|Publication number||US3613532 A|
|Publication date||Oct 19, 1971|
|Filing date||May 1, 1969|
|Priority date||May 1, 1969|
|Publication number||US 3613532 A, US 3613532A, US-A-3613532, US3613532 A, US3613532A|
|Original Assignee||Wildhaber Ernest|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (2), Referenced by (9), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
kjo sstl 5R  RAY TYPEWRITER 18 Claims, 28 Drawing Figs.
ltthews Assistant ExaminerRichard A. Wintercorn Attorney-B. Edward Shlesinger ABSTRACT: This ray typewriter has two main applications. It
 US. Cl 95/4.5 R, may Sena as a computer output to rapidly produce Sma|1 size 240/1 350/96 photographic copies, or also as a typewriter operated by hand  Int. Cl B41b 13/00, f a keyboard Each type has its own source f radiant enep B 15/00 1341b 17/00 gy that is directed through an outlet representing the type.  Fleld of Search... 355/1; Said sources are arranged in an are about a common point and 95/45; 350/96; 240/1 E their rays are directed towards said point. When activated, images of said outlets are made in a common region contain-  References C'ted ing said point. In a computer output said successive images are UNITED STATES PATENTS reduced in size and placed along lines on a record. In 3. 2,448,244 8/1948 Arnold 350/96 X manually operated typewriter they are directly printed on the 3,115,076 12/1963 Levene 355/1 record,
PATENTEDUET 19l97l 3,613,532
SHEET 10F 3 FUG.20 Fl! G. U
24 I 7 7 F061 T T "lawn in m D D U D U ll m INVENTORZ F116, 8 E rWLeMJh PATENTEDum 19 |97| 3, 13,532
SHEET 3 UF 3 OOOOGO [FIN-5- 26 IN VENTORZ RAY TYPEWRITER One object of the present invention is to provide a ray typewriter for recording the output of a computer at reduced size and at high speed. The small record size requires only a small storage space, and the record can be readily reproduced at any desired size, or read with enlarging equipment.
Another object is to provide a silent typewriter free from the impact noise of the types.
Other objects will appear in the course of the specification and in the recital of the appended claims.
A set of sources of radiant energy, such as cathode-ray tubes or special light bulbs, are arranged in a circle about a common point. Their rays pass through outlets of character shape, are focused and directed towards said point, unless deliberately diverted therefrom. These to form images of said outlets at and around said point, unless deliberately diverted therefrom. These successive images are transferred to lines of a record.
Embodiments of the invention will now be described with the drawings, in which FIG. 1 is a plan view of a set of sources of radiant energy directed towards a common point, each source projecting a different character towards said point. They are successively actuated by a computer to record its output.
FIG. 2 is an axial section of a rotary mechanism for transferring the characters to a record. It is shown at a larger scale than FIG. 1.
FIG. 2a reproduces the transparent screen 23 of FIG. 1 at this increased scale in its distance relationship with FIG. 2.
FIG. 3 is a fragmentary cross section taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 2.
FIG. 4 is a section like FIG. 3 showing a different turning position of the rotors.
FIG. 5 is a diagram explanatory of the action of the rotors.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary enlargement of refractory member 24 of FIG. 1.
FIG. 7 is a cross section thereof, taken along lines 7-7 of FIG. 6.
FIG. 8 is a fragmentary cross section through the rotors and adjacent parts of a modification.
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary axial section corresponding to FIG. 8.
FIG. 10 and 11 are a fragmentary axial section and a cross section through the rotors of a still further embodiment.
FIG. 12 shows the character outlet at the small end of a light-pipe, at a large scale.
FIG. 13 is a side view of a light-pipe and partly a section taken along lines 13-13 of FIG. 12, at a smaller scale.
FIG. 14 is an enlarged view of a character outlet, like FIG. 12, but showing the period sign,
FIG. 15 is a view looking at the narrow side of the light-pipe containing the period sign.
FIG. 16 is an end view thereof.
FIG. 17 is a side view taken at right angles to the view of FIG. 15.
FIGS. 18 and 19 are a plan view and corresponding side view of a further embodiment of the invention, shown diagrammatically.
FIG. 20 is a diagrammatic plan view showing a modification thereof.
FIG. 21 is a diagrammatic side view of a hand-operated ray typewriter, with a cutout showing interior parts.
FIG. 22 is a section taken along line 22-22 of FIG. 21 and a view perpendicular to plane 22-22.
