|Publication number||US3620218 A|
|Publication date||Nov 16, 1971|
|Filing date||Aug 25, 1969|
|Priority date||Oct 31, 1963|
|Publication number||US 3620218 A, US 3620218A, US-A-3620218, US3620218 A, US3620218A|
|Inventors||Edward Emil Schmitt, Rocco Albert Polistina|
|Original Assignee||American Cyanamid Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (202), Classifications (21)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 72] Inventors [21 Appl. No.  Filed  Patented  Assignee  CYLINDRICAL PROSTHETIC DEVICES 0F  .lnt.Cl. .4 ..A6lb 17/11  Field olSearch 128/334. 335.5; 3/D1G. 1
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,127,903 8/1938 Bowen 128/334 2,428,918 10/1947 Miller 128/334 2,676,945 4/1954 Higgins.... 260/783 X 3,155,095 11/1964 Brown 128/334 3,297,033 1/1967 Schmitt et a1 128/3355 3,463,158 8/1969 Schmitt et a1 128/334 Primary Examiner- Dalton L. Truluck Attorney-Samuel Branch Walker ABSTRACT: Polyhydroxyactic ester, also called polyglycolic zg fi g gg g g" acid (PGA), has surgically useful mechanical properties as a a solid prosthesis, such as reinforcing pins. screws, plates, or  U.S.Cl 128/334 R, cylinders. On implantation, in living mammalian tissue, the
3/D1G l polyglycolic acid is absorbed, and replaced by living tissue.
div-WA! 4-4.". afll'u' puma-m2; Ewaawmowunw* 1 CYLINDRICAL PROSTHETIC DEVICES OF POLYGLYCOLIC ACID CROSS-REFERENCES This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. No. 608,086, Jan. 9, 1967 now U.S. Pat. No. 3,463,158, Aug. 26, 1969, Polyglycolic acid Prosthetic Devices" and Ser. No. 320,543, filed Oct. 31, 1963 now U.S. Pat. No. 3,297,033, Jan. 10, 1967, Surgical Sutures."
FIELD OF INVENTION This invention relates to absorbable surgical structural elements of polyhydroxyacetic ester hereafter called polyglycolic acid (PGA PRIOR ART The use of submucosal tissue and ribbons therefrom internally is described in such patents as U.S. Pat. No. 2,167,251, Rogers, Surgical Tape of Submucosa Tissue," July 25, 1939, U.S. Pat. No. 2,143,910, Didusch, "Ribbon-Gut and Method of Using the Same," Jan. 17, 1939, and U.S. Pat. No. 2,127,903, Bowen, Tube for Surgical Purposes and Method of Preparing and Using the Same,.Aug. 23, 1938.
U.S. Pat. No. 3,155,095, A. M. Brown Anastomosis Method and Means shows an internal and external absorbable coupling for the joining of vascular vessels.
SUMMARY Definitions in the textiletrades are frequently somewhat ambiguous. For purposes of the present application, certain terms are defined:
A "filament" is a single, long, thin flexible structure of a nonabsorbable or absorbable material. It may be continuous or staple.
Staple is used to designate a group of shorter filaments which are usually twisted together to form a longer continuous thread.
An absorbable filament is one which is absorbed, that is digested or dissolved, in living mammalian tissue.
A threa is a plurality of filaments, either continuous or staple, twisted together.
A strand" is a plurality of filaments or threads twisted, plaited, braided, or laid parallel to form a unit for further construction into a fabric,.or used per se, or a monofilament of such size as to be woven or used independently.
A solid prosthetic device" is a thin solid sheet, or plate, or tube, which may be split, or bar, or nail, or screw, or pin or other solid shape which has inherent mechanical strength in compression, bending and shear to act as a solid discrete surgical reinforcing element, and has at least one dimension greater than 2 millimeters, and which may have a dimension as great as about 200 millimeters, or as required, to fit into or adjacent to and furnish mechanical support and reinforcement to a bone, or bones, or gland, or organ, for support during a healing process.
The size and shape of the prosthetic devices, or protheses, is controlled by usage. For example, in the human body, in the case of a bone fracture, a pin is used to reinforce a bone, and is of such a size as to be a tight driving fit into a central portion of the bone, or a hole drilled into a bone. Such a pin can be from about 1/ 16-inch diameter and 16-inch length for finger bones, or for children, up to 1 1/4-inch diameter and, 6-inch length to reinforce the femur, or thigh bone of large adult humans, or even larger for valuable race-horses or other mammals.
