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Publication numberUS3617406 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 2, 1971
Filing dateJul 22, 1969
Priority dateJul 22, 1969
Publication numberUS 3617406 A, US 3617406A, US-A-3617406, US3617406 A, US3617406A
InventorsYoung Herbert L
Original AssigneeHercules Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hydrocarbon oil-containing gelled aqueous inorganic oxidizer salt explosives having improved stability to syneresis
US 3617406 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Inventor Herbert L. Young Wilmington, Del.

App]. No. 843,805

Filed July 22, 1969 Patented Nov. 2, 1971 Assignee Hercules Incorporated Wilmington, Del.

HYDROCARBON OIL-CONTAININ G GELLED AQUEOUS INORGANIC OXIDIZER SALT EXPLOSIVES HAVING IMPROVED STABILITY T0 SYNERESIS 16 Claims, No Drawings US. Cl 149/41,

8/1968 Atadan 149/61 X Primary Examiner- Leland A. Sebastian Attorney-William F. Smith ABSTRACT: Process is provided for manufacture ofa gelled aqueous hydrocarbon oil-containing inorganic oxidizer salt explosive having unexpectedly high stability to syneresis, which comprises admixing the hydrocarbon oil with the remaining ingredients of the explosive, as a separate oil-inwater emulsion, maintained by a defined emulsifying agent of the polyoxyethylene type, when the gelation agent is a crosslinkable galactomannan gum and is present in an amount of l to 3 weight percent of the finished explosive in a weight ratio to a cross linking agent therefor, preferably potassium pyroantimonate, of 30:1 to 70:1.

It is a combination of 1) use of the defined emulsifier, (2) the specific range of cross linking density (by proportions of the galactomannan gum and cross linking agent) and (3) the separate addition of the preformed" emulsion, that provides the unexpected stability property.

Product by process is also provided.

HYDROCARBON OIL-CONTAINING GELLED AQUEOUS INORGANIC OXIDIZER SALT EXPLOSIVES HAVING IMPROVED STABILITY TO SYNERESIS This invention relates to the manufacture of gelled inorganic oxidizer salt explosives of the aqueous slurry type containing a hydrocarbon oil as a fuel component, and to gelled explosives so produced. In another aspect this invention relates to a method for incorporating a hydrocarbon oil, as a fuel, into a gelled aqueous inorganic oxidizer salt explosive, providing product having stability to syneresis greater than that of such hydrocarbon oil-containing explosives heretofore. Other aspects will be apparent in light of the accompanying disclosure and the appended claims.

Gelled inorganic oxidizer salt blasting compositions of the aqueous slurry type have had extensive use in the explosives industry in recent years. These compositions comprise an inorganic oxidizer salt, water, fuel, an additional sensitizer when necessary, and a gelation agent, generally in cross linked form.

Hydrocarbon oils, often of the fuel oil grade, have been utilized as fuels in gelled-aqueous-slurry-type inorganic salt explosives. However the hydrocarbon oil, due to its water immiscibility has generally been incompatible with the gel to the extent that it separates from the main body of explosive with loss in uniformity of oil distribution throughout, and accompanying loss in sensitivity of, the explosive.

This invention is concerned with a method for the manufacture of hydrocarbon oil-containing aqueous-gelled-type explosives, above described, providing for a uniform and stable dispersion of the oil substantially without syneresis, and hence without loss in sensitivity up to and including the time of shooting; and, with explosive product so produced.

ln accordance with the invention, a process is provided for the manufacture of gelled inorganic oxidizer salt explosives of the aqueous slurry type containing a hydrocarbon oil as a fuel and having improved stability to syneresis, comprising admixing said hydrocarbon oil as an oil-in-water-type emulsion maintained by at least one nonionic acyclic-type emulsifying agent also referred to herein as emulsifier, or "surfactant," selected from the group consisting of polyoxyethylene esters, polyoxyethylene alcohols, and polyoxyethylene ethers, having a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) of from to 20, with a mass of the remaining ingredients of said slurry including a cross-linkable glactomannan gum as a gelation agent and a cross-linking agent therefor when said gelation agent is in a weight ratio to said cross-linking agent of from 30:1 to 70:1 and comprises from 1 to 3 weight percent of the finished explosive; and maintaining the total resulting explosive ingredient mixture under conditions for said cross-linking. Also provided in accordance with the invention are gelled inorganic oxidizer salt compositions stable to syneresis over prolonged periods, and produced in accordance with the method above described.

