US 3615242 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Robert M. Anderson Houston;
Andrew L. Askew, Jr., liliouston, Tex.; Lee A. Kline, Cleveland, Ohio  Inventors  Appl. No. 773,057
 Filed Nov. 4, 1968  Patented Oct. 26, 1971  Assignee Ashland Oil, Inc.
 MULTIPLE-INJECTOR CARBON BLACK Primary Examiner-James H, Tayman, Jr. Attorney-Walter 1-1. Schneider ABSTRACT: A furnace-type carbon black reactor, including, a large-diameter, short axial length, cylindrical heating zone, a smaller diameter, greater axial length, cylindrical reaction zone connected to the effluent end of the heating zone, an orifice ring mounted in the reaction zone at the juncture of the heating zone and the reaction zone, an opening in the inlet end of the combustion zone, a streamlined, generally dumbbellshaped central combustion-supporting gas guide, having the neck thereof passing through the opening in the heating zone, a generally disc-shaped combustible mixture deflector mounted adjacent the inner end of the central guide, the walls of the heating zone surrounding the neck of the central guide being contoured to form a streamlined annular space about the central guide, a combustion'supporting gas plenum surrounding the rearward end of the central guide and in open communication with the annular space about the central guide, an opening through the center of the central guide, and the deflector, a hollow tubular deflector support connected to the disc-shaped deflector and slideably mounted through the center of the central guide, adjusting means for moving the tubular deflector support and the deflector forwardly and rearwardly with respect to the end walls of the heating zone, a gate-type valve means mounted on the tubular deflector support near the rearward end thereof, a removable, elongated feedstock injection means slideably mounted through the gate valve, through the tubular deflector support and terminating at its inward end in a feedstock spray nozzle adjacent the inner face of the deflector disc, means for slideably removing the feedstock injector means from the tubular deflector support, and a plurality of individually removable combustible mixture injector means, including, a liquid fuel inlet line and a dispersing gas line and terminating at its free end in a spray nozzle, the combustible mixture injector means being spaced about the heating zone and each of the injector means passes through a quick-opening gate valve, passes through the wall of the heating zone and has its spray nozzle positioned behind the deflector disc. in a second embodiment, the central guide and deflector disc are eliminated, the combustion-supporting gas plenum is an annular tube surrounding the inlet end of the heating zone, combustion-supporting gas inlet tubes are connected to the annular tube at radially spaced points about the heating zone and pass through the walls of the heating zone, a gate-type valve is mounted in each combustion-supporting gas tube, and individually removable combustible mixture injector means are slideably mounted through. the combustion supporting gas tubes and gate valves and include a liquid fuel inlet line, a dispersing gas inlet line and a spray nozzle at the inner. terminal end of the injector means.
PATENTEUBET 2 s 1971 SHEET 1 [1F 4 FIG.
PMENIEHum as ten 3,615,242
SHEET w [IF A FiG.ll
MULTIPLE-INJECTOR CARBON BLACK FURNACE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The preparation of furnace-type carbon blacks by the the thermal decomposition of gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons is well known. In general, this method of preparation comprises decomposing the hydrocarbon feedstock by subjecting the feedstock to heat generated from the burning of a portion of the feedstock and/or decomposing the hydrocarbon feedstock by subjecting it to heat generated by substantially complete combustion of a fuel, usually a second, different hydrocarbon. The hydrocarbon feedstock employed, the method of injecting the reactants into the reactor the reaction temperature the reaction time, the peripheral velocity and turbulence of the reaction mass in the reaction zone, The ratio of refractory surface to reaction chamber volume, among other things, are all variables which determine the grade of carbon black as well as the quality of any particular grade. There has been and continues to be considerable study of these variables, with the result that over the years various improvements of furnacetype carbon black reactors and processes have been proposed.
