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Publication numberUS3618886 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 9, 1971
Filing dateJul 18, 1969
Priority dateJul 18, 1969
Publication numberUS 3618886 A, US 3618886A, US-A-3618886, US3618886 A, US3618886A
InventorsGraham Phillip
Original AssigneeGraham Phillip
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Adjustable panel form for thin shells
US 3618886 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 72] Inventor Phillip Graham 2825 Glenmore Ave., Pittsburgh, Pa. 15216 [21] Appl. No. 843,037 [22] Filed July 18, 1969 [45] Patented Nov. 9, 1971 Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 802,348, Feb. 26, 1969, now abandoned Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 540,314, Apr. 5, 1966, now Patent No. 3,467,354.

[54] ADJUSTABLE PANEL FORM FOR THIN SHELLS 13 Claims, 43 Drawing Figs.

[52] U.S. Cl 249/13, 249/155, 249/210 [51] Int. Cl B28b 7/02, B28b 7/22 [50] Field of Search 249/13, 209,210,159, 160,112, 155;25/l2l R, 121 M, 131 P Primary Examiner-Robert D, Baldwin Attorney-William J. Ruano ABSTRACT: This invention pertains to a low cost adjustable form that can be adjusted for forming various types of twoway curved, precast, reinforced thin shell cementitious and plastic panels for small spanned building shells having uniform scalloplike, corrugated shells like the shells shown in my U.S. Pat. No. 3,154,888 and to the method of making the same. The form can be adjusted so as to mold different original types of panels, that differ by having different curvature, and/or different size. The form has a base with an adjustable template frame. A thin reinforced base coating is mounted within the template frame. An elastic edge form that is like a gasket, is secured to the template frame with metallic fasteners. The elastic edge form molds a keying groove in the panel edging. The fasteners position reinforcing and clevis connectors that are attached to the reinforcing, to allow like panels to be easily joined with pins at erection even during inclement weather, the keying grooves allowing the panels to be keyed together with grout when the weather is suitable.

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SHEET 7 [1F 7 INVENTOR. PHILLIP GRAHAM BY ATTORNEY ADJUSTABLE PANEL FORM FOR THIN SHELLS This invention is a continuation-in-part of my copending applications: Ser. No. 802,348, filed Feb. 26, 1969, entitled Building Construction, which has been abandoned, and Ser. No. 540,314, filed Apr. 5, 1966, entitled Flexible Forms For Building Construction, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,467,354. Applicant also claims rights to an earlier filing date to common subject matter that is described in the present application, which was also described in his applications: Ser. No. 457,020, filed May 19, 1965, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,245,647, entitled Flexible Panel Form For Thin Shells; Ser. No. 418,494, filed Dec. 15, 1964, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,224,726, entitled Flexible Panel Fonn For Thin Shell, Ser. No. 86,814, filed Feb. 2, 1961, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,161,938, entitled Flexible Panel Form For Thin Shells, and Ser. No. 785,273, filed Jan. 6, 1959, now U.S. Pat. No. 2,971,237, entitled Flexible Building Panel Form. The application Ser. No. 802,348 is a divisional application of application Ser. No. 540,314; application Ser. No. 540,314 is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 457,020; application Ser. No. 457,020, is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 418,494; application Ser. No. 418,494, is a continuation-in-part of application Ser..No. 86,814. Application Ser. No. 86,814 is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 785,273.

This invention relates to improvements in adjustable panel form for molding thin shell cementitious and plastic panels. The fonn can be adjusted to mold two-way curved panels of selective longitudinal curvature and panels that are straight longitudinally and curved transversely, which can be readily interlocked or bonded together to obtain an integral building shell.

This invention particularly refers to a highly efficient and nearly foolproof, low cost, adjustable form that has an adjustable base and an elastic edge form that allows quick and accurate molding of various shapes and sizes of small curved precast, reinforced thin shell concrete panels, and to the method of making the same. In general,'the form is reusable to allow many types of original panels to be molded, thus eliminating the need to make numerous costly forms that could not economically be altered to allow for different curvatures. Thus the form eliminates the great fault that has prevented much usage of thin shell precast panel construction for small spanned buildings.

My copending application Ser. No. 540,314 and my U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,161,938; 3,224,726 and 3,245,647 describe limited simplified form means, and my U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,154,888 and 2,971,237, describe various shapes of panels that can be formed with the adjustable form, and how such panels can be used to build houses and other types of shelters; in addition, these patents list my numerous related patents that supplement the adjustable form means in building shelters.

The invention allows semiskilled labor to setup the form with parts of the form being selectively adjusted so as to mold two-way curved panels of selective longitudinal and transverse curvature, or straight panels with transverse curvature and in which the form includes fastener means to allow accurate positioning of reinforcing connectors along the edges of the panels so that like panels can be quickly and securely joined with pins at erection.

The adjustable form has improvements over the form combinations described in my copending application Ser. No. 540,314, and in my earlier applications and patents. The improved form includes an original base that is made up of components that can be selectively adjusted so as to mold a panel having different curvature. These improvements greatly reduce the cost of an original base over the mass base of cementitious materials described in my older applications. The adjustable form can be dismantled to make it compact for ease in handling and for low cost storage and shipping. In addition, the adjustable form that is assembled could be moved readily, as it would not be as heavy as the old form having a mass base.

The adjustable form could be used repeatedly in differently curved setups, for two-way curved panels and in transversely curved panels that are straight in length, without materially deteriorating. When the form has outlived its usefulness, most of its parts could be disposed of at little cost.

The form having the old mass base would require much skill to make the base and the old base would require the use of a great amount of material.

The form having the old mass base could not be used to mold panels that differed in longitudinal curvature, or transverse curvature; the form having the old base is heavy, bulky, and thus costly to store and to ship, in addition, the mass base would be difficult to dispose of after it has served its purpose.

There is need for a low cost form for molding small thin shell precast panels, since in such thin shell construction, a small amount of low cost building material is shaped to force it to work at optimum efficiency. Engineers throughout the world think that small thin shells would be ideal for low cost dwellings, if a means to reduce the form costs is developed, as the cost of conventional forms for molding small precast thin shell panels is prohibitive. There is need for such thin shell type of construction to allow unskilled labor to construct extremely low cost, strong, durable, fireproof buildings, particularly in rural areas and undeveloped areas.

An object of my invention is to provide an adjustable form for molding curved thin shell cementitious and plastic panels. The form having adjusting means to allow it to be selectively curved longitudinally and transversely so it can be used to mold two-way curved panels and adjusting means to straighten it in length, so as to mold straight panels having transverse curvature, adjusting means to selectively size the panels to be cast, an elastic strip portion that molds a grooved panel edging and adjustable template means to position reinforcing connectors around a panel edging, so that like panels can be easily and securely joined at erection.

