the molten monofilament, as applied to the felt, is such that the monofilament will penetrate the felt. Thus the temperature of the felt is controlled so as to provide for penetration of the monofilaments into the surface of the felt. The channels between the monofilaments are still maintained and function to retain the water expressed from the paper sheet as the felt and paper sheet are moved through the press section of the papermaking machine. The temperature of the felt may be maintained at approximately 325 F. to 400 F. to provide for penetration of the monofilaments therein. In this connection, hot air may be employed for heating the felt to the required temperature.

Regardless of the materials that are employed for producing the water-conveying channels, the properties of the monofilament must be consistent with the operation of the papermaking machine. In this connection, the monofilament embodied herein is resistant to abrasion to resist rubbing in the press section where the felt makes contact with the nip rolls. The monofilament, as con templated for use in the present invention, also resists flattening during use, since the felt passes through the highpressure squeeze rolls and is subjected to a force of between and 1100 pounds per linear inch. It is further noted that the monofilament cannot be completely fiat when squeezed, since filling the void spaces must be avoided. The monofilament, as employed herein, also has a high degree of stretch or elongation, since the press rolls normally stretch the felt. It is also understood that a certain degree of elongation of the monofilament is required, since the felt is driven by rolls and the monofilament must bend around the rolls without separation from the felt. Sufficient tensile strength of the monofilament is also required to withstand the stretch forces that are applied to the felt as the felt extends around the rolls and passes between the press rolls.

Since the monofilament is continually subjected to a flow of water therebetween, it has a high water resistance, that is, it resists softening or weakening or change upon exposure to water. During the papermaking operation, the paper is subjected to various operations involving chemical materials and therefore the monofilament is chemically resistant, and in particular is resistant to those chemicals that are normally applied to the felt during the papermaking operation. From the above, it is understood that the monofilament as applied to the felt is permanently adhered to the surface of the felt and since it remains in position throughout the life of the felt, it forms an integral part of the felt surface.

In operation of the felt to which the monofilaments 22 are permanently adhered, the felt and paper sheet carried thereby move through the press section of the papermaking machine and water expressed from the paper sheet into the felt is directed between the monofilaments 22 and into the channels 24 where it is carried to a dispersal area for removal from the felt.

As illustrated in FIG. 3, the monofilaments 22 are attached to the batt section 18 that is adhered to the back side of the weave defined by the warp threads 12 and the filling yarns 14 and 16. However, it is contemplated that the monofilaments 22 may be adhered directly to the filler yarns, and referring now to FIG. 4, a plurality of warp yarns 26 are shown woven into filler yarns 28 and 30. The filler yarns 28 and 30 cooperate with the warp yarns 26 to define a two-over, two-under configuration. The monofilaments 22 are directly adhered to the filler yarns 28 and 30 and normally extend in the warp direction. In the felt illustrated in FIG. 4, a batt 32 is needled into the warp and filling yarns and defines the face of the felt. As described above, channels are formed between the monofilaments 22 and define water conducting paths for directing water expressed from the paper sheet to a dispersal area. As described herein, the monofilaments 22 are shown extending in the warp direction, which is the preferable manner of locating the monofilaments in place on the back side of the felt. However, the monofilaments may be placed in angular relationship with respect to the warp and filling yarns, or the monofilaments may be criss-crossed to define double spaces, if it is so desired.

Referring to FIG. 5, a modified form of the felt is generally illustrated at 34 and includes a needled felt defined by warp yarns 36 and filler yarns 38 and 40 on both sides of which non-woven batting 42 and 44 are needled. Fixed to the needled batting 44 on the reverse side of the felt are a plurality of monofilaments 46 formed of a synthetic plastic material of the type mentioned hereinabove. The monofilaments 46 are preferably applied in hot melt form and are adhered to the batting 44 longitudinally thereof to define water conduits for conducting water expressed from the paper sheet carried by the felt as the paper sheet and felt are moved through the press section of the papermaking machine. In order to avoid any possibility of snagging or peeling of the monofilaments 46 as the felt 34 is moved through the press section, the monofilaments are covered by another batting layer 48 that is needled directly into the batting 44 and woven yarns 36 and 38. It is seen that although the monofilaments 46 are covered by the outer batting 48, the channels between the monofilament are clearly defined and will still function to retain the water therein as the paper sheet and felt are moved through the press section of the papermaking machine.