The prior art improvements have taken a number of different forms, but in general, have related primarily to modifications in the manner of injecting a heat-providing combustible mixture into a combustion zone and/or reaction zone so as to create a high degree of turbulence and, thus, intimate contact of the feedstock with the combustible mixture. In each such modification, the hydrocarbon feedstock is then introduced into the turbulent mixture of the combustible material and/or the combustion products thereof in the reaction zone where the hydrocarbon feedstock is then readily decomposed. Further, it has been found, in the prior art, that best results are obtained if combustion of the fuel occurs before any substantial degree of flow restriction or impedance, to create turbulence of the combustible mixture and/or combustion products, takes place and if such combustion of fuel is conducted out of contact with the hydrocarbon feedstock. Accordingly, in the ideal situation, the combustion of the fuel occurs before any substantial degree of turbulence and without contacting the feedstock, the combustion products then flow turbulently through an enlarged heating zone and, finally, the resultant turbulent combustion products are intimately mixed with the feedstock as both leave the heating zone and pass into an elongated, smaller diameter reaction zone. This general type of reactor and the process for accomplishing combustion of the fuel out of contact with the feedstock and thereafter creating a turbulent mass of combustion products which intimately contact and mix with feedstock as both leave the combustion zone and enter the reaction zone is shown in detail in US. Pat. No. 3,057,688 to David C. Williams, entitled Carbon Black Process and Apparatus." In this particular method and apparatus, a hydrocarbon fuel and a combustion-supporting gas are introduced into the combustion or heating zone so that the combustion products first flow countercurrent to and out of contact with the feedstock, then radially away from the feedstock, then substantially parallel to the feedstock and in the same direction, then inwardly toward the feedstock and finally, into the stream of feedstock as both pass from the combustion zone or heating zone to a reaction zone. It is this general type of method and apparatus to which the present invention is primarily directed and the details of the same are incorporated herein by reference to the previously mentioned patent. In a further improvement of this type of reactor, as set forth in U.S. Pat. No. 3,060,003 to David C. Williams, entitled Process and Apparatus for Producing Carbon Black, the combustible mixture of fuel and combustion-supporting gas is introduced radially outward into the combustion chamber through an annular, ring-shaped orifice formed by the combustible mixture injection ring on one side of and a generally disc-shaped, annular deflector, while the feedstock and air for the decomposition of the feedstock is introduced on the opposite side through a hole in the center of the disc.
While relatively little difficulty is encountered in the combustion of fuels comprising gases, such as natural gas, in the presence of a combustion-supporting gas when utilizing reactors of the types shown and described in the two previously mentioned patents, there are a number of geographical areas where it is desirable or necessary to use fuels other than natural gas. The obvious substitute for natural gas is, of course, a liquid hydrocarbon fuel. Unfortunately, the use of such liquid hydrocarbon fuels introduces a vast number of new problems in the conduct of carbon black process and the design of the reactor. There is often severe erosion of the refractory lining, leading to definite impairment of the properties of the carbon black products, coke deposits form readily within the reaction-combustion chamber leading to unstable operation, and ash is often deposited in the combustion chamber, thus frus trating proper firing of the reactor. Therefore, simply spraying the liquid fuel into the combustion chamber has not been found satisfactory. Accordingly, US. Pat. No. 3,290,l20 entitled Apparatus for the Production of Carbon Black" to William R. Wright, et al. proposes a carbon black reactor of the type described in the previous patents, which is particularly useful in the introduction of liquid fuels. More specifically, this patent describes a system wherein a fuel distribution ring is provided with nozzles through which a combustion-supporting gas or other gas is utilized to disperse the liquid hydrocarbon, and the material issuing from the dispersing nozzles passes through an annular orifice behind an annular deflector disc where it combines with the major supply of combustion supporting gas. While the arrangement of U5. Pat. No. 3,290,120 has provided adequate, still further improvement of this type system are shown and described in copending application Ser. No. 678,962entitled Fuel Oil Injector for Carbon Black Reactor by Donald Whittle et al. now US. Pat. No. 3,501,274. In this modification, it was found that substantial improvement resulted from placement of the distributor ring in the shadow of the deflecting disc so that it will be shielded from the highest temperatures within the combustion zone and so as to expose to such high temperatures only very limited metal surfaces, such as, the nozzles only. It was also found, in accordance with the subject application, that substantial improvement would result if the flow of combustionsupporting gas utilized to generate heat was not interfered with prior to contact with the fuel. Accordingly, FIG. 3 of the subject application shows a streamlined annular channel for the introduction of combustion-supporting gas made up of a dumbbell-shaped center structure having a small-diameter central neck which gradually flares rearwardly and forwardly and terminating in the deflector disc at its forward end; and a complementary annular cylinder spaced about and generally conforming to the central portion of the center structure. The details of this structure are shown and described with reference to FIG. 3 of the above-mentioned application and such description is incorporated herein by reference.