Other objects of my invention will become apparent from the following description taken with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is an elevational view showing an adjustable form that is set up to mold a thin two-way curved reinforced concrete panel;

FIG. 2 is a plan view taken along line 2-2 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is a sectional view taken along line 3-3 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 4 is an elevational view taken along line 4-4 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 5 is an elevational view that is similar to FIG. 1, but it shows the form adjusted to mold a differently shaped panel that is partially straight in length;

FIG. 6 is an elevational view that is similar to FIG. 1, but it shows the form adjusted to mold a panel that is oppositely curved longitudinally to the panel shown in FIG. 1;

FIG. 7 is an elevational view that is similar to FIG. 1, but it shows the form adjusted to mold a panel having different longitudinal curvature along opposite side edges;

FIG. 8 is a sectional view taken along line 8-8 of FIG. 7;

FIG. 9 is an elevational view that is similar to FIG. 1, but it shows the form adjusted to mold a curved panel that is tapered in length;

FIG. 10 is a plan view taken along line 10-10 of FIG. 9; FIG. 11 is a sectional view taken along line 11-11 of FIG.

FIG. 12 is an elevational view taken along line 12-12 of FIG. 9;

FIG. 12a is a sectional view similar to FIG. 3, but it has wavelike curvature;

FIG. 13 is an enlarged, fragmentary plan view taken along line 13-13 ofFIG. 1;

FIG. 14 is a fragmentary, elevational view taken along line 14-14 of FIG. 13;

FIG. 15 is a fragmentary, sectional view taken along line 15-15 of FIG. 13;

FIG. 16 is a fragmentary, elevational view taken along line 16-16 ofFIG. 14;

FIG. 17 is a fragmentary, elevational view taken along line 17-17 ofFIG.14;

FIG. 18 is a fragmentary, sectional view taken along line 18-18 ofFIG. 14;

FIG. 19 is a perspective view showing a depressor for depressing a backing sheet;

FIG. 20 is a fragmentary, elevational view showing a depressor clamped to a rib;

FIG. 21 is an enlarged, fragmentary, sectional view taken along line 21-21 ofFIG. 13;

FIG. 22 is an enlarged, fragmentary, sectional view taken along line 22-22 of FIG. 13;

FIG. 23 is a fragmentary, sectional view taken along line 23-23 ofFIG. 22;

FIG. 24 is a fragmentary, elevational view taken along line 24-24 of FIG. 22;

FIG. 25 is a fragmentary view taken along line 25-25 of FIG. 22;

FIG. 26 is an enlarged, fragmentary, sectional view taken along line 2626 of FIG. 13;

FIG. 27 is an elevational view showing details of a stiffener plate to backup an elastic edge form;

FIG. 28 is an enlarged, fragmentary, sectional view taken along line 28-28 of FIG. 13;

FIG. 29 is a fragmentary view taken along line 29-29 of FIG. 28;

FIG. 30 is a fragmentary, elevational view similar to FIG. 22, but it has an upper template frame;

FIG. 31 is an elevational view taken along line 31-31 of FIG. 26;

FIG. 32 is an elevational view showing some possible adjustments of a fastener;

FIG. 33 is an elevational view similar to FIG. 22 but it has a top form portion to mold the top of a building panel;

FIG. 34 is an elevational view similar to FIG. 26 but it has a top form portion to mold the top of a building panel;

FIG. 35 is an elevational view showing a screed for transversely spanning the top of the form or the top of a building panel being cast upon it;

FIG. 36 is an elevational view showing a more complex screed for shaping a tapered curved surfacelike that of the form setup shown in FIG. 9;

FIG. 37 is a fragmentary, elevational view similar to FIG. 22 but it shows fasteners being positioned by the connectors of an existing panel;

FIG. 38 is an elevational view showing a fastener adjusted for the usage shown in FIG. 37;

FIG. 39 is a fragmentary, elevational view similar to FIG. 22, but it shows a panel edging being molded and joined to an existing panel;

FIG. 40 is a sectional view taken through a multiple corrugated shell portion;

FIG. 41 is a typical sectional view taken through a longitudinal joint formed by the joining of two transversely bowed panels that are molded with the form;

FIG. 42 is a fragmentary, sectional view similar to FIG. 21, but showing a modification having sheeting above fairing.

Referring to the drawings, FIGS., 1-4 show an adjustable form F that is adjusted to mold a rectangular two-way curved reinforced precast thin shell concrete panel 1, that has a lower surface with concave longitudinal and transverse curvatures. The form F is substantially symmetrical about its longitudinal and transverse axii. After a form F is no longer needed to mold a panel 1, it can be readily adjusted so as to mold a panel having different curvature from that of panel 1. Although the transverse curvature of the form can be adjusted to change it, I anticipate that a standardize transverse curvature would in general be used. Adjustments for changing curvatures will be described further on.

As an example, the form F is shown being used to mold a panel 1 having a transverse chord of 4 feet and a length of about 8 feet. Such a panel allows for ease in handling and shipping. The form F can be adjusted to mold narrower panels, by making adjustments that are similar to the adjustments that are made to narrow a panel as shown in FIGS. 11 and 12.

Forms may obviously be made that differ greatly in size from this example, to allow much different sized panels to be molded. The panel 1 is like the panel described in my copending application Ser. No. 540,314. My U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,245,647, 3,224,726 and 3,161,938, describe forms and panels in great detail, which are like the present form and panels, except for the improvements described in later disclosures.

FIG. 5 shows the form F adjusted to mold a concrete panel 2 that has the same transverse curvature as panel 1, but the longitudinal shape of the lower surface curvature is partially concave and partially straight. A panel 2 and the like can be used as a portion of a building shell that has vertical sides and an arched roof.

FIG. 6 shows the form F adjusted to mold a concrete panel 3 that has the same transverse curvature as panel 1, but the longitudinal shape of the lower surface curvature is convex. A panel 3 can be used as a portion of an arched building shell that has corrugations with transverse concave curvature facing upwardly.

FIG. 7 shows the form F adjusted to mold a concrete panel 4 that is like panel 1, except that the side edges of the panel 4 are curved differently from each other. A panel 4 and the like can be used to partially close an end portion of a building shell by a step.

FIGS. 9-12 show the form F adjusted to mold a concrete panel 5 that has the same type of transverse and longitudinal curvature as panel 1, except that the panel 5 is tapered in length so that it can be used as part of a corrugated hemisphere.

The form F can be used to mold a panel that has a wavelike transverse curvature, like the panel 22, that is shown in FIG. 12a. The setups of the form F as shown in FIGS. 1-12a, are examples of some of the many possible setups that can be made. Some of the other possible setups that can be made (not shown), include setups for molding useful and novel panels that are: transversely curved and straight in length; partially convex and partially concave in longitudinal or transverse curvature, spirally curved longitudinally and twisted longitudinally.

After the panels 1-5, and 22, have cured, they may be raised a distance of a panel thickness, so they can be used temporarily as form portions to mold the top surfaces of identical panels to be cast. This type of setup will be described in detail further on.

As shown in FIGS. 1-8, and 13-32, the form F includes a template frame T1, to which spaced curved ribs R are connected. A pliable sheet 6, that would preferably be elastic, overlays the ribs R in the area confined by the frame T1. Longitudinal fairings 7 overlay the sheet 6 and are held in place by notches in the ribs R. Metallic wire would be highly suitable as fairings 7, as it is low in cost and it is usually available. Slightly resilient plastic wire or rod may be used as fairings 7, particularly when noncorrosive fairing is needed where humid climatic conditions are prevalent. When metallic or plastic fairings are not available, thin narrow strips of wood may be used as fairings.

