US 3613323 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
F. J. HREHA FORM Oct. 19, 1971 AND DRAIN TILE R t w m h N s a V t Pu W e e h F s m FRED J. HREHA Filod March-l0. 1970 0t.19,1971 F,J HREHA 3,613,323
FORM AND DRAIN TILE Filed March 10. 1970 2 Sheets-Sheet z FIG. 8
M INVENTOR. FIG. /2 FRED J. mas/1,4
ATTORNEYS United States Patent Oil-ice;
3,613,323 Patented Oct. 19, 1971 3,613,323 FORM AND DRAIN TILE Fred J. Hreha, 226 Sullivan St., Exeter, Pa. 18644 Filed Mar. 10, 1970, Ser. No. 18,230 Int. Cl. E02d 27/04; E04b 1/70 US. Cl. 52-169 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This specification discloses a form intended for use in the casting of concrete or cement foundations and which has a drain tile integral with an element thereof. The form comprises two flat wall sections detachably connected. A drain tile is integrally formed on the lower wall section and is of rectangular cross section presenting spaced horizontal walls and a side wall. The latter is formed wtih a plurality of spaced drainage openings and the horizontal walls are formed at spaced intervals with aligned slot-like apertures adjacent to the wall section from which they extend. Stakes are driven through these apertures and nailed to the upper wall section of the form. A mechanical interlock between the lower wall section and the material cast is provided and may take different forms.
The present invention relates to the forms used in casting foundations of cement or concrete and is concerned primarily with a form having a drain tile or duct integral therewith which is left in position after other elements of the forms are removed.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In the construction of buildings it is now common practice to cast the base or foundation of cement or concrete. This operation requires a form about the periphery of the base. This periphery ordinarily is defined by a plurality of straight edges.
After the foundation sets and the forms are withdrawn, it is the usual practice to fill the space thereabout with earth or gravel. Water drains through these formations and it is necessary to provide a tile or duct for conducting such drainage water away from the foundation to a desired disposal point.
At the present time the art is lacking in a drain tile that is capable of being incorporated into a form for a base or foundation.
OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION With the foregoing conditions in mind, the present invention has in view the following objects:
(1) To provide a form for use in the casting of. foundations which comprises a plurality of units, each intended for use at a straight peripheral edge of the base and each consisting of two wall sections, an upper section and a lower section, with a drain tile formed integrally with the lower wall section.
(2) To provide, in a form and drain tile of the type noted, means for detachably securing the wall sections together whereby the upper wall section may be removed after the foundation has set.
(3) To provide means for securing a form of the character indicated in position in the environmental earth and/or gravel in which the foundation is cast. This means ordinarily takes the form of stakes which are nailed to the upper wall section and are removed coincidental with the removal of the upper wall section after setting.
(4) To provide, in a form and drain tile of the kind aforesaid, a tile or duct of rectangular cross section defined by the lower wall section, spaced horizontal walls integral therewith and extending therefrom, and a side wall formed with drainage openings. The horizontal walls are formed with apertures immediately adjacent to the lower wall section and which accommodate the stakes.
(5 To provide, in a form and drain tile of the type indicated, means for establishing a mechanical interlock between the lower wall section and the cast foundation.
(6) To provide closures for the apertures in the upper horizontal wall after the stakes are removed, and
(7) To provide means for attaching together adjacent units of the type noted.
Various other more detailed objects and advantages of the invention such as arise in connection with carrying out the above noted ideas in a practical embodiment will in part become apparent and in part be hereinafter stated as the description of the invention proceeds.
SUM-MARY OF THE INVENTION The foregoing objects are achieved by providing a form and drain tile made up of a plurality of units each of. which is intended to cast a peripheral straight edge portion of a base or foundation. Each unit comprises an upper wall section and a lower wall section which are secured in an aligned position by a detachable connection. A drain tile or duct is formed integrally with the lower wall section and is of substantially rectangular cross section being defined by the Wall section, upper and lower horizontal walls and a side wall. The latter is formed with a plurality of drainage openings.