In spite of these numerous and substantial improvements of the furnace process and carbon black furnaces for such process, the art is still plagued with a number of problems, particularly when utilizing liquid fuels. For example, it has been found that the fuel injection nozzles wear very rapidly, thereby requiring frequent replacement, and there is a strong tendency, particularly when using liquid fuels, to form carbon on and in the injection nozzles, thereby causing plugging of the nozzles. When one or two of these nozzles become worn or plugged, carbon black quality is not normally effected. However, when several of the nozzles become partially or wholly inoperative, it is necessary to remove the reactor from production until the entire burner assembly can be cooled and repaired or replaced. Obviously, when one who recognizes the well-known difficulties of shutting down and starting up an operation of this kind, it is usually desirable to replace the entire unit once the system has been shut down.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide an apparatus which overcomes all of the above-mentioned disadvantages of the prior art. Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved carbon black furnace which can be maintained on a substantially longer, continuous cycle. A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved carbon black furnace in which damaged or plugged fuel injection means may be replaced without interrupting operation of the reactor. Another and further object of the present invention is to provide an improved carbon black furnace in which the fuel injection means may be individually removed and repaired and/or replaced without interrupting operation of the furnace. Yet another object of the present invention is to provide an improved carbon black reactor particularly suited for the injection of liquid fuels and in which the fuel injection means may be removed and replaced without interrupting the operation of the furnace. Still another object of the present invention is to provide an improved carbon black reactor in which the feedstock injection means may be readily removed and replaced.
These and other object and advantages of the present invention will be apparent from the following detailed description, when read in conjunction with the drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is an end view, partially in section, of one embodiment of the reactor of the present application;
FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view, taken along the line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is an end view, partially in section, of a second embodiment of the reactor of the present application;
FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view, taken along the line 4-4 of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is a side view, partially in section, of a combustible fuel injector for the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view, taken along the line 6-6 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a side view partially in section of a combustible fuel injector for the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4;
FIG. 8 is a cross-sectional view, taken along the line 8-8 of FIG. 7;
FIG. 9 is a side view, partially in section, of a deflector operating means for use in the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2 and a gate valve suitable for use in the embodiments of FIGS. 1 through 4;
FIG. 10 is a cross-sectional view, taken along the line 10- 10 of FIG. 9;
FIG. 1 l is a side view, partially in section, of a feedstock injector for use in the embodiments of FIGS. 1 through 4; and
FIG. 12 is a modification of the gate valve of FIGS. 9 and Briefly, in accordance with the present invention, a furnacetype carbon black reactor is provided, comprising, a feedstock introduction means, a combustion-supporting gas introduction means, and a combustible fuel introduction means, including, a plurality of receiving means disposed in a plurality of radial planes about the central axis of the reactor and providing a passage from the exterior of said reactor to the interior thereof adjacent the inlet end of said reactor, closure means in each of the receiving means to open and close the passage from the exterior to the interior of the reactor and a combustible fuel injector means removably mounted in sealing engagement in each of the said receiving means when said closure means is open. The reactor is further improved by the provision of feedstock injection means removably mounted adjacent the central axis of the reactor near the inlet end thereof and by positioning a deflector disc, which is axially movable in the reactor, in a shielding position in front of the combustible fuel supply means outlets while the feedstock injection means passes through the disc to a point adjacent the front face thereof.