Spaced wire fasteners 8 are mounted on the frame T1. An elastic or flexible edge form strip or gasket 9 is mounted on the frame T1 adjacent to the fasteners 8. The elastic form 9 shapes the edge of the panel 1, so as to provide a groove in the panel edging, that will allow like panels to be keyed together with grout at erection. A base coating 10 is placed and molded to shape over the sheet 6. Cementitious material or plastic are suitable for making a base coating 10. The coating embeds the fairings 7. Fasteners 8 support and position reinforcing connectors 11 and 12 for the panel. Connectors 11 are clevises and connectors 12 are eyes. A connector clevis 11 on a panel is pin connected to a connector eye 12 on an adjacent panel at erection, as shown in FIG. 41. The connectors 11 and 12 are fastened to a perimetrical reinforcing strand 13 in the panel I. The apertures of the connectors 11 and 12 face towards the faces ofthe panels.

A cementitious coating may be made of plaster or a weak concrete aggregate. A screed such as the screed S shown in FIG. 35, may be used to accurately shape the top of the base coating 10. The fairings 7 act as reinforcing for the coating 10, thereby allowing the coating to be thin. Depressor wires 14, shown in FIGS. 19 and 20, depress the sheet 6 at the ribs R to cause the coating 10 to be of adequate thickness, particularly where it is adjacent to the ribs.

A template frame Tl includes a pair of curved longitudinal template bars and a pair of curved transverse template bars 16, that are attached to each other. The template bars have holes to allow the bars to be fastened together and to allow ribs R, fasteners 8, and accessories to be connected to them.

After a setup of the form F, such as the setup shown in FIG. 1, has served its purpose by molding panels 1, the coating 10 is broken and stripped from the fairing and other portions of the form F. When the coating 10 is made of plaster or the like, the broken plaster can be used as a filler, along with some fresh plaster, to make a coating for molding a different shaped panel. When the coating 10 is strong concrete, the fairings 7 and the like, may be discarded rather than to spend time in cleaning concrete from their surfaces. Fairings 7 may be coated with oil or the like, to prevent the coating 10 from adhering to them. After the removal of the coating 10, the bars 15 are bent differently to change their longitudinal curvature, so as to mold a needed panel with such a different longitudinal curvature. The template bars 15 and 16 are fastened together as shown in FIGS. 28 and 29, with an angle iron 17. The angle 17 is connected to a pivotal block 18 with a bolt 19. A bolt 20 fastens a block 18 to the bar 16. Two bolts 21 fasten each angle 17 to a bar 15.

Each angle 17 can be unbolted from an end position on the bar 15 and be rebolted to an intermediate position on the bar 15, when a shorter panel is to be cast. The end portions of the bars 15 have their inner edges beveled to allow the bars 16 to project past the bars 15. When the form F is to be used to mold panels that are shorter than the panel 1, the bars 15 would be beveled at intermediate portions where the bars 16 would be adjacent. When such intermediate beveled portions are not being used, a beveled filler strip (not shown) would be cemented or be welded to fill in the beveled portions.

Each rib. R has an upwardly bowed-shaped rib-bar 23. The upper edge of eachbar 23 has substantially the same curvature as the transverse curvature of the upper surface of the coating 10. The curvature may be a standardized curvature that would be suitable for wide usage.

I assume that the form would in general be used with a standardized transverse curvature. For the purpose of illustration, the rib-bars 23 are illustrated as being large in depth as would be most suitable for a standardized curvature. When rib-bars 23 are to be adjustably changed in curvature, the rib-bars 23 would be smaller in depth so they could be rebent more readily. The bars 16 along with the rib-bars 23, would be curved differently when panels of different transverse curvature are required. As shown in FIGS. 3, l6 and 22, each end of each rib-bar 23 is fastened to a clevis 24 with a clevis pin 24a. Each clevis 24 is fastened to a template bar 15 with a bolt 25. A nut 24b on the clevis pin 24a is tightened to squeeze the prongs of the clevis 24 against the rib-bar 23, so the connection cannot pivot.

When it is preferable not to have holes in the rib-bars 23, for the pin 24a, the hole in the clevis prong that is adjacent to the head of the pin 24a is threaded so the cleviscan act as a C- shaped clamp. The end of the pin 24a may have a small sharp point that can penetrate a soft rib-bar 23, so asto restrain the rib-bar 23 from moving out of position. The use of the clevis 24 as a C-shaped clamp, would be suitable when the rib-bars 23 are made of relatively soft materials such as wood, plastic, aluminum and mild steel. Such clamping would be suitable for setups such as the setup shown in FIGS. 9-l2, for molding a curved tapered panel.

'I'ic wires 26 may be used across the chord to tie the ends of each rib-bar 23 together to prevent the curvature of the rib from flattening to an extent under a load. Each tie made of wires 26 may have a turnbuckle 27 to allow the effective lengthof the tie to be changed, to shorten or lengthen the chord, so as to change the curvature of the rib-bar 23. Tie wires 26 may bev changed in length without a turnbuckle, by cutting and welding the wires. Tie wires 26 and a rib-bar 23 form a tied arch arrangement to make optimum use of materials in them.

A modified rib with a permanent curvature (not shown) may be made with a deeper stronger member than the bar 23, so that tie wires 26 would not be needed.

Tie wires 26 and a turnbuckle 27 may be used to restrain a template bar 16 from flattening, and the turnbuckle may be adjusted to change the chord and thus the curvature of a bar 16.

Modified template bars and ribs (not shown) may be held in position and be fastened together with temporary tack welds or the like, rather than be bolted, to provide a strong, low cost unit. 1 Designs of small shells that are to be made with such precast panels as panels l-5 and the like, would likely have combinations of various true arcs having constant radii, to allow drafting and fabricating costs to be kept low, as true arcs, their chords and middle ordinates are easily calculated, by a person, with a knowledge of high school mathematics, with the aid of such a book of mathematical tables as SMOLEYS SEG- MENTAL FUNCTIONS.

Fabricating equipment such as sets of rolls that are used in structural steel fabricating work can be readily adjusted so as to uniformly curve a bar, but they cannot be adjusted to curve a bar to nonuniform curvature.

Bars l5, l6 and 23, that are made of mild steel, can readily be bent to an irregular curvature with a press that bends a short portion of a bar at a time. Mild steel bars 15 can be curved laterally to setup a form F for molding a panel that is curved laterally.

In general, the parts for the form F can be made of different types of materials to suit conditions, including the types of material readily available, and the cost of readily available material, the type of labor and the type of equipment available to use in making the form, use of materials that would be best suited for use in a climate where it is to be used, such as using noncorrosive materials where highly corrosive climatic conditions are prevalent. For the purpose of illustration, the template frame T1 and the ribs are shown as being made of steel.

Template bars 15 and I6, and rib-bars 23, may be made of materials such as metal, plastic or wood. Steel would be highly suitable, particularly when a small quantity of these parts are needed.