FIG. 23 is a diagrammatic end view corresponding to FIG. 22, showing the disposition of the light bulbs.
FIG. 24 is a side view of a light element comprising alight bulb 96 and an adjacent light-pipe 97, taken in the same direction as FIG. 21, at an increased scale. The light bulb is shown in section.
FIG. 25 is a section taken along lines 25-25 of FIG. 24, looking in the direction of the arrows.
FIG. 26 is a side view of light element 96, 97, like that of FIG. 22, but at a larger scale, some parts being shown in section.
FIG. 27 is a diagram illustrating the electric current required in the deflection coil 84 of FIG. 18.
In the embodiment of FIGS. 1 to 4 numeral 20 (FIG. 1) denote sources of radiant energy, preferably cathode-ray tubes, each having an electron gun, anode 20a with opening, and screen 20.: for transforming the cathode rays into light rays almost instantly. These enter the large ends of tapering light-pipes 21 whose small ends are formed into the shape of characters and provide light outlets. The light-pipes will be further described with FIGS. 12 to 17 later on. Sources 20 and light-pipes 21 constitute a ray element.
A plurality of elements are arranged in an arc about a point 22, and their rays are directed towards said common point. Each character to be printed has its own element 20, 21. The number of elements actually provided is far larger than the one shown. An image of each character outlet 21' is formed at and around common point 22 on a transparent or translucent difiusing screen 23 by individual lens surfaces of a refractory member 24. A shield 23s is placed in front of screen 23 to cover up all but the space reserved for a single character.
Member 24 is shown at a larger scale in FIGS. 6 and 7. It contains cylindrical lens surfaces 25 on one side. These extend perpendicular to the drawing plane of FIGS. 1 and 6, and are spaced in an are about point 22. The opposite side contains a toroid lens surface 26 of convex profile 26',5(FIG. 7). It is common to all surfaces 25 and follows said a arc. Together with the cylindrical lens surfaces 25 the toroid lens surface 26 forms the equivalent of individual spherical lenses, one for each element. If desired, spherical lenses themselves could be used instead.
The merit of nonspherical lens surfaces on a single refractory member is twofold. They can be simultaneously produced in a single process, and they are more convenient for individual lens surfaces (25) that are higher than wide, to conserve light. The width of the lens surfaces 25 (FIGS. I and 6) is limited by the close proximity of the adjacent lens surfaces. But their height is not thus limited.
The character images appearing on screen 23 are reduced in size and placed on a record along lines, the record being a photographic film. The structure to accomplish this is shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 2a at a larger scale than FIG. 1. FIG. 2a merely reproduces the screen 23 in its distance relation with said structure. A lens 28 (or lens system) forms a reduced-size image of each character image appearing at and adjacent point 22. It is formed at and adjacent point 29 of plane mirror surface 30. A pair of coaxial rotors have their common axis 27 passing through point 29. They are an outer rotor 31 and an inner rotor 32, both having light-directing means, and particularly refractory light-directing means. The outer rotor 31 serves to displace the characters along a line, while the inner rotor provides stepwise displacement, letting an image stand still on the record, at least in close approximation, until the next image jumps to the adjacent position. Light passage is blocked during the jump itself. The two rotors are geared to turn at vastly different speeds, rotor 32 turning faster and in opposite direction in the illustrated embodiment.
A refractory ring 33 is secured to outer rotor 31. Its purpose is to form an image at and around point 34 on rotating line 35 (FIGS. 3 and 4) of the image at point 29. While ring 33 could contain spherical lenses to form this image, it preferably contains cylindrical lenses 36 extending parallel to the rotor axis 27. These lenses are made higher than wide. They are longer in the direction of the rotor axis than at right angles thereto. They contain outer cylindrical surfaces 36' and inner cylindrical surfaces 36". To produce complete images they are accompanied by a stationary pair of toroid lens sectors 37, 38. These have convex profiles (FIG. 2) and extended about axis 27. The purpose of forming this image at 34 is to place it close to the working portion of rotor 32.
Rotor 32 encloses a refractory ring 40 with convex and preferably spherical outside surface 41 that is centered at 29.
- Its inside surface contains a large number of plane facets 42 parallel to axis 27 and equally spaced about it. Light passages 43, 43' of rotor 32 are aligned with the facets 42. Together image 46 to position 48 on record 55. It should be noted that the convex lens profile 47' on the side facing away from the rotor axis 27 is more curved than its profile 47" on the opposite side. The central line 50 that bisects the distance between the two profiles 47 47" is concave towards axis 27 and its radius is preferably twice its distance from axis 27.