Referring first to FIGS. 1 and 2 of the drawings, a furnacetype carbon black reactor is designated generally by the numeral 10. This reactor includes a large-diameter, short axial length, cylindrical heating zone 12 in open communication with a smaller diameter, greater axial length, cylindrical reaction zone 14. Disposed between heating zone I2 and reaction zone 14 is a restricted diameter orifice ring 16. In accordance with conventional practice, the heating zone 12 and the reaction zone 14 are internally lined with a high-temperature refractory material 18. The high-temperature refractory material 18 is, in turn, backed up by a castable refractory insulation 20 and the entire reactor is enclosed by an outer steel shell or casing 22. Mounted within an opening in the inlet end of heating zone 12 is a dumbbell shaped, centrally disposed combustion-supporting gas guide 24. Guide member 24 is mounted by ribs 26 to a contoured collar 28. Collar 28 is contoured to generally follow the shape of guide member 24 and thereby form an annular combustion-supporting gas space between the central guide 24 and the collar 28. Collar 28, the rearward end of the guide 24, and the neck of guide 24 are made of a suitable steel material. The forward end of guide member 24 is formed by a separate, metal, disc-shaped deflector 32. The rear portion of deflector 32 is made of a suitable metal, while the front face of the deflector 32 is a castable high-temperature refractory material 34. Deflector 32 is movable axially with respect to rearward section 30 of guide member 24 and for this purpose, is mounted on deflector support conduit 36, which passes through a central opening in section 30 of central guide 24 and is slidable therein. Mounted in deflector support 36 is check valve 38. Deflector support 36 passes through end closure 40 of central guide member 24. A combustion-supporting gas plenum 42 is mounted over the opening in combustion zone 12 and surrounds rear section 30 of guide member 24. Plenum 42 is in open communication with the annular space formed by collar 28 and guide member 24. Combustion-supporting gas is supplied to plenum 42 through gas conduit 44 from a source not shown. Preferably collar 28 is mounted in the opening in heating zone 12 and guide 24 is'mounted through plenum 42 in a manner such that the entire guide 24, collar 28 and deflector 32 assemblage may be withdrawn from the furnace for repair or other adjustment. Mounted to the outside of closure plate 40 is a deflector operating means 46 for axial movement of deflector support 36 and consequently deflector 32 as shown by the dashed outline in FIG. 2. Coupled to the deflector operating means by means of coupling 48 is feedstock injection means 50. The feedstock injection means 50 is removably mounted through deflector support conduit 36, deflector support operating means 46 and check valve 38 and terminates at its free end in an appropriate feedstock spray nozzle. Positioned in a plurality of radial planes about the central axis of the reactor and passing through the rearward wall of heating zone 12 are a plurality of combustible fuel introduction means 52. Each of combustible fuel introduction means 52 includes a guide conduit or receiving means 54, fixedly mounted in the reactor. Mounted in guide conduit 54 is a quick-acting gate valve 56. Slideably and removably mounted within guide conduit 54 is a combustible fuel injector means 58 which passes through gate valve 56 and terminates at its free end on a spray nozzle behind deflector disc 32. Combustible fuel injector means 58 is connected to a fuel supply through flexible hose 60 and a dispersing gas supply through flexible hose 62. The particular combustible mixture injector means is designed for introduction of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel, using an inert or combustion-supporting gas for dispersing the liquid fuel through the spray nozzle. As previously pointed out, the spray nozzles of combustible fuel injectors 58 have a tendency to plug and require repairs or replacement. Accordingly, the generic structure of the injector means of the present invention is such that each individual injector means 58 may be removed from the reactor and repaired or replaced without shutting down operation of the reactor. As was also previously pointed out, anyone or several of these injectors may be removed without seriously upsetting the operation of the reactor. Accordingly, they may be simply withdrawn from guide conduit 54 through valve 56, and, thereafter, valve 56 is closed to permit the reactor to continue operation.