As described herein, the present invention provides a unique and effective means for receiving and conducting water expressed through the paper sheet and felt regardless of the speed of the felt as it is moved through the press section in the papermaking machine. Not only does the monofilament provide a novel means for insuring effective removal of water from the paper sheet, but it also renders the felt more wear resistant, thereby causing the felt to last longer in use. Thus the use of the monofilament provides for longevity of the felt.

What is claimed is:

1. A felt for use in a papermaking machine, comprising an endless belt composed of a base material, said belt including an outer face for receiving a paper sheet in contact therewith and a back that defines the underneath side of said belt, and a plurality of monofilaments fixed to the outer surface of the back of the endless belt, said monofilaments being disposed in spaced apart, parallel relation to define a plurality of exposed, parallel spaced channels that are located directly on the outer surface of the back of the endless belt and that are generally parallel to the direction of movement thereof, said channels being relatively free of fibers or yarns formed in the base material and forming water conveying paths through which water expressed from the paper sheet is directed when said endless belt and paper are moved through a press section of the papermaking machine.

2. In a felt as set forth in claim 1, said monofilaments being formed of a synthetic plastic material and being adhered to the outer surface of the back of the endless belt, said plastic material being relatively incompressible so as to retain the structural integrity of the channels as the felt and paper sheet travel through the press section of the papermaking machine.

3. In a felt as set forth in claim 2, the synthetic plastic material from which said monofilaments are formed being selected from the group consisting of polyarnrcie, polyester, epoxy, polypropylene polyethylene and viny 4. In a felt as set forth in claim 2, said monofilaments being extruded in hot melt form so that when they are applied to the back of said endless belt, they are permanently adhered thereto.

5. In a felt as set forth in claim 2, the diameter of said monofilaments being in the range of .O lO-JOO inch, and the spacing between the monofilaments being in the range of one to three times the diameter of the monofilaments.

6. In a felt as set forth in claim 1, said endless belt including a batt surface that is needled into the warp and filling yarns on both sides thereof, said monofilaments being adhered directly to the batt surface on the back of said belt.

7. In a felt as set forth in claim 1, said endless belt including a batt surface that is needled into the Warp and filling yarns to define the face of said belt, said monofilaments being adhered directly to the filling yarns on the back of said belt.

8. In a felt as set forth in claim 1, said monofilaments extending generally in the warp direction.

9. In a felt as set forth in claim 8, said monofilaments being formed of a synthetic plastic material and being extruded in hot melt form and applied to the back of said endless belt for permanent adherence thereto.

10. In a felt as set forth in claim 9, the diameter of said monofilaments being the range of .010-.10O inch and the spacing between the monofilaments being in the range of one to three times the diameter of the monofilaments.

11. In a felt as set forth in claim *9, a layer of batt material overlying said monofilaments on the back of the endless belt.

8 12. In a felt as set forth in claim 1, said felt being 3,325,909 6/1967 Clark 34-95 heated to a temperature that provides for penetration 3,401,467 9/1968 Koester 34-95 of said monofilaments into said felt on the back side 3,437,538 4/1969 Ewing 156-181 X thereof.

Referen e Cit d 5 FREDERICK L. MATTESON, 111., Primary Examiner UNITED STATES PATENTS H. B. RAMEY, Assistant Examiner 2,738,298 3/1956 David at al. 156-181 X 3,097,413 7/1963 Draper 34-95 3,279,504 10/1966 Wagner 34-95 10 161-150; 162-358

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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US4141388 *Mar 23, 1977Feb 27, 1979Albany International CorporationPaper machine dryer fabric
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Classifications
U.S. Classification34/95, 139/383.00A, 442/320, 162/900, 428/401, 139/383.00R
International ClassificationD21F7/08
Cooperative ClassificationD21F7/083, Y10S162/90
European ClassificationD21F7/08B
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jan 7, 1985AS02Assignment of assignor's interest
Owner name: DRAPER BROTHERS COMPANY, INC.
Owner name: DRAPER FELT COMPANY INC., THE DRAPER LANE, CANTON
Effective date: 19841231
Jan 7, 1985ASAssignment
Owner name: DRAPER FELT COMPANY INC., THE DRAPER LANE, CANTON
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:DRAPER BROTHERS COMPANY, INC.;REEL/FRAME:004348/0001
Effective date: 19841231