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Publication numberUS3614694 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 19, 1971
Filing dateSep 17, 1969
Priority dateSep 17, 1969
Publication numberUS 3614694 A, US 3614694A, US-A-3614694, US3614694 A, US3614694A
InventorsRoland F Koontz
Original AssigneeAtomic Energy Commission
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Coaxial cable high-voltage pulse isolation transformer
US 3614694 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [72] Inventor [21 Appl. No. [22] Filed [45] Patented [73] Assignee [54] COAXIAL CABLE HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE ISOLATION TRANSFORMER 6 Claims, 2 Drawing Figs.

[52] US. Cl 336/174, 333/26, 336/175, 336/195 51 Int. Cl H011 17 06 [50] Field of Search 336/173, 174,175,195, 221; 333/11, 24, 25, 26, 78

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,368,694 2/1945 Watts, Jr. 333/26 2,531,820 11/1950 Lindenblad 336/175 X 2,639,328 5/1953 Caraway 333/26 2,804,577 8/1957 Roth 336/174 X FOREIGN PATENTS 760,450 1/1954 Germany 333/26 873,712 4/1953 Germany.... 333/26 308,406 1929 Great Britain 336/174 X Primary Examiner-Thomas .l. Kozma Attorney-Roland A. Anderson ABSTRACT: A one-to-one high-voltage nanosecond pulse isolation transformer formed from a single length of solid dielectric coaxial cable bent into a U-shape with the outer sheath separated at the midpoint of the U and with the outer ends of the sheath electrically interconnected. Input connections are made to the separated sheaths at the midpoint of the U" and output connections are made across the ends of the center conductor at the ends of the Ferrite cores are stacked over the sheath on each leg of the U to prevent input pulses from flowing in the sheaths and being shorted by the connection between the sheaths.

FLOATING HIGHVOLTAGE DECK l4? IE33 PATENTEDUBT 19 Ian FLOATING HIGHVOLTAGE DECK I4? I E33 INVENTOR.

ROLAND FKOONTZ ATTORNEY COAXIAL CABLE HIGH-VOLTAGE PULSE ISOLATION TRANSFORMER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to a high-voltage pulse isolation transformer, more particularly it relates to a transmission line type of transformer constructed from a single integral length of transmission line.

In transmission line transformers for high-voltage pulses one persistent problem is the elimination of impedance discontinuities such as arise in making electrical connections between conductors or in providing insulation or spacing for the conductors. Such discontinuities cause pulse degradation, spurious pulse reflections, and difficulty in matching load and source impedances to the transformer. Known techniques to minimize these discontinuities are complex and expensive and involve intricate mechanical connections and special potting techniques.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In brief, the invention pertains to a transmission line pulse transformer that is made from an integral unit of standard transmission line so as to take advantage of the inherently high degree of freedom from impedance discontinuities that a length of such line normally possesses. In particular, a pulse transformer may be constructed according to the invention from a single length of coaxial cable of the type having a center conductor, an outer sheath and a solid dielectric between the center conductor and sheath. The sheath is electrically separated into two lengths at the midpoint of the cable but the solid dielectric and center conductor are left intact along the entire length. The separated ends of the sheath constitute a pair of input terminals and a balanced center point for application of an input pulse. lnductive means such as ferrite cores are provided around each of the sheaths for preventing high-frequency currents from flowing through the sheaths. This permits one-half of the input signal to be launched between each center conductor and sheath at the input terminals. Since the signal flow is completely within the coaxial cable, the ferrite cores do not impede the signal; however, the cores do prevent signals from propagating through the sheaths to a short circuit at the connection between the ends of the sheath. The particular construction of the transformer results in a transmission line transformer in which the mechanical connections are minimal and the uniformity of the dielectric is preserved, thereby minimizing impedance discontinuities. Such an arrangement provides superior electrical characteristics, is simple to construct, provides convenient connections, and is inexpensive.

It is an object of the invention to maximize the DC isolation capability of a pulse transformer.

Another object is to minimize impedance discontinuities in transmission line transformers.

Another object is to construct a pulse transformer from a single length of coaxial cable.

Another object is to minimize the mechanical connections in a transmission line pulse transformer.

Another object is to effectively, simply, conveniently and inexpensively construct a transmission line pulse transformer.

Other objects and advantageous features of the invention will be apparent in a description of a specific embodiment thereof, given by way of example only, to enable one skilled in the art to readily practice the invention, and described hereinafter with reference to the accompanying drawing.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. I is a pictorial diagram of a coaxial cable high-voltage pulse isolation transformer according to the invention.