FIGS. 3 and 4 illustrate a second embodiment of the present invention. In FIGS. 3 and 4, the same number are used to designate elements which correspond to those of FIGS. 1 and 2. It is to be observed from FIGS. 3 and 4 that this embodiment differs from the embodiment of FIGS. I and 2 primarily in the means for supplying combustion-supporting gas and the placement of the combustible fuel introduction means. Specifically, heating zone 12 is surrounded by an annular conduit 64 which supplies a combustion-supporting gas to the combustible fuel in heating zone 12. Combustion-supporting gas is introduced to the system through conduit 66 from a source not shown. The combustion-supporting gas then passes through gas conduit 68. One end of gas conduit 68 is in open communication with annular conduit 64 and the opposite end passes through an appropriate, axial opening in the end wall of heating zone 12 to supply combustion-supporting gas to the feedstock in heating zone 12. It is to be observed that in FIGS. 1 and 2, the same combustion-supporting gas inlet supplies both the combustible fuel and the feedstock requirements, whereas separate means for introducing the combustion-supporting gas to the feedstock and the combustible fuel, respectively, are employed in FIGS. 3 and 4. Feedstock injector means 50 passes through coupling 48 and check valve 38, all as previously described with reference to FIGS. 1 and 2, and then passes through an appropriate guide conduit 70 in which check valve 38 is mounted. Guide tube 70 is appropriately mounted along the central axis and through the sidewall of combustion-supporting gas conduit 68. It is to be noted that, in this arrangement, the feedstock injector means 50 is removable in the same manner as in the previous embodiment but the deflector, the deflector operating means and the central combustion-supporting gas guide have been eliminated. The combustion-supporting gas for the feedstock passes from conduit 68 and thence through the annular space between conduit 68 and guide tube 70. Combustion-supporting gas for combustion of the combustible heating fuel is supplied from annular conduit 64 through branch conduits 72. Branch conduits 72 connect annular conduit 64 to a plurality of radially disposed guide conduits or receiving means 74. Guide conduits 74 pass through the walls of heating zone I2 at an angle and in offset positions with respect to the central axis as generally shown in FIG. 3. A check valve 76 is mounted in each of guide conduits 74. Check valve 76 may be of the same structure as check valve 38. Passing through check valve 76 and guide conduit 74 is a combustible fuel injector means 78. Thus, it is obvious that guide conduit 74 serves as a mounting and guide means for a combustible fuel injector 78 as well as a conduit for combustion-supporting gas for burning the combustible fuel. Combustible fuel injector means 78 is designated for injection of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel supplied through a flexible line 80 and a dispersing gas introduced through flexible line 82. The liquid fuel is dispersed by the dispersing gas through an appropriate nozzle in free end of combustible mixture injector 78, which nozzle is positioned adjacent the periphery of heating zone 12 and adjacent the rear wall of heating zone I2. While the injector means can be positioned at any desired angle and at any relative radial position, in the embodiment shown, they may be mounted at a slight angle to project combustion products toward the exit end of heating zone I2 and they may be offset slightly so that an axial line through the injector 78 passes slightly to the side of the feedstock injector 50 as shown by the dashed lines 2: in FIG. 3.