As is well known, emulsifiers, as surface-active agents, are divided according to their structure into ionic and nonionic classifications, and each contains a lipophilic group and a hydrophilic group, the balance of which determines the relative simultaneous attraction of the emulsifier for water and for oil in an oil-in-water emulsion system. The HLB number as utilized herein and as recognized in the art, is a measure of hydrophiliclipophilic balance of the emulsifier and is expressed as a value on a scale of from 1 to 20, the higher the number on the scale, the greater the hydrophilic character. A further discussion of HLB is noted in the Kirk-Othmer-Encyclopedia ofChemic'al Technology, Vol. 8 pages 131 through 132 inclusive wherein the above aspects ofHLB are completely described.

The invention is based on my discovery that when a hydrocarbon oil-containing gelled aqueous inorganic oxidizer salt explosive in which the gelation agent is a cross-linked gelactomannan gum, is prepared by first forming an emulsion of the hydrocarbon oil in at least a portion of the water component in the presence of an above-described emulsifying agent, and the resulting emulsion is then incorporated with the remaining ingredients into the final explosive product, and when the cross-linking density of the gum gelation system is maintained by the presence of l to 3 weight percent gum in a weight ratio to a cross-linking agent therefor of 30:1 to 70:1, the resulting gelled explosive product has an unexpectedly high stability to syneresis.

Now-preferred emulsifying agents utilized in practice of the invention are a polyoxyethylene lauryl ether having an HLB number of 16.9 and commercially available as Brij 35; a, polyoxyethylene stearate having an HLB number of 17.9 and commercially available as Myrj 53; a poloxyethylene glyceride ester having an HLB number of 18.1 and commercially available as 6-1300; and a polyoxyethylene stearate having an HLB number of 16.9 and commercially available as Myrj 52. Further exemplary of emulsifying agents utilized in practice of the invention are a polyoxyethylene stearyl ether having 'an HLB number of 15.3 and commercially available as Brij 78; a polyoxyethylene fatty alcohol having an HLB number of 15.4 and commercially available as Emulphor ON-870; a polyoxyethylene glycol monopalmitate having an HLB number of 15.5 and available as Atlas 0-2079; a polyoxyethylene cetyl ether having an HLB number of 15.7 and commercially available as Brij 58; and a polyoxyethylene monostearate having an HLB number of 16.0 and commercially available as Myrj 51. The foregoing exemplary emulsifying agents are manufactured by Atlas Chemical Industries except for Emulphor ON-870 which is manufactured by General Aniline & Film Corporation.

Potassium pyroantimonate is a now-preferred cross-linking agent for use in practice of the invention. However any suitable cross-linking agent generally utilized for cross-linking a galactomannan gum, as a gelation agent in aqueous inorganic oxidizer salt explosive compositions, can be utilized; and in such instances, as is well known, it is ofien necessary to adjust pH of the gelation system for optimum cross-linking reaction. Exemplary of such suitable and well-known cross-linking agents, in addition to the now-preferred potassium pyroan timonate, are those which liberate bismuth and antimony ions such as antimony sulfate and bismuth nitrate, and those which liberate borate, chromate and dichromate ions such as borax, zinc chromate, barium chromate, and potassium dichromate.

Exemplary, and now-preferred, galactomannan gum components of the gelled explosive, in accordance with the invention, are guar and locust bean gums.