FIG. 2 is a schematic diagram of the transformer of FIG. 1.

DESCRIPTION OF AN EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. 1 of the drawing, a coaxial cable highvoltage pulse isolation transformer 10 is shown which is constructed from a single length of coaxial cable having a center conductor 12 with ends that terminate at a pair of output terminals 14 and 15. The conductor 12 is uniformly surrounded with a solid dielectric 17 having a constant thickness over the entire length of the conductor. The dielectric 17 is surrounded with a conducting sheath that is separated into first and second sheaths l9 and 21 at the midpoint of the cable length. Near their separation, the sheaths l9 and 21 are terminated with corona rings 23 which are connected to input terminals 25 and 26. The opposite ends of the sheaths 19 and 21 are terminated in a second pair of corona rings 27 that are interconnected electrically with a connection 35. A length of center conductor and dielectric extends beyond each corona'ring 27 across a high-voltage gap 29 to a floating high-voltage deck 31 for connection at the output terminals 14 and 15 to a coaxial cable 33 which may for example conduct high-voltage pulses to the grid of an electron gun of a high-energy linear accelerator. A first group of ferrite cores 37 are stacked around the sheath 19 while a second group of ferrite cores 39 are stacked around the sheath 21. These cores are inductive means for preventing pulses that are applied across the input terminals 25 and 26 from being conducted over the sheaths l9 and 21 through the direct current short established by the connection 35.

It will be noted that the mechanical connections to the transformer 10 are minimal, that transmission lines of various types may be easily and conveniently connected to both the input and output terminals, that the center conductor 12 is uniform throughout its length and free from mechanical connections, that the solid dielectric 17 is uniform throughout its length, that there are no sharp bends in the coaxial cable and that it is generally free of any impedance discontinuities.

The transformer 10 of FIG. I is shown schematically in FIG. 2 for the purpose of a brief explanation of the operation of the transformer 10. Application of an input pulse having a peak voltage V across the input terminals 25 and 26 and rising in the direction of the arrow from terminal 26 towards terminal 25 causes the voltage V to divide equally so that a first voltage on y appears across the sheath 21 and the center conductor 12 and a second voltage of lzV appears across the center conductor 12 and the sheath 19, the two voltage pulses of '{zV being launched thereby towards the output terminals 14 and 15. The inductance of the ferrite cores 37 and 39 prevents signal current from moving down one sheath and up the other through the connection 35. Thus, the first and second input voltage of v are propagated to the respective output ends of the cable entirely within the sheaths, i.e.,' there is no signal field that is external to the sheath. The propagation of the pulses within the sheath, therefore, is not impeded by the ferrite cores. By virtue of the connection 35 between the sheaths, the two signals add across the output terminals 14 and 15 to form an output signal having a peak amplitude of V. The direction and amplitude of the peak output voltage appearing between the terminals 14 and 15 may be ascertained by examination of a path starting at the terminal 14 and moving from the conductor 12 towards the sheath 19 for a first voltage rise of AV,

and then moving over the connection 35 to the sheath 21 for a second voltage rise of %V from the sheath 21 to the end of the conductor 12. The two voltage rises of hV are additive and in phase and thereby constitute a voltage rise of V from the terminal 14 towards the terminal 15. Since the center conductor 12 is electrically isolated from the sheath, the resulting output signal is independent in ground reference from the input signal. This permits the transformer to be used in systems requiring DC isolation where the output signal is to be used at a different reference potential from the input signal. The isolation between the center conductor and sheaths also permits the transformer to be used with either polarity at ground, thus permitting the transformer to be used as an inversion transformer.

A coaxial cable high-voltage pulse isolation transformer exemplifying the invention was constructed of a 6 ft. length of 50 ohm coaxial cable having an outside diameter of in. Twenty ferrite cores were mounted on each leg of the coaxial cable. The transformer was used to drive the grid of an electron gun for a long linear accelerator. The gun was mounted on a highvoltage deck having a potential of 80 kv. with a gap of 10 inches between the deck and the transformer output. Pulses having a peak voltage of 1 kV., a peak current of 10 amps and a risetime of 3 nanoseconds were applied to the input terminals 25 and 26, resulting in output pulses of the same specifications.

While an embodiment of the invention has been shown and described, further embodiments or combinations of those described herein will be apparent to those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention.