The bars 15, 16 and 23 may be readily made with mild steel, as it can easily be, bent with conventional sets of rolls or the like, that are used in steel fabricating shops.

The bars 15, in general, would be made of bendable material such as metal, wood or plastic, which can be formed to different curvatures that are required for molding panels with different longitudinal curvature. When the bars 15 are made of thick mild steel, they can be rebent by a press that may be similar to a manual press that is used to bend pipe. When preferred, mild steel bars 15 and 16 may be made with various stock sized curvatures, which allows a set of bars to be removed and a set with a different curvature to be positioned in their place, rather than to spend time in repetitious bending operations. Such stock bar use would be equivalent to bars that must be frequently changed by bending. Mild steel bars 15, 16, and 23, may have conventional welded-type stud bolts (not shown), welded to them, instead of spaced holes, to provide a ready means for permanently or temporarily fastening bars l5, l6, and 23, and fasteners 8. The w'elded stud bolts could easily be removed, and they would not weaken the bars.

When large quantities of bars 16 and rib-bars 23 are to be made with a fixed curvature, they may be molded of strong stiff plastic.

When all of the template bars and 16 are made of steel, they may be temporarily joined by welding to form a strong template frame T1. When the adjustable form is to be strong and light in weight to allow the form to be shipped and handled at a low cost, the template bars 15 and 16, and the rib bars 23 may be made of aluminum, that has a protective coat- When preferred, the longitudinal bars 15 may be made of wood, preferably strong resilient wood which can be bent readily. Each bar 15 is bowed and tied with tie wires 30 and a turnbuckle 27, across the chord of the bow. The turnbuckle 27 is rotated to change the chord length. Eyebolts 31 or the like may be used to anchor the ends of the tie wires 30. The eyebolts 31 may be skewed as shown, to offset the wires 30 from the bars 15. A pair of additional ties made of wires 32 with turnbuckles 27 may be tied across each half of the bowed curvature of each bar 15 to allow changing the curvature and to prevent the bar 15 from deforming objectionably. The curvatures of resilient bars 15 can be changed by rotating the turnbuckles 27, so as to shorten or lengthen the effective lengths of wires 30 and 32, thereby shortening or lengthening the chords of the bars 15.

Tie wires are low in cost and easily cut and welded to vary their length. Turnbuckles may be omitted when wires are cut and welded to accurately change the length of a tie.

A lightweight chain with an open end link to act as a hook, and a turnbuckle, may be used in general in place of tie wires and turnbuckles for the form F. Chains allow adjustment in link lengths. Chains are more costly than wire. The chains would act similar to the chain shown in FIG. 15.

A nonwarping and noncorrosive longitudinal template bar 15 may be made of resilient plastic that is reinforced with fiber glass, it would be strong and resilient, like a plastic bow that is used in modern archery.

Bars 16 may be made like bars 15. When bars 16 are to be used only in connection with panels having a single standardized transverse curvature, they may be made strong so they would be nonbendable.

Wood and plastic bars 15 and 16, may be conventional threaded inserts to allow machine screws and bolts to be securely attached to them.

As shown in FIGS. 22 and 26, the template bars 15 and 16 have tapped holes spaced along their centers, to which bolts 33 are engaged. Fasteners 8 are attached to the template bars with the bolts 33. The bolts 33 have slotted ends and nuts, to allow fasteners 8 to be attached or be removed by engaging or disengaging nuts, without removing the bolts. Pointed dowels 34 are attached to the fasteners 8, and engaged to plain holes in the template bars. Each dowel 34 has a narrow raised bandlike portion that bears against a template bar and against the fastener 8. The dowels 34 restrain the fasteners 8 from pivoting. The dowels 34 may be permanently attached to the fasteners 8. Two dowels 34 can independently engage one hole in template T3 and the like, as shown in FIGS. 33 and 34, so a dowel can be removed without disturbing the other dowel in the hole.

Fasteners 8 may be tack welded to the template bars 15 and 16, instead ofusing bolts 33 and dowels 34.

Center spacer chains 36 may be used to help hold the upper portions of the rib-bars 23 and the template bars 16 in true aligned positions. The positions would be radial for curved setups. Each rib-bar 23 has a U-shaped plate 37 fastened to its center. Each bar 16 has a plate 38 fastened to its center. The chains 36 are rigged through the holes formed by the plates 37. The chains 36 are anchored to the center rib R that is at substantially the center of the form F, with an eyebolt 39 and an eyenut 40 that engage the hole formed by a plate 37. The outer ends of the chains 36 are anchored to hook-bolts 41 that are fastened to the plates 38. Nuts on the hook-bolts 41 can be rotated to slightly adjust the position of the bars 16. As shown in FIG. 21, a spring clip 44 engages a chain 36 and a ribbar 23 to restrain a rib R from sagging laterally. The center rib R is anchored to a fixed position by diagonally positioned lateral ties made of wires 45 and turnbuckles 27. The turnbuckles 27 can be rotated to make adjustments. The ties may be made of light chain instead of wire 45, to allow major adjustments of the effective lengths of the ties. Wires 45 can be spliced or be cut to allow major adjustments in lengths. The wires 45 are attached to the corner eyebolts 31 and to the eyebolt 39 and eyenut 40, to allow the form F to be trued-up and be maintained in a true position. The clips 44 are removed and the chains 36 are selectively engaged to the hookbolts 41 when the form F is readjusted for molding a panel of a different longitudinal curvature.

The form F may have adjustable supports 48 engaged to the bars 15, to support the template frame T1 to prevent it from deflecting, particularly when it is molding a concrete panel. The supports 48 can act as legs, as shown in FIG. 1. The supports 48 bear on blocks of wood 49 or the like. The blocks 49 may bear on soil 50 or the like. The supports 48 are accessories that are differently positioned to suit different arrangements, as shown in FIGS. 1 and 5-8.

The form F may be supported from above with an overhead monorail or the like. Chains and hooks (not shown) would engage the four end eyebolts 31, thus eliminating the need for supports 48 that act as legs.

The sheet 6 may be made of various materials, including rubberlike plastic, nylon, woven fiber glass, cotton or the like. An elastic sheet 6 would be most suitable, as it could stretch and be taut. An elastic sheet 6 would allow a cementitious coating 10 to be easily stripped from it, when a form F is being made ready for molding a differently shaped panel. A sheet 6 would be low in cost, thus it could be replaced at small cost if it is torn when removing a coating 10 from its surface. The edges of the sheet 6 may be fastened to the bars 15 and 16, with an adhesive.

The rib-bars 23 have spaced notches into which longitudinal fairings 7 are rigged. The fairings 7 would depress the sheet 6 into the notches. A highly elastic sheet 6 could stretch readily to allow it to be pressed into notches in the rib-bar 23 when the fairings 7 are pressed into the notches. The fairings 7 may be made of slightly resilient steel, so they can curve from rib to rib and thus maintain a constant curvature. The ends of the fairings 7 project through eyelets 51 that are fastened to the bars 16. The fairings 7 may be long enough to fair the longest possible setup of form F. The ends of fairings 7 that are made of wire, may be bent downwardly so they cannot be accidentally pulled while the coating 10 is curing.