If the two rotors 31, 32 were secured together, the central ray 35 would uniformly rotate about axis 27 on uniform rotation of the rotors. At one moment it would be in a position 35' (FIG. 3) and lens 45 would be aligned with it. Stationary lens 47 bends ray 35 to a direction parallel to ray 35, providing an image 48. This image would uniformly move on record 55. What is needed is an image that stands still on the record during exposure. Rotor 32 does it.
Diagram FIG. 5 illustrates its action. The task is to keep image 46 stationary during exposure, so that image 48 also remains stationary. On small (infinitesimal) rotation of rotor 31 the center 52 of lens 45 moves to a position 52 and the image point 34 moves to 34. To maintain point 46 in a fixed position the virtual image point 44 should move to 44" on line 46-52. This requires the lens center 53 of ring 40 to move to 53" on line 44"-34. The relative rotation of rotor 32 as com pared with that of rotor 31 is then in the proportion of distance $3'-53 to 53-53. It can be readily computed from the described geometrical construction of the principles involved.
Let n, denote the desired number of letters per line, and N the number of lenses 45, here 12.
n, corresponds to UN turns of rotor 31 and to turns of rotor 32 relatively to rotor 31. The total number n of individual lenses of ring 40 then figures as should be an integral number. To satisfy this requirement a change in the initial assumptions should be made. A change of distance 34-53 is particularly effective. The final proportions may then be determined by interpolation.
FIG. 4 shows the position of changeover from the end of one line to the start of the next line of the record. In this changeover position (FIG. 4) the walls between channels 43 of rotor 32 block passage of light from the image at 34. It should be noted that no time is lost to go from the end of one line to the start of the next. It takes no more time to start a new line than it takes to go from one character to the next.
The record 55 runs over a toothed roller 56 (FIG. 4) that is set at a very slight angle to the scanning line, which extends between the end of one record line to the start of the next line. Roll 56 is turned at a uniform rate. It is timed with gears to the two rotors 31, 32, as for instance through a worm gear 57 rigid with roll 56 (FIG. 2), a worm 58 in engagement therewith and cylindrical gears including gears 60, 61 driven from wormshaft 62, one of them through an idler (not shown). The rotation of the rotors should of course be in time with the impulses applied to the radiant energy sources 20.
The diminished record size is helpful in filing and storage and it also keeps the size of the rotors down, further permitting higher turning speeds of the faster rotor 32, and faster output of the computer information.
art-u FURTHER EMBODIMENTS 31. Lens 47 is replaced by a concave spherical mirror 63. Its
radius is double its distance 27-59 from axis 27. A halfslivered mirror surface 64 reflects about half the light and transmits the other half. The central ray 65 reaching concave mirror 63 at 59 is reflected back to point 66 of plane mirror surface 64 (FIG. 9) and is partly reflected from there to point 67 of record 68. The lenses 450 are proportioned to form an image of point 44 at point 67, together with concave mirror 63. The record 68 runs over a toothed roll 56 whose axis is at a slight angle to the straight scanning line 70, like that of roll 56 of FIG. 4.
Distance 59-66 66-67 (FIG. 9) is preferably made equal to two thirds of the distance 27-59 of mirror 63 from rotor axis 27. As can be demonstrated mathematically, this produces a uniform spacing of the characters along line 70 within very close tolerances and excellent focusing throughout.
The embodiment of FIGS. 10 and 1] also retains the structure of FIG. 1, FIG. 2a, and the two coaxial rotors that are timed to the uniform feed of the recording film. All the structure in the light path up to lenses 45 remains the same. These are replaced. The outer rotor 31" here contains lenses 45b (or lens systems) proportioned to form an image of point 44 at point 71 on the cylindrical outside surface of a refractory sector 72. The scanning line is here a circular arc. The record 73 is bent to follow this arc. It is uniformly moved over said cylindrical outside surface at a slight angle to the straight line elements of said surface.
THE LIGHT-PIPES The light-pipes are solid, not hollow, and are made of refractory material, such as Lucite, glass, etc.
Referring to FIGS. 12 to 17 the light pipes 21 have a large end 21" facing the source of light and a body diminishing in cross section from end 21" towards small end 21. At least half the length of the body adjacent the large end is identical on all light-pipes used in the ray writer. The small end has the shape of the character outlet that is gradually approached.