The horizontal walls are formed with slot-like apertures at the wall section. The apertures in the upper wall align with those in the lower wall and a stake is driven through each pair of aligned apertures and is nailed to the outer face of the upper wall section. At the ends of adjacent units each aperture is of a size to receive only one half of a stake. Thus, certain of the stakes constitute means for securing adjacent units together.
After the stakes are nailed to the upper wall section, the projecting portions of the nails are bent over or clinched so as to permit removal of the upper wall section and the stakes together after foundation has set. When this is done the apertures in the upper horizontal walls are sealed by. applying closures thereto.
A mechanical interlock between the lower wall section and the cast foundation is provided in the form of members which are attached to the lower wall section and project into the cement. These members are contoured to prevent their Withdrawal.
For a full and more complete understanding of the invention, reference may be had to the following description and accompanying drawing wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective of a portion of a form and drain tile designed in accordance with the precepts of this invention in a partially erected condition.
FIG. 2 is a vertical section; on an enlarged scale taken about on the plane represented by the line 22 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is a perspective on an enlarged scale of a drain tile per se which is broken away, with the parts thereof and a closure for an aperture depicted in exploded relation.
FIG. 4 is a detailed section on an enlarged scale looking down on the drain tile at one of the apertures, being taken about on the plane represented by the line 4--4 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary elevation looking at the inside of the form including a modification of the interlocking means.
FIG. 6 is a vertical section taken about on the plane represented by the line 6-6 of FIG. 5.
FIG. 7 is a detailed section through the upper portion of the lower wall section.
FIG. 8 is a detail on an enlarged scale of a modified form of the device used to close an opening in the upper horizontal wall of the drain tile.
FIG. 9 is a sectional view through the tile with the device of FIG. 8 in the position it assumes before the stake is removed.
FIG. 10 is a detail of a further modification in which the upper wooden form is omitted and the device of FIG. 8 secured to a stake by wire.
FIG. 11 is a detail taken normal to the showing of FIG. 10.
FIG. 12 is a vertical section through a tile of another modification in which the upper form is omitted.
FIG. 13 is a detail section showing the device of FIG. 8 in hole closing position; and
FIG. 14 is a top plan view of the device of FIG. 8 in hole closing position.
Referring now to the drawings, wherein like reference characters denote corresponding parts, a base or foundation is shown in FIG. 2 in phantom at 10. It will have a top surface 11 and a bottom face 12 which is determined by the top surface of a ground formation 13. While foundation 10 is not illustrated in FIG. 1, it will be understood that it has a periphery made up of a plurality of straight side edges, portions of which are illustrated.
A tile or duct is identified in its entirety by the reference character T. While it may be any material having the required properties, the invention contemplates the use of wood or cellulose fibers impregnated and bonded together with a bitumen such as coal tar pitch. Tile T is of rectangular cross section and comprises an inner wall that is a part of a lower wall section of a form. This wall section is designated 14. Integral with wall section 14 and extending outwardly therefrom are an upper horizontal wall 15 and a lower horizontal wall 16. The outer ends of walls 15 and 16 are spanned by a side wall 17 which is integral with the walls to which it is joined. It is notable that there are rounded corners 18 where side wall 17 joins walls 15 and 16. Side wall 17 is formed with a plurality of drainage openings 19.
Formed as a continuation of Wall section 14 is a bottom flange or skirt 20 which extends below wall 16. Extending above wall 15 is another flange or web 21. It will be understood that flanges 20 and 21 are coplanar with wall section 14.
Immediately adjacent to wall section 14 upper horizontal Wall 15 is formed with one or more slot-like apertures 22 (FIG. 3). The inner edge of aperture 22 is constituted by wall section 14 as illustrated in FIGS. 2 and 3. Lower horizontal wall 16 is also formed with slot-like apertures 23 (FIG. 2) which are of the same size and shape as apertures 22 and in alignment therewith.
Formed integral with web 21, and upstanding therefrom midway of its faces is a rib 24 which terminates at its upper edge in an enlarged bead 25. This rib and bead constitute one element of a detachable connection as will be later described.
A plain wooden stake is shown at 26 in FIGS. 1 and 2. It comprises a main body portion of a size and shape closely corresponding to that of apertures 22 and 23 through an aligned pair which it passes with a snug fit. It also has a pointed end 27 (FIG. 1) which is driven into ground formation 13.