Curved transverse rib-fairings 52 may be placed below or above the longitudinal fairings 7. A rib-fairing 52 acts as both a rib and a fairing. The ends of the rib-fairings 52 may engage holes in the bars 15, as shown in FIG. 18. The ends of ribfairings 52 can be bent slightly to allow the bars 15 or the ribfairings 52 to be skewed, as shown in FIGS. 8 and 11. When the form F is to be used many times for a given setup, the ribfairings 52 may be fastened to some of the fairings 7 with soft conventional tying wire (not shown), or they may be fastened with temporary welds, or the like.

A form F may have additional rib-fairings 52 spaced close to each other, eliminating the use of fairings 7. The center of each rib-fairing 52 may be held in an aligned radial position by fastening it to the sheet 6 with an adhesive.

Metallic wire would be most suitable in general for ribfairings S2. A rib-fairing 52 is like a fairing 7, plastic wire or wooden strips may be used if preferred to suit climatic or economic conditions. Plastic wire and wooden strips may be fastened with adhesives. Heavy rib-fairings 52 may be used as the sole rib means, eliminating the need for ribs R. Wire ribfairings 52 would be lower in cost, but weaker than ribs R.

Each rib-fairing 52 may be crimped to form notches for the fairings 7, as shown in FIG. 18. The crimped notches may be narrower than the thickness of a fairing 7, so that a fairing 7 can be forced into a notch, thereby making a tight engagement that would tend to prevent a rib-fairing 52 from slipping and sagging laterally out of alignment. When rib-fairings 52 are not crimped and they are used as the sole rib means, the

fairings 7 may be tied to rib-fairings 52 with conventional tie wires or welds.

A fairing 7 that is near the center of the form F, may be tied tightly or be temporarily welded to each rib-fairing 52 and to bars 16, so it acts as a center spacer strand means to align the rib-fairings 52 in radial positions and to restrain the ribfairings 52 from slipping and sagging laterally.

When a coating is placed over the sheet 6, the fairings 7 and 52 act as embedded reinforcing and prevent objectionable cracking.

As shown in FIG. 42, the elastic sheet 6 may be placed above the fairings 7 and 52, then the coating 10 can be applied to the top of the sheet 6. The fairings 7 and 52 support such a coating 10, but they are not embedded in it, thus such a coating 10 is weaker, but the coating can be removed easily after it the panel 1 will have unobjectionable slightly flattened portions on its curvature.

When plastic and fiber glass coating 10 is preferred, ratherthan a cementitious coating 10, the coating may be made much thinner. Such a thin plastic coating would weigh less and be less likely to be broken if the form F is moved. A thin coating 10 that is made of plastic and chopped fiber glass may be sprayed onto the sheet 6 and the fairings 7 and 52, so as to mold it to true curvatures, thus eliminating the use of a screed S for shaping the coating l0.

A strong thin coating 10 may be made, when a pliable sheet of netlike or meshlike fabric 55 that is similar to mosquito screening or netting is used. The sheet of fabric 55 is stretched to cover the space inside the frame T1 and it covers the fairings 7 and 52. A fragment of the sheet fabric 55 is shown in FIG. 2. The sheet fabric55 may have its strands at right angles to each other and such fabric may be positioned so the fabric strands are at an angle to the bars and 16, to allow the fabric to be stretched to a two-way curvature. Fabric 55 may be made with strands of metal, plastic, fiber glass or the like. The sheet fabric 55 may be expanded metal lath mesh that is similar to wire fabric. When the sheet fabric 55 is used, the

. sheet 6 may be omitted. The fabric 55 may be used with either a plastic or a cementitious coating 10.

A form F may have a coating 10 that is reinforced by closely spaced fairings 7 and 52, that are embedded in it, the sheet 6 or sheet 55 being omitted. The coating 10 can be applied to the fairings like a stiff plaster is applied to lath.

A screed S, as shown in FIG. 35, can be used to shape the top surface of the coating 10, and the tops of the curved panels 14 and the like. The screed S has a beam 58 which has a lower edge curved like the transverse curvature that is required for the top of the panel 1 and the like. Each end of the beam 58 has an end plate '59 bolted to it. Each end plate 59 has a contact plate 60 bolted to it. The end plates 59 engage the outer edges of the bars 15. Plates 60 engage the tops of the bars 15. End plates 59 are slotted to allow the contact plates 60 to be adjusted so the beam 58 can shape the coating 10 or be adjusted so the beam 58 can shape the panel 1. The screed S is pressured downwardly and laterally to shape the coating 10 of the panel 1. The screed S can be kept in a vertical position when shaping of a panel 1 to cause the panel to have a uniform vertical thickness.

A screed S2 shown in FIG. 36, can be used to shape the top surface of the coating 10 and'the top of the curved tapered panel 5 that are shown in FIGS. 9-12. Screed S2 can also be used to shape the tops of the coatings 10 and the tops of the panels l-4 that are shown in FIGS. 1-8. The screed S2 is more complex and thus it would be more costly than screed S, therefore, when a screed S is available, a screed S2 would only be needed when panels 5 and the like are to be cast. The screed S2 can be used to shape a wider and a narrower panel than panel 1.

The screed S2 has two slotted L-shaped beams 63 that are pin connected and slidably engaged to each other. Two upwardly bowed slotted bars 64 are pin connected and slidably engaged to each other. Each bar 64 is pivotally engaged to a beam 63, with a pin 65. Two handles 66 are attached to the beams 63. Each handle 66 has a plate 67 attached to it. The plates 67 ride on the bars 15, when the handles '66 are forced against the edges of the bars 15. The screed S2 is gripped by the two handles 66 and it is pushed laterally along the template frame Tl, while pressuring it downwardly and inwardly so the handles 66 and the plates 67 bear against the bars 15.

When a cementitious coating 10 is used and it has cured, it may be coated with water resistant substance, such as silicone waterproofing or plastic. Any type of coating 10 may be coated with a conventional liquid nonadhering mixture, to prevent the coating 10 from adhering to the concrete in the panel that is cast upon it.

When a panel like panel 1 is to be tapered in thickness, tapered wood strips 70 or the like may be attached to the top surface of the template frame T1, to cause the screed S or S2 to rise to thicken a portion of the panel being cast. A short tapered strip 70 is shown in FIG. 1.

The adjustable fasteners 8 are attached in spaced relationship with each other on the top of the template frame TI. The fasteners 8 back up the elastic edge form 9. FIGS. 22, 23, 24 and 32 are elevational views that show details of a fastener 8. The top and bottom of each fastener 8 are alike. Each fastener 8 has a pin portion 8a. FIGS. 22 and 26 each show a fastener 8 and adjacent portions of the form F, along with a portion of a panel 1, to which an orifice plate 72 and a reinforcing connector 11 are coupled. The plate 72 is a portion of a spacer and backup strand B. FIGS-23 and 24 show details of portions of the strand B, which has wires 73.