FIGS. 5 and 6 show, in somewhat more detail, the injector means 58 of FIGS. 1 and 2. It will be quite obvious to one skilled in the art that the combustible fuel injector means of FIGS. 5 and 6 can be utilized with equal facility in either the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2 or that of FIGS. 3 and 4. Similarly, the gate valve 56 of FIGS. I and 2 can be a check valve, such as check valve 76 of FIGS. 3 and 4, and vice versa. In FIGS. 5 and 6, the combustible fuel injector includes an appropriate spray nozzle 84 supplied with a liquid hydrocarbon sun-9 fuel through line 86 and a dispersing gas through line 88. Lines 86 and 88 pass through appropriate guide blocks 90 and 02, respectively, which are spaced apart and attached to one another by means of coupling pipe 94. Guide blocks 30 and 92 slide within guide conduit 54 and flange 96 on guide block 92 fits within an appropriate keyway in the upper end of guide conduit 34. Flange 296 permits appropriate orientation of spray nozzle 84 when injector mechanisms 58 is positioned in the reactor. Quick-connect assemblies 98 and 100 are mounted adjacent the free ends of lines 86 and 88 and couple these lines to flexible fuel and dispersing gas lines 60 and 62, respectively. At this point, it should be noted that flexible lines 60 and 62 may pass to control panel mounted on the reactor or adjacent the reactor and fuel and dispersing gas may be supplied from rigid lines connected to these panels. Also, these supply lines may be provided with liquid fuel metering valves, fuel filters, and other liquid fuel controls, and air metering valves, air filters, and air pressure gauges may be added, as desired.
As previously mentioned, the fuel injector of FIGS. 3 and 6 may be used with equal facility in the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4. In this instance, by proper orientation of spray nozzle 84 the combustible mixture and combustion products can be introduced tangentially into heating zone 12 to form a mass of combustible fuel and combustion products travelling in a circumferential manner about heating zone 12. The injectors may also be centrally positioned in the circumferential wall of heating zone 12 of FIG, 4 by simply positioning guide conduits 74 through annular combustion-supporting gas conduit 64 and thence through the circumferential wall of heating zone 12.
FIGS. 7 and 8 show a combustible fuel injection means specifically designed for use in the embodiment of FIGS. 3 and 4. This injector may also be used interchangeably with the injector of FIGS. 5 and 6 in either of the embodiments of FIGS. I and 2 and FIGS. 3 and 4. In accordance with FIGS. 7 and 8, injector 78 is provided with an appropriate spray nozzle I02. Spray nozzle 102 is supplied, with liquid fuel through line 104 and dispersing gas through line 106. Welded or otherwise fixedly attached to line I06 is elongated mounting bar 108. Elongated mounting bar I08 is, in turn, fixedly attached to convex seat 110. Mounting bar 108 extends across guide conduit 74 and locks into position in slots in lock tabs 112 which are welded to conduit 74. Lock tabs I12 and mounting bar 108 cooperate to hold the injector 78 in position in conduit 74 and to seal the conduit appropriately. Mounted within guide conduit 74 near the outer free end thereofis seating block 114. As shown, line 106 passes through a central aperture in seating block 114 and convex seat 1I0 cooperates with a concave depression in block 114 to provide an appropriate seal when mounting bar 108 is in position in the slots and tabs II2, Lines 104 and 106 are provided with quick-connect couplings I16 and 118, respectively, which connect these lines to fuel and dispersing gas lines 80 and 82 (FIGS. 3 and 4).
FIGS. 9 and I0 show, in some detail, the deflector disc operating mechanism 46 and check valve 38 of the embodiment of FIGS. I and 2. As previously indicated, check valve 38 of FIGS. 9 and 10 can be utilized in any of the conduits of any embodiment where a check valve or gate valve is specified. As shown generically in FIG. .2, deflector support 36 passes from coupling 48 to deflector 32. Mounted in support conduit 36, at an intermediate point, is check valve 38. As illustrated in FIGS. 9 and 10, check valve 38 comprises an enlarged casing 120. Casing I20 is attached to conduit 36 by appropriate end walls I22 and 124. End wall I22 forms an ap' propriate valve seat for valve flapper disc 126. Flapper disc I26 is, in turn, mounted on rotatable arm 128. Rotatable I28 is mounted on rotation rod I30 which is, in turn, mounted through the sides of casing 120. Flapper disc I26 and arm 128 are biased in the normally closed position by means of springs 132. Thus, it is obvious that as feedstock injector means 50 is inserted through support conduit 36 from left to right, toward the heating chamber 12 of FIG. 2, flapper 126 is pushed upwardly and held in its open position by the feedstock injector 50. When the feedstock injector is withdrawn from the heating zone, the flapper automatically closes. Accordingly, when the feedstock injector 50 is withdrawn for servicing, there is no appreciable loss of gases, vapors or heat from the reaction zone. This, of course, is highly advantageous because of the problems associated with cooling down of carbon black reactors when they are shut down for any reason. It is also quite obvious that the removable feedstock injector 50, hereinafter described, can be readily replaced with very little interruption in the operation of the furnace when using the check valve in guide conduit 36 as described herein.