FIG. 12 shows the light outlet embodying the letter P. It is inscribed into the rectangular space 74 reserved for each character. This space does not appear on the finished lightpipe. A light-pipe with letter P outlet is shown in FIG. 13. The two portions p, p" of the section appear somewhat like points of a fork, the projections emerging from the solid light-pipe body very gradually at an inclined taper 75 of less than 30 degrees.
FIG. 14 shows in magnification the small end of a light-pipe whose outlet is the period dot 76. The light-pipe is further shown in FIGS. 15 to 17. Again the included taper (75') is less than 30 degrees. The shown light-pipe has an oval contour 77 that is higher than wide. As the light sources of all the character are preferably made equal, it is desirable to send less energy through such a diminished outlet area as that of the period dot. This may be done by lowering the efficiency of the light-pipe, as by making a hole 78 through it.
EMBODIMENT WITHOUT ROTORS A further ray typewriter for computer output will now be described with FIGS. 18 and 19. A set of cathode-ray tubes 80 are arranged in a circle about a point 81 for successively and selectively projecting radiation in directions converging towards said point, as dictated by the computer.
Each tube 80 contains an electron gun with cathode 80' and anode 80". Instead of a circular opening, the anode contains an opening of the shape of a character, as of a letter or number. The tube 80 further contains a focusing portion 82. A screen 83 is placed at point 81. Its inner surface contains a known phosphorescent or fluorescent layer adapted to trans- 5 form the electron stream into light.
A deflection coil 84 is placed to bend the rays so that successively actuated character images are displaced along a line 8l'-81b8l" (FIG. 19) on screen 83. The entire described structure is enclosed inside of an evacuated space, only a small portion of the enclosure 85 being shown.
The problem is to deflect the rays from all tubes 80 equally at any given time, so that the character image reaches the same position along line 8l81". This position is a function of the strength and extent of the magnetic field produced by coil 84 along the path of the rays. The magnetic field of a pair of short cylindrical coils weakens in the central portion between the coils. To counteract such weakening, coil 84 is made of ring shape, with two openings, as shown, Moreover the center 86 of the ring shape is advanced from point 81 towards the tube 80, to start the ray deflection in the central portion 87 at a somewhat larger distance from point 81, (FIG. 18). With such provisions the said problem issolved.
Rather than being continuous, as in television, the ray deflection should here be stepwise. FIG. 27 is a diagram showing the electric current applied to the deflection coil 84. It remains constant during each character impulse received and is then rapidly increased to the next level. During such increases 87' and during the return 87" for starting a new line the transmission is blanked as in television.
The character images formed along line 81'-81" are projected to film 88 at a reduced scale by lens 89.
In the modification shown in FIG. 20 deflection is effected in the plane in which the tubes 80 lie, in the drawing plane of FIG. 20. The tubes 80 are arranged as in FIG. 18, directed toward point 81. A pair of deflection coils perpendicular to the drawing plane are here used on opposite sides thereof. The deflection coils have a noncircular cross section, to produce a magnetic field approximately bounded by dotted lines 90. A circle 91 through point 81 intersects the mean'rays'of the tubes 80 at points such as 92', 92, 92". Equal magnetic field strength at these points deflects the mean rays through equal angles, so that the rays of all said points reach the same point on circle 91, for instance point 81,. Although actually the rays are bent gradually rather than about a point, the effect remains essentially the same. If it is seen to it that equal field strength exists at all points of circle 91 between points 92', 92" and equal extent and distribution of the magnetic field along the length of the mean rays, then the position (81,.) of a projected character image is the same for all characters.
Here again the electric current in the deflection coils should correspond to FIG. 27. The screen 93 with its fluorescent or phosphorescent layer follows circle 91. The entire described region is enclosed and evacuated, screen 93 forming part of the enclosure.
The images formed along the arc containing points 81, 81,. are reduced in size and projected to a film 94 by a lens 95.
It should be noted that the magnetic field 90 as well as the magnetic field produced by coil 84 is closer to common point 81 than to the electron guns.
HAND-OPERATED RAY TYPEWRITER As the hand-operated writer takes much more time to print a character than one operated by a computer, the choice of sources of radiant energy is much larger. Special incandescent light bulbs are acceptable.