The support may be in part directive of growth, as for example in nerve tissue, which grows slowly, and as a result has regeneration impaired by the more rapid growth of scar tissue which can block the growth of the nerve tissue. With a wraparound sheath of PGA sheet, or a split or solid tube used to support, place, hold and'protect; regeneration of nerve tissue and function is greatly aided. Other factors may inhibit regeneration of nerve tissue or function, but with the exclusion of scar tissue, such other factors may be separately treated. PGA is particularly useful in splicing nerves because PGA is completely dissolved in tissue and leaves minimal or no residual scar tissue from the PGA.
For different purposes and in different types of tissue the rate of absorption may vary but in general an absorbable prosthesis should have as high a portion of its original strength as possible for at least 3 days, and sometimes as much as 15 days or more, and preferably should be completely absorbed by muscular tissue within from 45 to days or more depending on the mass of the cross section. The rate of absorption in other tissues may vary even more.
In common with many biological systems, the requirements are not absolute and the rate of absorption as well as the shonterm strength requirement varies from patient to patient and at different locations within the body, as well as with the thickness of the section of PGA.
ThePGA may be formed as tubes or sheets for surgical repair and may. also be spun as thinfilaments and woven or felted to form absorbable sponges or absorbable gauze, or used in conjunction with other compressive structures as prosthetic devices within the body of a human or animal where it is desirable that the structure have short term strength, but be absorbable. The useful embodiments include tubes, including branched tubes or Tees, for artery, vein or intestinal repair, nerve splicing, tendon splicing, sheets for tying up and supportingdamaged kidney, liver and other intestinal organs, protecting damaged surface areas such as abrasions, particularly major abrasions, or areas where the skin and underlying tissues are damaged or surgically removed.
The medical uses of PGA include, but are not necessarily limited to:
A. Pure PGA 1. Solid Products, molded or machined a. Orthopedic pins, clamps, screws and plates b. Clips (e.g., for vena cava) c. Staples d. Hooks, buttons and snaps e. Bone substitute (e.g., mandible prosthesis) f. Needles g. Nonpermanent intrauterine devices (antispermocide) h. Temporary draining or testing tubes or capillaries i. Surgical instruments j. Vascular implants or supports k. Vertebral discs I. Extracorporeal tubing for kidney and heart-lung machines Fibrillar Products, knitted or woven, including velours a. Burn dressings b. Hernia patches c. Absorbent paper or swabs d. Medicated dressings e. Facial substitutes f. Gauze, fabric, sheet, felt or sponge for liver hemostasis g. Gauze bandages h. Dental packs Miscellaneous a. Flake or powder for burns or abrasions b. Foam as absorbable prosthesis c. Substitute for wire in fixations d. Film spray for prosthetic devices B. PGA in Combination with other Products b 1. Solid Products, molded or machined a. Slowly digestible ion-exchange resin b. Slowly digestible drug release device (pill, pellet) c. Reinforced bone pins, needles, etc. 2. Fibrillar Products a. Arterial graft or substitutes b. Bandages for skin surfaces c. Burn dressings (in combination with other polymeric The synthetic character and hence predictable forrnability and consistency in characteristics obtainable from a controlled process are highly desirable.
The most convenient method of sterilizing PGA prostheses is by heat under such conditions that any micro-organisms or deleterious materials are rendered inactive. A second common method is to sterilize using a gaseous sterilizing agent such as ethylene oxide. Other methods of sterilizing include radiation by X-rays, gamma rays, neutrons, electrons, etc., or high-intensity ultrasonic vibrational energy or combinations of these methods. The present materials have such physical characteristics that they may be sterilized by any of these methods.
PGA can be considered as essentially a product of polymerization of glycolic acid, that is hydroxyacetic acid, which in simplified form is shown by the equation:
polyhydroxyaeetlc ester (PGA) g hydroxyacetie acld the cyclic dimeric condensation product formed by dehydrating hydroxyacetic acid. During polymerization of glycolide, the ring is broken and straight-chain polymerization occurs.