Any petroleum fraction, suitable as a fuel component in aqueous-gelled-slurry-type inorganic oxidizer salt explosives, can be used in practice of the invention, exemplary of which are paraffin oil, diesel oil, fuel oil, and the like. A fuel oil of No. 2 to No. 4 grade is often advantageously utilized. The amount of hydrocarbon oil utilized is generally that providing the necessary balance for the oxygen supplied by the inorganic salts, and based on the complete explosive, can be as low as 1 percent and as high as 14 to 15 percent dependent upon the proportion of any supplemental fuels utilized, as for example particulate aluminum, silicon, or the like.

Although ammonium nitrate, alone or with sodium nitrate, often in a weight ratio thereto of from about 2:1 to 6:1 is in most instances the inorganic oxidizer salt component, other inorganic oxidizer salts can be utilized alone or with ammonium nitrate as a supplementary oxidizer salt, the alkali metal nitrates being now preferred. Exemplary inorganic oxidizer salts that can be used along or together with ammonium nitrate are alkali metal and alkaline earth metal nitrates, and perchlorates (including ammonium) as, for example, sodium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, potassium nitrate, barium nitrate, ammonium perchlorate, calcium perchlorate and magnesium perchlorate.

Now-preferred compositions produced in practice of the invention are those, on a weight basis, including from 8 to 30 percent water, up to about 30 percent of a suitable particulate metal as an energizer and/or sensitizer, generally aluminum, silicon, aluminum alloys, silicon alloys and the like, from 40 to 80 percent of total inorganic oxidizer salt, from 1 to 6 percent of a fuel oil grade of hydrocarbon oil, as the hydrocarbon oil fuel component, and from 1.5 to 2.5 percent guar gum with potassium pyroantimonate as a cross-linking agent therefor.

It is to be understood that any one or more of suitable supplemental fuels, energizers and sensitizers, aeration agents, and the like, all well-known ingredients for gelled-aqueousslurry-type inorganic oxidizer salt explosives can be utilized in the formulation of explosive product in practice of the invention. Thus exemplary of such supplemental materials are powdered coal, particulate metals such as aluminum, magnesiumaluminum alloys, silicon alloys, ethylene glycol, DNT oil and the like; and sodium bicarbonate. sodium nitrite, and the like as aeration agents. Aeration agents advantageously utilized for in situ gas generation include sodium bicarbonate as disclosed in the Ferguson et al. U.S. Pat. 3,288,658, sodium nitrite as disclosed in the Albert U.S. Pat. 3,390,031 and sodium nitritesodium bicarbonate mixtures as disclosed in the Albert et al. U.S. Pat. 3,390,032. The use of sulfamates and/or sulfamic acid for the acceleration of the aeration rate when employing sodium nitrite as an aeration agent is disclosed in the Knight U.S. Pat. 3,442,729.

The gelled compositions produced in accordance with the invention are generally insensitive to detonating action of a No. 8 commercial blasting cap, but are detonatable by conventional booster charges of PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate), RDX (cyclotrimethylene trinitramine), Pentolite (PETN-TNT, 50/50), tetryl, Composition B (RDX-TNT 60/40) and the like.

ln preferred practice, the explosive compositions of the invention are of the well-known class of nitrocarbonitrates by which term is meant there are no sensitizers which in themselves are high explosives and the mixtures will not detonate with a No. 8 blasting cap when packed for shipment.

Any suitable procedure can be utilized in carrying out the method of the invention, provided that the hydrocarbon oil is introduced into the mixing zone as a component of the emulsion, as above described. However the cross-linking agent is generally the last-added ingredient in order to assure uniform distribution of all ingredients prior to any impairment thereof that might be caused by premature gel formation.