A restraining spring wire clip 74 restrains the plate 72 and the connector 11 from uncoupling from the pin 8a, before the panel 1 is cast. Each connector 11 is coupled to a reinforcing strand 13 in the panel 1. My US. Pat. No. 3,224,726, fully describes a fastener that is like a fastener 8. My US Pat. No. 3,245,647, fully describes a restraining spring wire clip and spacer strand that are like the clip 74 and strand B. My US. Pat. Nos. 3,161,938 and 2,97l,237 fully describe an elastic edge form thatis like the elastic form 9. My copending application Ser.No. 540,314 describes an improved reinforcing connector and improved panel reinforcing that are like the connector 11 and reinforcing 13.

All of the fasteners 8 have their pin portions 8a positioned parallel to each other, to allow a curved panel 1 to be lifted off the form F, without disturbing the form. The fasteners 8 are made with pliable wire, so they can be bent, including twisting, to suit the curvatures of the form F. FIG. 32 shows in phantom outlines, some of the positions into which portions of the fastener can be bent to adjust them. Large pliers or an adjustable jig (not shown) may be used to bend the fasteners 8 to adjust them.

The connectors 11 and 12 are twisted slightly after the panel is removed from the form F, so that connectors will align with connectors to which they are to be coupled with pins at erection.

The pin spacer or backup strand B has spaced orifice plates 72 that are connected with wires 73. The plates 72 engage the spaced pins 8a. The strand B engages an offset 9a on the elastic edge form 9, as shown in FIG. 24, to restrain the form 9 from bulging outwardly when it is pressured by fresh concrete and to restrain the lower portion of the form 9 from expanding upwardly. The wires 72 may have resilient coiled portions, as shown in FIG. 24, to make them taut, even when the spacing of the pin portions 8a change, when the longitudinal curvature is changed. The strand B may have uncoiled portions (not shown), connecting the orifice plates 72 for use with fasteners 8 on bars 15 or 16 that have a constant curvature, so the strand B can help to keep the fasteners 8 properly spaced and aligned. The strand B is not needed to hold down the form 9, when a template frame T2, as shown in FIG. 30, is used to depress the form 9. The edge form 9 has spaced slits that are notched to allow it to be forced down over the connectors 11 and 12.

A panel 1 would preferably have clevis reinforcing connectors 11 embedded along one side edge and one end edge, and eye connectors 12 embedded along the other side edge and the other end edge.

Modified panels may have connectors 12 along all four side edges. Such a modification would be weaker, but easier to erect.

The connectors 11 and 12 are connected to the reinforcing 13 that is embedded and positioned around the perimeter of the panel 1. The panel 1 has reinforcing fabric 75, such as rectangular wire fabric or expanded metal fabric, that is placed with its strands positioned diagonally with respect to the side edges of the panel 1, to allow the fabric 75 to be stretched to the curvature of the panel. The fabric 75 is fastened to the perimeter wire 13, to provide continuity to the reinforcing. The fabric 75 is supported on chairs 78. Chairs 78 may be positioned on the coating above the rib-bars 23, like the chair 78 is positioned, as shown in FIG. 21. The panel 1 may have longitudinal reinforcing strands 79 stretched from end to end connectors l 1 and 12. The strands 79 may be made of wire or fiber glass. The strands 79 provide strong reinforcing, where the panel would tend to deform from bending stresses.

After the reinforcing 75 and 79 are positioned, concrete is placed on top of the coating 10 and it is smoothed and accurately shaped with the screed S. The elastic edge form 9 has an offset 9b to mold a keying groove 10 in the panel edging. FIG. 41 shows how the grooves 10 and the connectors 11 and 12, that are molded and positioned by the form F, can coact when like panels 1d and l f are joined at erection to form a scalloplike corrugated shell portion like the arrangement shown in FIG. 40.

As shown in FIG. 41, the connectors 11 and 12 can be coupled with a pin 80 to allow like panels 1d and If to be easily and quickly erected, and the grooves it allow grout 81 to be inserted later, to lock the panels 1d and 1f together. Each pin 80 may have a hole through its head, to allow a reinforcing wire 82 to be rigged through the hole. The wire 82 along with the adjacent reinforcing strands l3, reinforce the V-shaped joint. The pin 80 may have its shank split and bent so the pin is self-locking. Since there would likely be low stresses in the transverse reinforcing of panels, even loose pins 80 and limber connectors 11 and 12 are feasible, as the grout 81 would prevent the connectors 1 1 and 12 from bending under a load.

The form F would be useful to mold small thin shell panels that do not have the connectors 11 and 12.

The upper portion of the elastic form 9, as shown in FIG. 26, would tend to bend outwardly when the fresh concrete of the panel 1 is pressured against it, tending to cause some of the adjacent concrete to spill over. Stiff backup sheets 84 such as that shown in FIG. 27 may be positioned between the form 9 and the main upright portions of the fasteners 8, to restrain the form 9 from bulging outwardly. Slots in sheets 84 allow the sheets to be slipped over the pin offsets of the fasteners 8. A more effective but more costly means to confine the concrete is to provide a second template frame T2 above and in spaced relationship with the template T1, as shown in FIG. 30. A template frame T2 is like a template frame T1. The template frame T2 would depress or holddown the top of the elastic form 9 and help to keep the fasteners 8 in alignment. When a template frame T2 is omitted, a screed S or S2 can depress the top of the elastic edge 9 in shaping the top of the panel 1. A screed S or S2 can be adjusted to allow it to bear on either a template frame T1 or the frame T2.

The setup for molding a panel 2, as shown in FIG. 5, has the straight portion of each bar 15 restrained from sagging by trussing the wires 32 with a support 48. When additional stiffness is needed, a strong straight stiff bar 86 may be fastened to the bottom or top of the outer portion of the straight portion of the bar 15. A small fragment of the bar 86 is shown in FIG.

5. Portions of the template frame T1 that are straight, may have stiff wood strips (not shown) in place of elastic strip portions 9.

The setup for molding a panel 3, as shown in FIG. 6, has the longitudinal tie wires 30 and 32 rigged to eyebars 31 that are above the bars 15. If the tie wires 30 and 32 are rigged to eyebars 31 that are below the bars 15, there would be a tendency for the pull on the wires to change the degree of curvature of the ends of the bars 15. If the lower eyebars 31 are extremely short, the tie wires 30 and 32 can be rigged to them without causing objectionable bending of the ends of the bars 15, thus eliminating the need for the upper eyebolts 31. Supports 48 are fastened to the end portions of bars 15.

The setup for molding a panel 4, as shown in FIGS. 7 and 8, has the opposing template bars 15 differently curved longitudinally. The connections to the bars 15 are loosened and adjusted to allow the ribs R and the bars 16 to be skewed.