Small quantities of other materials may be present in the chain, as for example, d,l-lactic acid, its optically active forms, homologs, and analogs. In general plasticizers tend to interfere with crystallinity, orientation, etc. and weaken the prosthesis but are useful for sponges and films. Other substances may be present, such as dyes, antibiotics, antiseptics, anaesthetics, and antioxidants. Surfaces can be coated with a silicone, beeswax, and the like to modify handling or absorption rate.
The polymerization of glycolide occurs by heating with or without a catalyst, or may be induced by radiation such as X- rays, gamma rays, electron beams, etc. Polymers may also be obtained by condensing glycolic acid or chloraacetic acid with or without a catalyst under a variety of conditions. Good moldable objects or fibers are most readily obtained when the melt viscosity at 245 C. is about 400 to about 27,000 poises.
Polyhydroxyacetic esters have been described in U.S. Pat. No. 2,668,162, Lowe, Preparation of High Molecular Weight Polyhydroxyacetic Ester," and U.S. Pat. No. 2,676,945, Higgins, Condensation Polymers of l-lydroxyacetic Acid."
The processes described in the above two patents can be used for producing PGA from which prostheses may be made. Additives such as triphenylphosphite or Santo-Nox, a disulfide aromatic phenol, can be added as color stabilizers.
DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows a spliced artery having an internal sleeve with slightly tapered ends, with a sewn splice.
FIG. 2 is a cross section of a spliced artery having an internal sleeve with expanded ends.
FIG. 3 shows a prosthetic sleeve formed of a unitary coupling of solid polyglycolic acid with slightly expanding ends to aid in holding a blood vessel about the sleeve.
FIG. 4, shows the sleeve of FIG. 12 in use in which an external spring clip of solid polyglycolic acid holds the ends of the blood vessel together.
FIG. 5 shows the sleeve of FIG. 12 in which two expandable annular clips are used to hold the ends of the blood vessel approximated.
PGA for the construction of the prostheses shown in the drawings can be produced as set forth in the following examples, in which parts are by weight, unless otherwise clearly indicated.
EXAMPLE 1 One hundred parts of recrystallized glycolide (melting point 85.0 to 85.5" C.) are intimately mixed with 0.02 part of methoxyacetic acid, 0.03 part of phenoldisulfide (Santo-Nox), and 0.03 part antimony trifluoride. Separate glass tubes are each charged with approximately 20 grams of the mixture, deoxygenated by repeated evacuation and argon purging, then sealed under vacuum and heated to 185 to I C. for 4 v1 hours. On cooling a white opaque tough PGA is produced in a 97.5 percent yield with a melt viscosity at 245 C. of 5,000 poises. The polymer is reheated and spun into filaments at a temperature of about 230 C. at a speed of about feet per minute. The filaments produced are cooled, then drawn at about 55 C. When drawn to 5 times the original length a strong tough filament is produced. The dry filaments are in condition for use.
EXAMPLE 2 The polymer of the preceding example is formed into a plurality of smaller filaments, seven of which are twisted into a polyfilamentary strand, which is sterilized and used following the techniques of examples 1.
Because it is a synthetic polymer the methods of forming are more versatile than in starting with naturally occurring materials.
EXAMPLE 3 lnto a suitable reaction vessel there is charged 400 parts of a commercial glycolic acid which is then heated from room temperature to about 200 C. over a period of about 4 hours. When the pot temperature has reached l85 C., the pressure of the system is reduced from atmospheric pressure to 15 mm. of Hg, causing the water of condensation and/or esterification to distill off. The residue is allowed to cool and is pulverized into about 280 parts of a powder which is then added in small increments to a suitable pyrolysis chamber maintained at a temperature of about 250-285 C. at a pressure of less than 15 mm. of Hg. The distillate which weighed about 238 parts is dissolved in a minimum amount of hot ethyl acetate, and after decolorizing and purifying with active carbon, the distillate is recrystallized from the above solution to provide parts of product having a melting point of about 82.5-84.0 C. The infrared spectrum confirms that the product is substantially pure glycolide.
The glycolide thus prepared is polymerized in the presence of an alcohol free of nonbenzenoid unsaturation and free of any reactive groups other than alcoholic hydroxy groups and in the presence of SnCl,-2H,O.