The following procedure is exemplary of a now-preferred embodiment for manufacture of the explosive compositions in accordance with the invention, utilizing guar gum as the crosslinkable galactomannan gum together with potassium pyroantimonate as the cross-linking agent therefor:

Premixing l. Dissolve the surfactant in from about one-fourth to onehalf the portion of contemplated amount of water ingredient and add the hydrocarbon oil to the resulting surfactant-water mixture with stirring, and then emulsifying the resulting surfactant-containing mixture by passing it through a conventional homogenizer.

2. Admix ammonium nitrate, as the major inorganic oxidizer salt ingredient with a small proportion of ammonium sulfamate, the latter as an accelerator for subsequently described aeration, and with all but a small remaining portion of the water ingredient. Add fumaric acid to the resulting ammonium nitrate-ammonium sulfamate-water mixture in an amount sufficient to adjust the pH ofthat mixture to about 2.5 to 4. Disperse dry guar gum as a gelation agent in dry sodium nitrate as a supplemental inorganic oxidizer salt, and

4. Disperse potassium pyroantimonate as a cross-linking agent for the guar gum, and sodium nitrite as the aeration agent, in the remaining water ingredient proportion.

Mixing Admix the dry sodium nitrate-guar gum mixture with the ammonium nitrate-water-ammonium sulfamate mixture with agitation at -90 F. Add the fuel-water emulsion to the resulting water mixture of guar gum. sodium nitrate, and ammonium nitrate with continuous agitation. Add the potassium pyroantimonate-sodium nitrite mixture to the total ingredient mixture already formed, as described, with continued agitation for 10 to 15 minutes.

The final slurry product mixture, due to initial hydration of the guar gum, is stable to settling of ingredients while standing, but is still readily pumpable during which time the slurry can be pumped to emplacement for completion of cross-linking to form the gelled composition containing the fuel oil uniformly dispersed in form of small droplets, of size not exceeding about 25 microns, and stable to syneresis over prolonged periods.

After about 1 hour the cross-linking reaction at the pH level, adjusted as above described, is complete and the gelled composition is ready for detonation.

The invention is further illustrated with reference to tables l-4 following.

Three formulations. Nos, A-l A-2 and A-3 (see table l) were prepared in accordance with the above-described procedure, and detonated, the formulations differing only in respect of the degree of aeration of each, and hence specific gravity. in carrying out theprocedure. the hydrocarbon oil emulsion was formed from 22.7 grams surfactant, 5 pounds of No. 2 fuel oil, and 6.0 pounds water. The ammonium nitrateammonium sulfamate-fumaric acid mixture was formed from 61 pounds ammonium nitrate, grams ammonium sulfamate and 9 pounds water, with sufficient fumaric acid to adjust the pH of the mixture to 3.0. The guar gum-sodium nitrate mixture was formed from 16 pounds sodium nitrate and 1.0 pound natural guar gum. The sodium nitrate-potassium pyroantimonate was formed from 10.4 grams potassium pyroantimonate and 45.4 grams sodium nitrite in 1.0 pound water.

Also, three conventional formulations, Nos. C-l C-2 and C-3 (see table I similar to formulations A-l, A-2 and A-3 except that they contained ethylene glycol in lieu of fuel oil and differed slightly in respect of density, were prepared and detonated as controls for further evaluation of the A-l, A-2 and A-3 formulations.

The above formulations are shown in table I together with a summary of associated test data.

TABLE 1 Example A-l A-l A-3 (-l C.. 0-3 Formulations, weight percent:

'a l 1t) 0 l6. 0 l6. 0 l6. 0 lb 0 lb 0 Ammonium nitrate" 6| 0 01.0 01. 0 65. 0 55 0 55 0 Sodium nitratv 1t) 0 10. 0 10.0 15.0 15 0 l6 0 FuvloiHNoflZ 60 5.0 50

Surfactant... 0 050 0, 050 0 050 Potassium pyroantimonatm. 0 023 0. 023 0 0.23 0. 040 0 0-10 0. 040