A diagrammatic side view of such a writer is shown in FIG. 21 while FIG. 22 shows a section taken along lines 22-22, some parts being shown in view. Several rows 102 of incandescent light bulbs 96 are provided, (FIGS. 21, 23). A generally tapered light-pipe 97 cooperates with each bulb 96, all directed towards the same point 98. The small end of each light-pipe has the shape of a character, as described with FIGS. 12 to 17. An image of this character is formed at and adjacent point 98 by refractory means 99. A cylindrical roll 100 with record 101 is movable in conventional manner past point 98. During such intermittent motion point 98 describes an element of the cylindrical outside surface of roll 100.
The refractory means 99 are similar to the described means 24. Indeed identical means could be used. They would however require as many mernbers 24 as there are rows 102 of bulbs. Means 99 uses common lens surfaces 103 for equal bulb positions of the several rows l02l These lens surfaces are toroid surfaces having the same circular cross-sectional profile as the cylindrical lenses 25 of FIG. 6. Instead of being straight lengthwise, in the direction of their height, they extend about point 98. The rear surfaces 104 are toroid surfaces extending crosswise to the surfaces 103, at right angles thereto. They have a convex profile in cross section, FIG. 21. A single surface 104 serves all bulb positions of a whole: row 102. With three rows 102 altogether three individual surfaces 104 are provided on the rear of refractory means 99.
Separating sheets 99' are placed between lens surfaces 103.
The front and rear toroid surfaces combine to form the equivalent of individual spherical lenses, one for each bulb 96. Each such lens forms an image of the associated type outlet at and adjacent point 98.
The record sheet 101 may be provided with a heat sensitive layer, so that the projected type-image is burned in. With strong enough light bulbs and minimized dissipation of light and heat it becomes possible to use suitable record sheets without surface preparation.
A preferred form of light bulb and light-pipe will now be described with FIGS. 24 to 26.
FIG. 24 shows light bulb 96 in a view like that of FIG. 21. FIG. 26 shows it as in FIG. 22. The nearest bulbs in the plane of FIG. 22 lie in the same row and have a small distance from each other. For this reason it is important that the light bundle in this plane be kept narrow, to conserve light. An incandescent wire extending along a single straight line is preferably provided, where said line extends perpendicular to the plane of FIGS. 22 and 26. The wire may be wound in a helix of small diameter, to extend its length. Line 110 then represents the axis of this helix. A mirror layer 111 facing inwardly covers part of the light bulb. The resulting reflective outside surface of the bulb is so shaped that rays from point 110 (FIG. 26) are reflected to a closely adjacent point 112. Because of the close proximity of the points 110, 112 the elliptical reflecting profile theoretically required is so close to a circle centered midway between the points 110, 112 that a circle is preferably substituted for it. The front 1 13 of the bulb is preferably of lens shape. Also the light-pipe 97 may have a convex spherical end 114. The lens surfaces of the bulb and light-pipe are proportioned to form an image of points 110, 112 at 110', 112' respectively for a light pipe with full end, without formed type outlet. This provides the desired narrow light bundle in the plane of FIG. 26.
The light bundle in the plane of FIGS. 24 and 21 does not need to be so restricted, because of the larger distances between the light bulbs. Lens surfaces 104 are wider than surfaces 103.
A mirror surface 115 is also provided on part of the lightpipe, where it is held in the frame of the typewriter.
While the invention has been described with several embodiments thereof, further modifications may be made by simply applying the current knowledge of the art, and without departing from its spirit. For definition of its scope, reference is made to the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim is 1. A ray typewriter, comprising a plurality of sources of radiant energy disposed in an are about a common region, a different formed outlet in operative relation with each of said sources, each of said outlets having the shape of a type representing a character, means for successively and selectively projecting radiation from said sources through said outlets in converging directions to obtain images of said types at a common region, and means for placing the type images on a record along a line.
2. A ray typewriter according to claim 1, wherein a lightpipe of changing cross section is placed adjacent each course of radiant energy, having different areas at opposite ends, the
large end of said light-pipe being closer to said source than its small end, said small end containing one of said formed outlets representing a character.
3. A ray typewriter according to claim 2, wherein said lightpipes have noncircular cross sections that are higher than wide.
4. A ray typewriter according to claim 2, wherein the fonned character outlets are projections emerging from the solid light-pipe body at an included taper of less than 30 degrees.