As previously pointed out, the inner terminal end of support conduit 36 has fixedly attached thereto the deflector 32 (FIG. 2) and its opposite end is coupled to coupling 48. Deflectoroperating means 46 is welded or otherwise fixedly attached to closure plate 40 (FIG. 2) of the central guide 24. Operating mechanism 46 includes short section of conduit 134 and a casing 136 which form an appropriate housing and seal base for the mechanism. Fixed about the periphery of support conduit 36 is threaded section 138. Cooperating with threaded section 138 is threaded collar 140. Threaded collar 140 has attached thereto operating wheel 142. Obviously, by manipulation of operating wheel 142, conduit 36 can be moved inwardly and outwardly a limited distance to thereby adjust the position of the deflector 32 attached to the end of conduit 36. Such movement, of course, involves not only the deflector but conduit 36 and check valve 38. An appropriate seal, such as a soft iron, cadmium-plated oval ring 144, is positioned between threaded collar 140 and casing 136. Resting against a shoulder on collar 140 and threaded into collar 136, is another collar I46. Attached to collar 146 is operating wheel 148. By tightening collar 146 through wheel 148, pressure is applied to the seal 144 and operating mechanism 146 may be locked and sealed after adjustment of the position of conduit 36.
A feedstock injector means 50 which may be utilized in any of the embodiments of the present invention is shown in detail in FIG. 11. The feedstock injector means may take numerous forms depending upon the feedstock to be introduced and the manner of introduction. In any event, however, as generically shown in FIGS. 1 through 4, the feedstock injector mans 50 passes through and is coupled to conduit 36 or conduit 70, respectively, by means of coupling 48. Obviously, the outer end of conduit 36 or conduit 70 is attached to one end of coupling 48 and body 150, of feedstock injector 50, is threaded into the other end of coupling 48. By unthreading body 150 from coupling 48, the injector means 50 can be removed completely from the reactor. Attached to body 150 is support and protective conduit 152. Conduit 152 slides within the previously mentioned conduit 36 or 70 (FIGS. 1 through 4) and internally supports a feedstock conduit 154. In the particular embodiment shown, conduit 154 is provided at its outer end with a coupling 156, to which a flexible feedstock supply line or other appropriate supply line may be attached and terminates in a spray nozzle 158 at its inner end. If desired or necessary, appropriate dispersing gas can also be supplied to the nozzle I58 and such gas can, of course, be inert or a combustion-supporting gas.
Also, in the particular embodiment of injector 50 shown in FIG. 11, an additive supply line 160 passes through body 150 and conduit 152 terminates adjacent nozzle 158. Llne 160 may be utilized to supply an appropriate additive for altering the properties of the carbon black produced from the feed stock. Additive line 160 is provided with coupling 162 for connection to a flexible additive supply line and additive tube 160 may be removed from injector unit 50 if desired. It is quite obvious that the basic components of injector unit 50 may be coupled together in many ways for convenience of servicing, etc. and the form illustrated shows one particular structure.
FIG. 12 shows a modification of the gate valve of FIGS. 9 and 10. According to FIG. 12, rotatable arm 128 is extended and spring 132 (FIG. is removed. Adjustably mounted on arm 128 is arm 129 whose position about arm 128 can be adjusted by loosening set screw 131. On the free end of arm 129 is weight 133. The position of weight 133 along arm 129 can be adjusted by loosening setscrew 135.