Ammonium sulfamato. 0 33 0. 33 O 33 0. .20 0 .20 0. 20

Sodium nitrite 0 10 0. 050 0,030 0.10

Fuin irlc acid. Asi-u uirud 0. 060 0. 000 0, 000

Coal 1.0 1.0 1.0

Oxygen halancv, porcunt +0. 3 +0. 3 0. 5 0. 5 -0. 5

Specific gravity 1.20 1. 25 0. 0.5 1. 10 1.32

Slurry, pll (after 24 hours) 4. 7 3. 0 3. 0 4.4 4. 4 4. 4 Gel condition (nllvr 24 hours) Firm Firm Firm Firm l-lrm Finn Atlas Brij 35 (a polyoxyethylene lauryl ether; HLB 16.9).

"20-25 lb. charge detonated. Measured in -inch diameter 28-inch length black schedule 40 iron pipe, utilizing 600 grams Pentolite Booster Charge.

As shown in table 1, the fuel oil-containing slurry product compositions of the invention, as further illustrated with reference to conventional ethylene-glycol-containing slurries (no hydrocarbon oil component) exhibit comparable gel stability, and high resistance to syneresis.

Several IOU-gram batches of gelled explosive product of the invention were made up in accordance with procedure described with reference to table 1 utilizing the same ingredients and ingredient proportions, and under the same conditions, as shown for the formulations A-l, except that a different emulsifier was utilized in each batch in an amount of 0.25 percent based on the weight of the entire formulation. Each formulation was allowed to stand over a prolonged period; and during intervals of that period, the formulation was examined for syneresis. The results of the test are summarized in table 2.

the i-lLB of the surfactant was over 15, the proportion of guar gum gelation agent was 1.5 percent with the ratio of guar gum to potassium pyroantimonate of 65:1, and all tests showed excellent resistance to syneresis. In the utilization of the remaining emulsifying agents shown (tests 5-10), all of cyclic struc-' ture, failed to sustain low syneresis; and even the cyclic-type surfactant of test No. 5 with an HLB of 16.7 showed serious syneresis initially after formulation.

agent, potassium pyroantimonate. Each formulation was allowed to stand over a prolonged period during intervals of TABLE 2 1 [Stability of gelled fuel oil containing explosives] Stability Observation Test No. Surfactant 2 HLB period (days) Synercsis Gel condition Initial l v/Iild l. fl Firm elastic. 7 erysig t Fir 1 Polyoxyethylene lauryl ether (23) (Btu 16.9 23 slight Do. 30 o. Do. Initial Mild Firm, elastic. 2 Polyoxyethylene stearate (Myri 53) 17.9 i g i 30 do Do. Initial Very slight Soft, elastic. 3 Poiyoxyethylene glyceride ester (G-1300) 18.1 g Egg-5 3551;: ""fj 33 o Do. 4 Polyoxyethylene stearate (40) (Myri 52) 16.9 i PfiEhbfjIII: elasnc 5 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate (20) (Tween 20) 16. 7 i elastic 6 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan mono-oleate (20) (Tween 15. 0 s fig gl" gggf ggy gelling Initial Serious Very soft; little gelling. 7 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan trioleate (2f!) (Tween 11. 0 l2 Slight Firm.

v 25 Apprecinble Do. v 8 Polyoxyethylene sorbitan monostearate (4) (Tween 61) 9. 6 %g;:i{gm Initial Serious Medium firm. 9 Sorbitan monolaurate (Span 20) 8.6 2 Slight Semi-firm.

Appreciable. Firm. 10 Sorbitan mono-cleats (Span 80) 4.3 g; Eff fig: ggg gigy genmg Oil/water emulsions had oil droplet size of less than 5 microns.

3 Trade name parenthesized. Manufactured by Atlas Chemical Industries Inc.

3 The number of polyoxyethylene units.

which it was observed for syneresis and gel condition. The

tests are summarized in table 3.