An upper wall section 28 which constitutes a part of the form is shown in FIGS. 1 and 2. It may be of the same material as tile T but it is believed entirely practical to make it of wood. The lower edge of wall section 28 abuts the upper edge of flange 21 on wall section 14 and opening thereinto is a groove 29 of key hole shape dimensioned to snugly receive rib 24 and bead with a snap fit. Thus, after tile T is positioned by stakes 26 upper wall section 28 is connected to wall section 14 by first forcing the key hole groove 29 over and about rib 24 and bead 25. Nails 30 are then driven through the upper portions of stakes 26 and wall section 28 as shown in FIG. 2. The inner ends 4 of these nails are then bent over or clinched as depicted at 31 to avoid any projection entering the material of base 10 which might interfere with removal of wall section 28 and stakes 26 after the cement has set.
In the embodiment of FIGS. 2 and 3 the inner face of wall section 14 is formed with undercut recesses 32. A locking pin 33 has an enlargement at one end tightly fitted lock recess 33 to connect it to wall section 14. It also has an enlargement 34 that is embedded in foundation 10 to securely attach tile T thereto.
A closure for an aperture 22 is shown at 35 in FIG. 3. After stakes 26 are withdrawn, closures 35 are applied to apertures 22 to seal them against the entry of earth or gravel.
Where units of a form and tile meet at a corner, the ends of horizontal walls 15 and 16 are mitered as shown at 36 in FIG. 1. The end edges of side walls 17 are also mitered.
It is contemplated that where adjacent units meet apertures similar to apertures 22 and 23 be formed with one half of each apertures in the wall of one unit and the other half in the wall of the other unit. Thus, when a stake 26 is passed through a pair of such aligned apertures and then nailed to both the upper wall sections 28 of two adjacent units the latter are connected by the stakes.
Referring now to FIGS. 4, 5 and 6, a modified form of interlock with the tile and foundation will be described.
The inner face of wall section 14 is designated 37. Opening onto face 37 is a recess 38 defined by parallel undercut side edges 39. It is contemplated that a sufficiently strong interlock might be provided by merely the con crete entering this dovetail groove. However, a more sc cure interlock is provided by a plate 40 which is anchored in the recess.
Referring now to FIGS. 8 to 13 inclusive, certain modifications in which the closure 35 is replaced by a plate which not only performs the hole closing function after a stake is removed but is also used to connect the lower form 14 either to an upper form 28 or a stake 26.
Thus, a plate 41 of galvanized metal (to prevent rusting) having a lateral extension 42 that is secured to lower form 14 by being received in a slot 22 and nailed to a long wall of the slot by a nail 43. Extension 42 is joined to plate 41 by a neck 44 which is defined by V-shaped slots 45. Neck 44 is bendable for a purpose to be later explained.
A tab 46 having undercut side edges 47 extends from the edge of plate 41 opposite to extension 42. In the embodiment of FIG. 9 tab 46 is secured to upper form 28 by a nail 48. Thus, in this position plate 41 functions to supplement the connection between forms 14 and 28.
Referring now momentarily to FIGS. 13 and 14, it will be noted that after stake 26 is removed from hole 72 plate 41 is readily bent along neck 44 into the position illustrated in which it functions as a closure for opening 22.
Referring now to FIGS. 10 and 11, an arrangement in which upper form 28 is omitted will be described. Plate 41 is nailed to form 14 in the manner above described. Also stake 26 is in position in the aligned holes of the tile walls, one of which is shown at 22. Plate 41 is secured to stake 26 by a wire 49 which is wrapped about stake 26 and the throat of tab 46 defined by undercut side edges 47. The ends of this wire are twisted together in a wellknown manner as shown at 50.
FIG. 12 illustrates another arrangement in which the upper form is omitted. In FIG. 12 lower form 14 is inverted so that rib 25 is disposed downwardly. Plate 41 is secured to form 14 and stake 26 by nails corresponding to nails 43 and 48 of FIG. 8.
In both instances where the upper form is omitted, as in FIGS. 10 and 11 and also FIG. 12, after the stake is removed, plate 41 is bent into the position of FIGS. 13 and 14.