1 claim:

1. A coaxial cable high-voltage pulse isolation transformer, comprising:

a single length of coaxial cable having a center conductor,

an outer sheath, and a dielectric between said center conductor and sheath, said dielectric being solid and continuous and uniformly covering said center conductor at a constant thickness along the entire length of said cable, said sheath being electrically separated transversely at one section along said length, said separated sheath constituting first and second legs, the portions of said legs adjacent said separation constituting input terminals for application of an electrical pulse, said single length of coaxial cable being bent to have a U shape in which said first and second legs are equal, said dielectric being solid, continuous and uniformly covering said center conductor at said constant thickness throughout the portion of said cable that is bent into a U" shape; and

inductive means mounted around each of said legs for blocking the flow of high-frequency currents in said sheath, said transformer being operable in response to application of said pulse across said input terminals to produce an output signal between the center conductor and the surrounding sheath at the end of each leg opposite said separation.

2. The transformer of claim 1 wherein the separation of said sheath is at the balanced center point of said length of coaxial cable.

3. The transformer of claim 1 wherein said center conductor and sheath of said first leg are connected in phase addition with said center conductor and sheath of said second leg.

4. The transformer of claim 1 further including an electrical connection between the ends of said sheath at the ends of said cable on said first and second legs, the ends of said center conductor constituting first and second output terminals.

5. The transformer of claim 1 further including four corona rings, each of said rings terminating one of the ends of the sheaths of said first and second legs.

6. The transformer of claim 1 wherein said inductive means is a plurality of ferrite cores stacked around said first and second legs.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2368694 *Aug 15, 1942Feb 6, 1945Standard Telephones Cables LtdCoupling device
US2531820 *Mar 8, 1946Nov 28, 1950Rca CorpVoltage transformer
US2639328 *Jun 23, 1945May 19, 1953Us Sec WarBalanced to unbalanced energy transfer circuit
US2804577 *May 25, 1954Aug 27, 1957Gen ElectricElectric protective equipment
DE760450C *Jan 14, 1941Jan 18, 1954Telefunken GmbhLeiterschleife fuer Kurzwellen
DE873712C *Mar 19, 1940Apr 16, 1953Telefunken GmbhSymmetrieranordnung fuer kurze Wellen
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3725741 *Jun 30, 1971Apr 3, 1973Westinghouse Electric CorpDifferential transformer mounting arrangement particulary for ground fault interrupter apparatus
US3961292 *May 19, 1975Jun 1, 1976Ross Alan DavisRadio frequency transformer
US4134091 *Dec 8, 1977Jan 9, 1979Rogers Noel ALow cost, high efficiency radio frequency transformer
US4418265 *Mar 3, 1981Nov 29, 1983Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki KaishaDevice with high frequency contactless type arc generating mechanism
US4777466 *Apr 18, 1986Oct 11, 1988Senter For IndustriforskningConnector arrangement for electrical circuits in underwater installations, and transformer particularly for use in such arrangement
US4960392 *Jan 16, 1990Oct 2, 1990Dickie Robert GShielded connector assembly with noise suppressor
US4980654 *Apr 6, 1990Dec 25, 1990Tektronix, Inc.Transmission line transformer
US5010298 *Jun 26, 1989Apr 23, 1991Macome CorporationVariable inductance displacement measuring device with slidable metal sleeve and ferrite bead core
US5521810 *Jun 5, 1995May 28, 1996Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki KaishaRectifying saturable reactor
US5808518 *Oct 29, 1996Sep 15, 1998Northrop Grumman CorporationPrinted guanella 1:4 balun
US6211498Mar 1, 1999Apr 3, 2001Powell Power Electronics, Inc.Induction heating apparatus and transformer
US6288378Mar 30, 2000Sep 11, 2001Powell Power Electronics, Inc.Induction heating system with split resonance capacitance
US6559810 *Dec 14, 2001May 6, 2003Xtremespectrum, Inc.Planar ultra wide band antenna with integrated electronics
US6741814 *Apr 1, 1999May 25, 2004Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Balun for coaxial cable transmission
US7675226 *Apr 17, 2007Mar 9, 2010General Electric CompanyHigh-frequency, high-voltage electron switch
Classifications
U.S. Classification336/174, 336/195, 333/26, 336/175
International ClassificationH01F19/08
Cooperative ClassificationH01F2017/065, H01F2019/085, H01F2027/2833, H01F19/08
European ClassificationH01F19/08