TABLE 3 Weight percent Stability Potassium Guar pyroan- Weight Observation period Gel Test. No. gum timonate ratio 1 (days) Syneresis condition .Initial fppretilalble goft.

5hours. ery ite rm. 1 0 17 3 days Very serious Medium firm 11 daysdo Flrrn, brittle Initial Appreciable Soft. 060 17 2 hours. Very little- Medium firm 2 0 3 days- Very serious Firm.

11 days o Firm, brittle fInitiaL Appreciable. Very soft. 2.5 hours ht Medisim firm 3 1. 0 0. 030 33 $335 :j i 3 7 days- Slight. Medium firm. 42 days Serious TABLE 3 v Continued Weight percent Stability Potassium Guar pyroan- Weight Observation period Gel Test. No. gum timonate ratio 1 ays syneresis condition InitiaL Very little Medium firm. 4 1. 0.030 33 {5 days Slight Firm.

12 days. Appreciable. Do. Initial Appreeiable. Soft. 3 hours Very little. Medium firm 5 1. 0 0. 015 67 2 days .do Do. 6 days Slight... Do. 41 days Serious Initial Appreciable Soft. 2 hours Very little Medium firm 6 1.5 0.045 33 1day ..do o.

7 days- Slight Firm. 42 days Serious. Initial Appreciable Soft. 1 hour. Very little. Medium firm 2 days None Do. 7 1.6 0.023 67 6days d Firm.

12 days. Slight Do. 41days d 96 days Mild Initial Appreciable Medium firm 2 hours ht Do. 8 1. 5 0. 023 67 3 days. Very little Firm.

32 days .-do. Do.

7 days. Slight... Medium firm. Initial Appreclable. Soft. 4 hours Very little. gliedium firm. 3 days rm. 9 2.0 0.060 33 jays 11 days, Do. 46 days. Inltial Medium firm 1 hour. Do. lday tle Firm. 10 2. 0 0.060 33 4 days. Do. 8 days- Do. 43 days Do. 98 davs. Do. Initial. Medium firm 1 day Firm. 2 da Do. 11 2. 0 0.030 67 10 days Do. 14 days Do. 49 days Do. 104 davs Verv little Do. Initial. Aopreclable Soft. 1 hour- Sllcht Medium firm. 3 days. Very little. Firm. 12 2. 0 0.030 67 7 days. do 0- 11 days do Do. 46davs Sli ht.-. Do. 101 days Very little Do.

1 Guar gum to potassium pyroantimonate.

The data of table 3 illustrate guar gum as the gelation agent at contents of l, 1.5 and 2.0 percent in combination with potassium pyroantimonate as cross-linking agent therefor at three different guar gum: cross-linking agent ratios. The data demonstrate correlation of guar gum content with the ratio of guar gum to cross-linking agent. Thus at a l-percent guar gum content and at a ratio of 17:1, syneresis was serious after 3 days storage whereas after 5 to 7 days storage at a higher ratio, i.e. 33:1 and 67:1, there was very little syneresis. Upon increase of the guar gum content to 1.5 percent at a ratio of 333:1, very little syneresis was observed after 7 days and at the ratio level of 67:1 very little syneresis was observed after 96 days. Upon increase of the guar gum content to 2.0 percent at the higher ratio levels very little syneresis was observed after periods of from 98 to 104 days. In general practice, although guar gum content can be correlated with weight ratio of guar gum to cross-linking agent therefor to utilize a content of guar gum from about 1.0 to 3.0 percent over a broad range of ratios of :1 to 70:1, a gum content in the order of 1.5 to 2.5 percent in combination with a guar gum to cross-linking agent weight ratio of from about 50 to 70 is particularly advantageously utilized.

The data of table 3 demonstrate the combination of specific range of cross-linking density with use of an above-described emulsifying agent, in practice of the invention, to provide gelled aqueous hydrocarbon oil-containing explosive product having high stability to syneresis.