While preferred specific embodiments of the invention are hereinbefore set forth, it is to be clearly understood that this invention is not to be limited to the exact constructions, mechanisms and materials illustrated and described because various modifications of these details may be provided in putting the invention into practice.
What is claimed is:
1. For use in casting in a ground formation, a foundation of a cementitious material, a form and drain tile comprising:
(a) an upper flat wall section having a lower edge surface,
(b) a lower flat wall section having an upper edge surface in abutting engagement with said lower edge surface,
() a detachable connection between said wall sections,
(d) a tile formed integral with said lower wall section and projecting from one face thereof, said tile including upper and lower horizontal walls and a side wall,
(e) drainage openings in said side Wall,
(f) apertures in said horizontal walls immediately adjacent to said lower wall section with the apertures in the upper wall in alignment with the apertures in the lower wall,
(g) a stake passing through each pair of aligned apertures and drivable into said ground formation,
(h) means for attaching said stakes to said upper wall section; and
(i) means for establishing a mechanical interlock between said lower wall section and said foundation.
2. The form and drain tile of claim 1 which the lower wall section and tile are of cellulosic fibers impregnated with a bitumen.
3. The form and drain tile of claim 1 in which the detachable connection comprises a rib and bead on one Wall section and a key hole groove in the other Wall section with the groove receiving the rib and head.
4. The form and drain tile of claim 1 in which the means for attaching the stakes to the upper wall section comprises nails driven through the stakes and wall section and having projecting end portions bent against the wall section.
5. The form and drain tile of claim 1 in which the means for establishing the interlock comprises a plurality of members each having one end anchored to said lower wall section and an enlargement at the other end spaced from said wall section and embedded in said foundation.
6. The form and drain tile of claim 1 in which each horizontal wall terminates in an end edge and there is an aperture opening into each end edge and which aperture is of a size to receive one 'half of a stake.
7. The form and drain tile of claim 1 in which the edges of the horizontal walls at one end of the tile are mitered.
8. The form and drain tile of claim 1 in which the means for establishing the interlock takes the form of a recess with undercut sides on the lower wall section.
9. The form and drain tile of claim 8 together with a plate anchored in said recess and members having ends secured to said plate and portions deformed from a straight condition which are embedded in said foundation.
'10. The form and drain tile of claim 1 together with a closure for each aperture in the upper horizontal wall which is applied after the stake passing therethrough is removed therefrom.
11. The form and drain tile of claim 2 in which the closure takes the form of a plate having a lateral extension secured to said tile in one of the apertures in a horizontal tile wall with the connection of the extension to the plate being bendable, a tab on said plate, and a connection of said tab to said upper wall section, said plate being bendable into a position closing the aperture in which it is mounted when said connections are broken.
12. The form and drain tile of claim 11 in which the connections of said extension and tab are nails driven into said wall sections.
13. For use in casting in a ground formation a foundation of a cementitious material, a form and drain tile comprising:
(a) a flat wall section;
(b) a tile formed integrally with said wall section and projecting from one face thereof, said tile including upper and lower horizontal walls and a side wall;
(c) drainage openings in said side wall;
(d) apertures in said horizontal walls immediately adjacent to said Wall section with the apertures in the upper wall in alignment with the apertures in the lower wall;
(e) a stake passing through each pair of aligned apertures and drivable into said ground formation;
(f) a plate associated with each aperture in the upper wall and having an extension secured to said tile in that aperture, and a tab on the side of the plate opposite to that having the extension, said plates having bendable into positions closing the apertures when the stakes are removed therefrom;
(g) means for attaching the tab of each of said plates to a stake; and
(h) means for establishing a mechanical interlock between said wall section and said foundation.
14. The form and drain tile of claim 13 in which the side edges of the tab are undercut, and the attaching means takes the form of a wire wrapped about a stake and the tab connected thereto.
15. The form and drain tile of claim 2 in which the attaching means comprises a nail driven through each tab and into a stake.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 707,815 8/1902 Anderson 52-611 741,993 10/ 1903 Anderson 52-607 750,790 2/ 1904 Anderson 52-607 3,017,722 1/ 1962 Smith 52-169 FRANK L. ABBOTT, Primary Examiner J. L. RIDGILL, In, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.