While apparatus of the present invention has been described and is particularly suited for operation on a liquid hydrocarbon feedstock, utilizing air as a combustion-supporting gas as well as a dispersing gas, and utilizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel, it should be apparent to those skilled in the art that the apparatus may also be utilized for gaseous fuels and/or feedstocks and utilizing inert dispersing gases rather than air. Likewise, there are numerous variations in the placement of the feedstock introduction means, the combustionsupporting gas introduction means and the combustible fuel introduction means which may be practiced, depending upon the type of carbon black to be produced and other operating factors.
Having described the present invention with reference to specific illustrations and embodiments, it is to be understood that these are by way of example only and that many other variations may be adopted by one skilled in the art without departing from the present invention. Accordingly, the present invention is to be limited only by the appended claims.
1. A furnace-type carbon black reactor; comprising an elongated, cylindrical reactor; feedstock introduction means mounted adjacent the central axis of said reactor near the inlet end thereof, including, a centrally disposed feedstock-introduction means, a guide member surrounding said feed stock-introduction means and a fluid-impervious, disc-shaped deflector mounted adjacent the forward end of said guide member; said feedstock injection means being adapted to project feedstock through said deflector means; combustion-supporting, gas introduction means in open communication with an annular space formed by said guide means and an opening in said reactor surrounding said feedstock injection means and said guide means; and a combustible fuel introduction means adjacent said inlet end of said reactor including a plurality of receiving means fixedly mounted in said reactor and providing passages from the exterior of said reactor to the interior thereof adjacent the inlet end of said reactor, closure means in each of said receiving means to open and close said passage from the exterior to the interior of said reactor, and a combustible fuel injection means slideably removable from and mounted in fluid-type, sealed engagement in each of said receiving means when said closure means is open.
2. A reactor in accordance with claim I which includes a large-diameter, short axial length, cylindrical heating zone and a smaller diameter, greater axial length, cylindrical reaction zone in open communication with the eflluent end of the heating zone.
3. A reactor in accordance with claim 2 wherein an orifice ring of diameter smaller than the diameter of the reaction zone is formed at the juncture of the heating zone and the reaction zone.
4. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the feedstock introduction means includes a removably mounted feedstock injection means and a closure means to open and close the opening through which said feedstock injection means enters the reactor.
5. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the outlets of the combustible fuel injection means are positioned adjacent the annular space surrounding the feedstock injection means.
6. A reactor in accordance with claim 5 wherein the outlets of combustible fuel injection means are adapted to project combustible fuel radially outward.
7. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the deflector disc is axially movable and the reactor includes means for moving said deflector disc.
8. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the outlets of the combustible fuel injection means are positioned behind the deflector disc.
9. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the deflector disc is axially movable with respect to the guide member and the reactor includes means for moving said deflector disc.
I0l007 OISO 10. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the outlets of the combustible fuel injection means are positioned behind the deflector disc.
11. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the combustible fuel injection means includes a liquid fuel line, a dispersing gas line and a nozzle for mixing the fuel and the dispersing gas.
12. A reactor in accordance with claim 11 wherein the fuel line and the dispersing gas line have flexible conduits coupled thereto for attachment to fuel and dispersing gas supplies.
13. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the closure means is a check valve means.
M. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the closure means is a gate valve means.
' x 15. A reactor in accordance with claim 1 wherein the outlets of the combustible fuel injection means are positioned adjacent the peripheral wall of the reactor.
16. A reactor in accordance with claim 15 wherein the combustible fuel injection means are adapted to project fuel inwardly toward the central axis of the reactor.
17. A reactor in accordance with claim 15 wherein the com- 10 bustible fuel injection means are adapted to project fuel tangentially with respect to the peripheral wall of the reactor.
1 i t t! 0