It will be evident to those skilled in the art, various modifcations can be made or followed, in light of the foregoing disclosure and discussion without departing from the spirit or scope of the disclosure or from the scope of the claims.

What 1 claim and desire to protect by Letters Patent is:

l. A process for the manufacture of a gelled inorganic oxidizer salt explosive of the aqueous slurry type containing a hydrocarbon oil as a fuel and having improved stability to syneresis, comprising admixing said hydrocarbon oil as an oilin-water-type emulsion maintained by at least one nonionicacyclic-type emulsifying agent selected from the group consisting of polyoxyethylene esters, polyoxyethylene alcohols,

and polyoxyethylene ethers having a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of from 15 to 20, with a mass of the remaining ingredients of said slurry including a cross-linkable galactom annan gum as a gelation agent and a cross-linking agent therefor when said gelation agent is in a weight ratio to said cross-linking agent of from 30:1 to 70:1 and comprises from 1 to 3 weight percent of the finished explosive; and maintaining the total resulting explosive ingredient mixture under conditions for said cross-linking.

2. A process of claim 1 wherein said hydrocarbon oil is a fuel oil.

3. A process of claim I wherein said galactomannan is a guar gum.

4. A process of claim 3 wherein said cross-linking agent is potassium pyroantimonate, and said hydrocarbon oil is a fuel oil.

5. A process of claim 4 wherein crosslinking of said guar gum is carried out at a pH of from 2.5 to 4; and wherein the content of said guar gum is within the range of from 1:5 to 2.5 percent and said ratio of guar gum to potassium pyroantimonate is within the range of from 50:] to 70:1.

6. A process of claim 5 wherein said nonionic emulsifier is selected from the group consisting ofa polyoxyethylene lauryl ether, a polyoxyethylene stearate and a polyoxyethylene glyceride ester.

7. In a process of claim 6, forming said total resulting admixture comprising, on a weight basis, from 8 to 30 percent water, from 40 to 80 percent inorganic oxidizer salt, from to 30 percent of a particulate metal energizer and/or sensitizer, from 1 to 6 percent fuel oil and from 1.5 to 2.5 percent guar gum in a ratio to said pyroantimonate of from 50:1 to 70:1.

8. A process of claim 7 wherein at least a major proportion of said inorganic oxidizer salt is ammonium nitrate.

9. A process of claim 7 wherein said inorganic oxidizer salt comprises ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate.

10. A process of claim 9 wherein said ammonium nitrate is in a weight ratio to said sodium nitrate offrom 2:1 to 6:1.

11. A gelled inorganic oxidizer salt explosive of the aqueous slurry type containing a hydrocarbon oil as a fuel and having improved stability syneresis prepared by admixing said hydrocarbon oil as an oil-in-water-type emulsion maintained by at least one nonionic-acyclic-type emulsifying agent selected from the group consisting of polyoxyethylene esters, polyoxyethylene alcohols, and polyoxyethylene ethers having a hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of from to 20, with a mass of the remaining ingredients of said slurry including a crosslinkable galactomannan gum as a gelation agent and a crossiinking agent therefor when said gelation agent is in a weight ratio to said cross-linking agent of from 30:1 to 70:1 and comprises from 1 to 3 weight percent of the finished explosive; and maintaining the total resulting explosive ingredient mixture under conditions for said cross-linking.

i 12. A gelled inorganic oxidizer s t xplosi ve of claim 11 prepared when said hydrocarbon oil is a fuel oil, said galactomannan is a guar gum, and said cross-linking agent is potassium pyroantimonate.

13. A gelled inorganic oxidizer salt of claim 11 prepared so as to contain, on a weight basis, from 40 to percent total inorganic oxidizer salt, from O to 30 percent of a particulate metal energizer and/or sensitizer, from 1 to 6 percent of said fuel oil, and to have a cross-linking density provided by the presence of from 1.0 to 2.5 percent guar gum and a sufficient amount of potassium pyroantimonate to provide said guar gum to potassium pyroantimonate weight ratio within the range offrom 50:1 to 70:1 '7 i 14. A gelled inorganic oxidizer salt of claim 13 containing ammonium nitrate as at least a major proportion of said inorganic oxidizer salt.