When the form F is to be setup to mold a tapered panel 5, as shown in FIGS. 9-12, the connections to bars 15 are loosened and adjusted to allow the bars 15 to be skewed laterally and vertically, to allow the longitudinal curvature to be a true radius. The effective lengths of the ribs R and bars 16 are shortened by loosening, adjusting and reconnecting them to suit the shape required for molding a panel 5. The bars 23 and bars 16 may have spaced intermediate holes to allow the bolts 24a and the bolts 20 to be connected to them at intermediate points. The pin-bolts 24a are retracted and engaged to other spaced holes in the rib-bars 23, or they are clamped to the bars 23 to allow the effective length of each rib R to be shortened. The bolts 25 are loosened to allow the bars 15 to be skewed with the ribs R. The bolts 20 are removed from bars 16 and inserted in other spaced holes in the bars 16 to shorten the effective length of the bar 16 on the narrow end of the setup. After the bars 15 are positioned, the bolts are tightened so the parts cannot disengage or pivot. The holes in each angle iron 17 for bolts 21 are oversized and slotted to allow the angle 17 to be skewed in its relationship to the bar 15 to which it is connected. When the angle 17 is correctly adjusted, washers on the bolts 21 are welded temporarily to the angle 17.

The clevises 24 may be clamped to intermediate portions of bars 23 when the bars 23 are not provided with intermediate holes. Each bar 23 may be gripped by the end of the bolt 24a to allow clamping action. Transverse rib-fairings 52 may be shortened by being cut and welded. When preferred, particularly for tapering and narrowing of a setup, any or all of the connections that are made of steel that are shown bolted, may be temporarily welded. A fairing 7 that is made of steel, that is adjacent to an edge and terminates at an intermediate portion of the edge can be bent downwardly after it engages the last rib R that has a notch to support it.

The setup for molding a panel 22, shown in FIG. 12a, would have wave-shaped rib-bars 23a. A typical bar 23, as shown in FIG. 3, that is made of mild steel, can be cut transversely at its center, one of its parts can be turned over and rotated one hundred and eighty degrees and then the parts can be welded together, to form a bar 23a. Mild steel bars 16 can be formed to the wave-shaped curvature, like the bar 23a is formed. Ribfairings 52 could readily be rebent to the wave-like curvature. Strands 79 and fasteners 8 are positioned at the high and low portions of the wave. The screed S would have a modified beam 58, that is shaped to the wavelike curvature, so the top of the coating 10 and the top of the panel 22 can be readily shaped. A panel 22 and the like, would be suitable for extremely small arched spans and for partitions.

When the contemplated usage of the form F indicates there will be need to adjust and use the form to mold a different type of panel while the previous type of panel is still to be produced, a setup may be used that will provide an additional form means, so most of the parts of the adjustable form F can be released for other usage. The setup would include a template frame T2 as shown in FIG. 30. After the panel 1 has cured, the nuts that hold the fasteners 8 to the template frame T1, are removed from the bolts 33, then the panel 1, with template frame T2, elastic form 9 and the fasteners 8 attached to it, are removed from the template frame Tl, so the panel 1 and the attached form parts can be used as a base portion of a form for molding additional panels 1 upon it. The fasteners 8 can spring slightly to allow removal. Additional fasteners 8 and an additional elastic form 9, are mounted on the template frame T2, so as to allow the panel 1 and the form parts to be used as a form. Another template frame may be fastened to the tops of the upper fasteners 8, thereby forming a setup that is similar in appearance to the upper portions of the setup shown in FIGS. 33 and 34. After the panel 1 and the form parts are no longer needed to mold a panel like the panel 1, the panel 1 can be used as a building panel- As shown in FIGS. 33 and 34, the panel 1 with the frame T2, form 9 and fasteners 8 attached to it may be raised to a position that is a panel thickness higher than the coating 10. The nuts are removed from the bolts 33 that hold the fasteners 8 to the template T1, to allow the template T2 and the attached members to be removed.

Additional fasteners 8 and an additional form 9 are mounted on the frame T1, and a template frame T3 is positioned between the frame T1 and the frame T2, and it is fastened to the lower and to the upper sets of fasteners 8. With this setup, the underside of the panel 1 molds the top of a panel la that is cast below it, thus eliminating the need to use a screed S to shape the top of the panel la. The fresh concrete for the panel la, can be inserted through a valve (not shown) in the form 9 or through an access hole in the panel 1 (not shown). My U.S. Pat. No. 2,971,237 fully describes such a valve and access hole for inserting the concrete. A panel that is tapered in thickness (not shown), that is similar to panel la, may also be made when a panel capping is used. The height of some of the fasteners 8 being adjusted so they gradually increase so as to vary the distance between the template frames T1 and T3.

The form F may have a stack of panels like panel 1 molded one above another on top of it, similar in appearance to the panels In and 1 that are shown in FIGS. 33 and 34. Stacking allows a panel to cure thoroughly before moving it. Stacking conserves space in curing and storage yards. A cured stack of panels with template frames, forms 9 and fasteners 8, but without the form F, would act as a strong unit,, that could be handled as a unit with a crane, with little danger of damaging the panels during handling or shipping.

As shown in FIG. 37, form F may be used along with an existing panel 1h to mold a panel 1 and accurately space the fasteners 8 so they match the connectors 12 in the existing panel 1h to which they will be joined during erection. The fastener pins 80 are coupled to the connectors 12 in the existing panel 1h. The connectors 12 are twisted slightly to allow them to seat on the fasteners 8. The fasteners 8 are tack welded or otherwise fastened to the bar that supports the adjacent side of the panel 1h. The upper portion of each fastener 8 is bent or cutoff to clear the panel 1. The panel 1h is notched to allow fasteners 8 to be positioned. The connector 12 is coupled to the fastener pin 8a. The fastener 8 is bent as shown in FIG. 38 to allow the connector 12 to extend to the fastener pin 80. The screed S may be used to shape the top of the panel 1. The contact plate 8,7 is fastened to the beam 58, after removing the adjacent end plate 59 and the contact plate 60. The contact plate 87 bears, and is movable against the existing panel 1h. Each fastener 8 aligns the engaging connectors 11 and 12, so that a pin 80, shown in FIG. 41, can be inserted to lock the connectors together at erection.

FIG. 39 shows how the form F is used along with an existing panel 1/: to mold a panel 1m to it, to form a large panel having a plurality of corrugations, such as the panel 88 shown in FIG. 40. The connectors 11 and 12 are joined with a pin 80. A reinforcing wire 82 may be rigged through holes in the heads of pins 80. The screed S is used to shape the top of the panel 1m. The elastic form 9 is omitted, where the panels 1k and 1m are joined.

The panel 88 shown in FIG. 40, has panel corrugations 88a, 88b and 880. Each of these panel corrugations may be poured separately by using any of the form means shown in FIGS. 22, 37 or 39.

I assume that in large scale usage of the form F, that labor with the higher skill would setup the forms, less skilled labor would place the reinforcing, still less skilled labor would place the concrete and use a screed to shape it.

While I have illustrated and described several embodiments of my invention, it will be understood that these are by way of illustration only, and that various changes and modifications may be made within the contemplation of my invention and within the scope of the following claims.