5. A ray typewriter according to claim 1, wherein the source of radiant energy is an electron gun.
6. A ray typewriter according to claim 1, wherein a lens surface of a refractory part lies between each of said outlets and said common region, said lens surface being higher than wide.
7. A ray typewriter according to claim 6, wherein said lens surface is a cylindrical surface, a plurality of individual parallel cylindrical surfaces being fonned on a common refractory part, said individual cylindrical surfaces being accompanied by a surface of circular profiled extending crosswise of said cylindrical surfaces.
8. A ray typewriter according to claim 1, wherein a refractory member is placed at said common region to receive said images, said member having a diffusing image surface.
9. A ray typewriter, comprising a plurality of sources of radiant energy, a different fonned outlet in operative relation with each of said sources, each of said outlets having the shape of a type representing a character, means for successively and selectively projecting radiation from said sources through said type outlets in converging directions to a common point, refractory means interposed in the path of radiation to said point to obtain images of sad types at said point, a diffusing member placed to receive said images, a pair of rotors for pro jecting said images in displaced positions forming a line on a record, said rotors containing light-directing means.
10. A ray typewriter according to claim 9, wherein said pair of rotors are coaxial and timed to run at different rotational speeds, said rotors containing refractory light-directing means.
11. A ray typewriter according to claim 9, wherein said rotors are coaxial and contain refractory means of different strength, the outer rotor containing the stronger refractory means.
12. A ray typewriter according to claim 9, wherein a stationary refractory means is interposed in the path of light coming from said rotors, said means having a focal distance approximately equal to its distance from the rotor axis.
13. A ray typewriter according to claim 12, wherein the profile of said refractory means is convex on the side facing away from said rotor axis and more curved than on the opposite side.
14. A ray typewriter according to claim 1, wherein the sources of radiant energy are electron guns aimed at a common point, each gun facing an anode containing a type-shaped outlet, deflection coils creating magnetic fields are set transversely of the electron streams, for placing the projected typeimages along a central line of said common region, a lightemissive diffusing layer at said line, and means for projecting said type-images at reduced size to a record.
15. A ray typewriter according to claim 14, wherein said magnetic field acting on the electron streams is closer to said common point than to the electron guns.
16. A ray typewriter for manual operation, comprising a plurality of sources of radiant energy disposed in an are about a common region, a different formed outlet adjacent each of said sources in operative relation therewith, each of said outlets having the shape of a type representing a character, a keyboard for successively and selectively projecting radiation from said sources through said type-outlets in converging directions to said common region, refractory means interposed in the path of radiation to said point to obtain images of said types adjacent said point, and a cylindrical roll for holding a record, said roll being axially movable a st said point.
17. A ray typewriter accordlng to c arm 16, wherein the sources of radiant energy are incandescent bulbs containing each an incandescent wire extending along a single straight line, a plurality of bulbs are arranged in an are adjacent each other, said line being approximately perpendicular to the plane of said arc, a light-pipe is placed adjacent each bulb, the cross-sectional area of said light pipe diminishing with increasing distance from said bulb and said light-pipe terminating in a typeoutlet.
18. A ray typewriter for manual operation, comprising refractory means with a plurality of differently formed outlets arranged about a common point at an approximately constant distance therefrom, said outlets having the shape of characters and being directed radially of said point, means for emitting radiant energy selectively and successively through said outlets, a cylindrical roll for holding a record, and means for moving said roll intermittently in the direction of its axis past said common point.
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|US2448244 *||Sep 22, 1942||Aug 31, 1948||Orlan M Arnold||Illuminated display device|
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|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3950775 *||May 23, 1974||Apr 13, 1976||Canon Kabushiki Kaisha||Information displaying apparatus for a camera|
|US4341730 *||May 12, 1980||Jul 27, 1982||Maier Henry B||Beam dancer fusion device|
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|US4813765 *||Sep 19, 1986||Mar 21, 1989||Masataka Negishi||Device for changing directions of light rays|
|US4930867 *||Nov 4, 1988||Jun 5, 1990||Masataka Negishi||Device for changings directions of light rays|
|US5041862 *||Jun 1, 1990||Aug 20, 1991||Carl-Zeiss-Stiftung||Lens screen|
|US6057622 *||Jan 21, 1999||May 2, 2000||Lockhead Martin Energy Research Corporation||Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines|
|U.S. Classification||396/549, 385/147, 400/120.1, 400/479, 359/442, 396/550, 355/1, 362/576, 400/466|
|International Classification||B41J2/435, B41J2/465|