15. A gelled inorganic oxidizer salt explosive of claim 13 containing ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate as ingredients of said inorganic oxidizer salt component.

16. A gelled explosive of claim 15 containing said ammonium nitrate in a weight ratio to said sodium nitrate of from 2:1 to 6: 1.

l t t 23 3 3 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION P ten N 3.6l7I406 D e Novembe 2, 1971 Inv n Herbert L. Y unq It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 2, line 64, "along" should read alone- Column 7, line 55, "333:1" should read -33:l--

Column 8, Claim 5, line 72, "1:5" should read -l.5-

Column 9, Claim ll, line 17, "stability syneresis" should read --stability to syneresis- Signed and sealed this 18th day of April 1972.

GILL Attesb:

EDWARD mm from; f JLL. H0 LLJHT GOTTSCEIALK Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3765964 *Oct 6, 1972Oct 16, 1973Ici America IncWater-in-oil emulsion type explosive compositions having strontium-ion detonation catalysts
US4021355 *Mar 30, 1973May 3, 1977Halliburton CompanyPolysaccharide crosslinked with sodium or potassium permanganate
US4033415 *Oct 14, 1976Jul 5, 1977Halliburton CompanyCrosslinked aqueous gel
US4141767 *Mar 3, 1978Feb 27, 1979Ireco ChemicalsOrganic fuel continuous phase, aqueous inorganic oxidizer discontinuous phase, with fatty acid amide or ammonium salt emulsifier
US4708753 *Dec 29, 1986Nov 24, 1987The Lubrizol CorporationWater-in-oil emulsions
US4828633 *Dec 23, 1987May 9, 1989The Lubrizol CorporationSalt compositions for explosives
US4840687 *Nov 14, 1986Jun 20, 1989The Lubrizol CorporationExplosive compositions
US4844756 *Dec 23, 1987Jul 4, 1989The Lubrizol CorporationSalt derived from hydrocarbyl-substituted carboxylic acid or anhydride or derivative, and ammonia, an amine, or alkali or alkaline earth metal
US4863534 *Dec 23, 1987Sep 5, 1989The Lubrizol CorporationCarbonaceous fuel, oxidizer, low and high molecular weight salt of hydrocarbyl-substituted carboxylic acid, anhydride, ester or amide
US5047175 *Nov 1, 1988Sep 10, 1991The Lubrizol CorporationSalt composition and explosives using same
US5129972 *Jul 17, 1991Jul 14, 1992The Lubrizol CorporationAn oxygen supply component, an organic phase and a carbon fuel
US5336439 *Aug 8, 1991Aug 9, 1994The Lubrizol CorporationSalt compositions and concentrates for use in explosive emulsions
US5407500 *Dec 6, 1993Apr 18, 1995The Lubrizol CorporationSalt compositions and explosives using same
US5527491 *Sep 29, 1994Jun 18, 1996The Lubrizol CorporationEmulsifiers and explosive emulsions containing same
USRE33788 *Jul 21, 1986Jan 7, 1992Hanex Products, Inc.A water in oil emulsion having an aqueous solution of an oxidizer salt is blended with particles of oxidizer salt
Classifications
U.S. Classification149/41, 149/76, 149/75, 149/60, 149/44, 149/42, 149/46, 149/61, 149/77
International ClassificationB01F17/00
Cooperative ClassificationB01F17/0028
European ClassificationB01F17/00E2
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jul 22, 1985ASAssignment
Owner name: IRECO INCORPORATED, CROSSROAD TOWERS, SALT LAKE CI
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST.;ASSIGNOR:HERCULES INCORPORATED;REEL/FRAME:004436/0454
Effective date: 19850610