Iclaim:

1. A form for molding a thin, curved building panel, said form including a template frame having oppositely disposed end bar means and oppositely disposed side bar means, attaching means fastening together said end bar means and said side bar means, said end bar means being at least partially curved in length, said side bar means including longitudinal curving means to allow said side bar means to be selectively bowed at least partially in length, said longitudinal curving means including tie means that extend across the chord of the bow of each of said side bar means, said form having rib means mounted in spaced relationship on said side bar means and spanning the space between said side bar means, said rib means being at least partially curved in length, a pliable sheet engaged with said rib means and covering the opening formed by said template frame, elastic strip means mounted on at least a portion of the periphery of said template frame, a plurality of spaced fastener means mounted on and attached to at least a portion of the periphery of said template frame outwardly from said strip means, said fastener means engaging and confining said strip means, said strip means having an eflective height substantially equal to the thickness of said building panel to be cast, said strip means having a protruding portion substantially centrally of the height of said strip means and facing inwardly for molding a keying groove in the edging of said building panel, said strip means adapted to confine fresh aggregate of said building panel deposited within its confines, connector means adapted to be spaced along its said edging, said strip means having spaced transverse holes through an intermediate portion of its height adjacent to said fastener means, said connector means having end portions extending through said transverse holes, said fastener means adapted for anchoring and positioning said end portions, whereby two way curved building panels having different curvatures can be made readily.

2. A from as recited in claim 1, wherein said curvature of said end bar means is a single bow and wherein said end bar means includes selective transverse curving means to allow said end bar means to be selectively curved in lengths, whereby building panels having different transverse curvatures can be readily made.

3. A form as recited in claim 1, wherein said side bar means includes spaced side engaging means and wherein said attaching means engaging at least one of said end bar means includes detachable means, so at least said one end bar means can be selectively positioned and be attached to intermediate positions along said side bar means, whereby said building panel can be made in a selective length.

4. A form as recited in claim 1, wherein said end bar means includes spaced end engaging means and wherein said attaching means engaging at least one of said side bar means includes detachable means, so at least said one side bar means can, be selectively positioned and be attached to intermediate positions along said end bar means, whereby said building panel can be varied in width.

5. A form as recited in claim 1, wherein said attaching means include pivotal fastening means, whereby said side bar means can be skewed, and whereby the side edges of said building panel can be skewed.

6. A form as recited in claim 1, together with longitudinal fairing means mounted in spaced relationship to each other and engaging said rib means, said longitudinal fairing means spanning the space between said end bar means, whereby the underside of said building panel can be molded with a uniform fair curvature.

7. A form as recited in claim 1, together with cap means mounted in spaced relationship above said sheet, said cap means having substantially the same curvature as said sheet, said cap means covering space where said building panel is to be cast, whereby said cap means can mold the top surface of said building panel.

8. A form as recited in claim 3, wherein said end bar means includes spaced end engaging means and wherein said attaching means engaging at least one of said side bar means includes detachable means, so at least said one side bar means can be selectively positioned and be attached to intermediate positions along said end bar means, whereby said building panel can be varied in width and length.

9. A form as recited in claim 3, together with longitudinal fairing means mounted in spaced relationship to each other and engaging said rib means, said longitudinal fairing means spanning the space between said end bar means, whereby the underside of said building panel can be molded with a uniform fair curvature.

10. A form as recited in claim 4, wherein said attaching means includes pivotal fastening means, whereby said side bar means can be skewed, and whereby the side edges of said building can be skewed.

11. A form for molding a thin, curved building panel, said form including a template frame having oppositely disposed end bar means and oppositely disposed side bar means that are fastened together, said end bar means being at least partially curved in length, said form having rib means mounted in spaced relationship on said side bar means and spanning the space between said side bar means, said rib means being at least partially curved in length, a pliable sheet engaged with said rib means and covering the opening formed by said template frame, said curvature of said end bar means being a single bow, said side bar means includes longitudinal curving means to allow said side bar means to be selectively bowed at least partially in length, said longitudinal curving means includes tie means that extend across the chord of the bow of each of said side bar means, said end bar means includes selec tively transverse curving means to allow said end bar means to be selectively curved in length, whereby building panels having different longitudinal and transverse curvatures can be readily made.

12. A form for molding a thin, curved building panel, said form including a template frame having oppositely disposed end bar means and oppositely disposed side bar means that are fastened together, said end bar means being at least partially curved in length, said form having transverse wire rib-fairing means mounted in spaced relationship on said side bar means and spanning the space between said side bar means, said transverse wire rib-fairing means being at least partially curved in length, a pliable sheet engaged with said transverse wire rib-fairing means and covering the opening formed by said template frame and being engaged with said side bar means and said end bar means, said curvature of said end bar means being a single bow, said side bar means including longitudinal curving means to allow said side bar means to be selectively bowed at least partially in length, said longitudinal curving means including tie means that extend across the chord of the bow of each of said side bar means, whereby said building panel can have a fair transverse curvature.

13. A form for molding a thin, curved building panel, said form including a template frame having oppositely disposed end bar means and oppositely disposed side bar means that are fastened together with attaching means, said end bar means being at least partially curved in length, said form having rib means mounted in spaced relationship on said side bar means and spanning the space between said side bar means said rib means being at least partially curved in length, a pliable sheet engaged with said rib means and covering the opening formed by said template frame, said curvature of said end bar means being a single bow, said side bar means including longitudinal curving means to allow said side bar means to be selectively bowed at least partially in length, said longitudinal curving means including tie means that extend across the chord of the bow of each of said side bar means, said attaching means including pivotal fastening means, whereby said side bar means can be skewed to skew the edges of said building panel.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4185805 *Jun 16, 1978Jan 29, 1980The Burke CompanyApparatus and method for constructing adjustable curvilinear concrete forms
US4309824 *Feb 21, 1979Jan 12, 1982Alfred FuchsMethod and an arrangement for producing a curved sail
US4814126 *Mar 28, 1988Mar 21, 1989Fmc CorporationMethod for custom fabrications of doors
US4826639 *Jan 20, 1987May 2, 1989Henri VidalMoulding process and apparatus for making arch-shaped concrete structures
US5372349 *Apr 27, 1993Dec 13, 1994Jte, Inc.Single form system and method for molding pre-cast structural wall panels of different sizes for different types of wall systems
US7048529Apr 24, 2003May 23, 2006Metecno SpaMould for curved panels
US8057206 *Sep 13, 2007Nov 15, 2011Hrl Laboratories, LlcReconfigurable tooling using variable stiffness material
US20120133066 *Nov 30, 2011May 31, 2012Gamesa Innovation & Technology, S.L.Device for regulating deformations of the bed of a geometrically aerodynamic mold and molding method with this device
EP0238168A1 *Jan 21, 1987Sep 23, 1987Societe Civile Des Brevets De Henri VidalMethod and apparatus for moulding curved concrete sections
EP0465751A1 *Apr 17, 1990Jan 15, 1992Talleres Espi E Hijos, S.L.Tool for shaping of rings or spirals for a bandtransporter
WO1983000893A1 *Sep 11, 1981Mar 17, 1983Environmental DynamicsUnderground building structure
WO2002034493A1 *Apr 26, 2001May 2, 2002Metecno SpaMould for curved panels
Classifications
U.S. Classification249/13, 249/155, 249/210
International ClassificationB28B7/02, B29C33/30
Cooperative ClassificationB28B7/02, B29C33/308
European ClassificationB28B7/02, B29C33/30G