A heavy walled glass tube having a bore of about threetenth inch and sealed at one end is charged with 3 parts of the substantially pure glycolide composition, 0.04 part of a 0.l percent ether solution of SnCl,-2H,O (about 0.0013 percent of SnCl,-2H,O based on the weight of the substantially pure glycolide composition), 0.0166 part of lauryl alcohol (0.346 mole percent based on the moles of the substantially pure glycolide composition), and a magnetic steel ball five thirtysecond inch in diameter. The tube is evacuated and purged with argon. The tube is evacuated again to a vacuum of less than 1 mmsof Hg and the top is sealed. The reaction tube is placed in a vertical position in a closed glass chamber throughout which dimethyl phthalate is refluxed at 222 C. The boiling point of the dimethyl phthalate is controlled by decreasing the pressure of the system. At periodic intervals after melting, the viscosity of the reaction mixture is measured by raising the steel ball by means of a magnet and measuring the rate of the fall of the ball in sec./in. Ninety minutes after the melt is first achieved, the ball drop time is 550 sec./in. or about 7,200 poises, and after 120 minutes, the ball drop time is 580 sec./in. or about 7,600 poises.
The PGA thus produced is spun into 0.002-inch diameter fibers and used to form strands.
Additional PGA, similarly produced is used to form sheets, or tubes. These are wrapped around nerves, traumatically severed, to protect such nerves from invasive scar tissue growth, while the nerve is regenerating.
Also the PGA so produced is fabricated into the prosthetic devices shown in the drawings. The PGA may be moulded or machined or extruded to a desired configuration.
In FIG. I is shown an artery 37 which is joined together over a tapered end PGA tube 38 which fonns a stent about which the ends of the artery wall are joined by a suture splice 39. The tapered end is easier to insert in the artery.
In FIG. 2 the artery walls 40 are joined together over a flared end PGA tube 41 and the ends are joined by a suture splice 42.
FIG. 3 shows the flared end PGA tube 41.
In FIG. 4 is shown a blood vessel 43, the ends of which are each separatedly placed over the end of a flared PGA tube and which blood vessel is held in place with the ends adjacent to permit healing by a PGA spring clip 44. PGA, such as produced in the above example 3, shows an Izod impact strength of 0.14 ft.-lbs. per inch width or greater. It may be heated and fonned into a desired shape which shape is retained on cooling, and by shaping as a flat spring clip, can be used to hold together the walls of a blood vessel 43 until natural regeneration takes place.
In FIG. 5 is shown a similar splice of a blood vessel 45 but in which the ends are held together by an annular clip 46 of molded PGA. Such annular clips are well known for the attachment of radiator hoses to radiators in automobiles and the attachment of other flexible tubing to connectors. By a suitable choice of diameter and shape, as is well known in the industry, the radial compression at all points about the periphery may be caused to be approximately uniform and within a desired range. This is important in the splicing of blood vessels as it is desired to hold the blood vessel in position during regeneration, but yet not hold the vessels so tightly that necrosis sets in because of an impaired blood supply to the vessel walls.
While disclosed primarily for blood vessels, or vascular vessels, because jointure of such vessels is of greatest interest at present, obviously the same techniques and hollow splice cylinders can be used on any of a variety of vessels in the body of man or animals. Such tubes include fallopian tubes, spermatic ducts, bile ducts, ureters, sinus tubes, eustachian tubes, tear ducts, or for absorbable drain tubes in body cavities, or where a splice or joindure is required in any body tube. The size of the hollow cylinder is preferably such that the lumen, or internal diameter is about that of the tube being joined. The ends of the cylinder are conveniently tapered, so that the ends are readily insertable in the body tube, and for blood vessels so that a minimum of tubulence is induced in flowing blood, and hence thrombus formation is minimized. The PGA cylinder appears to be essentially nonthrombogenic.
The splice PGA cylinder normally is of uniform diameter, as usually the ends of the vessel to be spliced are the same. The diameters may be made different to join vessels of different sizes as may' occur where a splice is'to'be made between vessels not normally joined. T or Y-joints can be formed by molding or machining, with the various openings of a desired size, with the PGA protheses to be completely covered by the vessel walls. As the PGA protheses is absorbed, the vessel walls must grow together without defects.
Also because of the tremendous strength of the solid PGA, a surgical needle can be formed on the end of a PGA suture by either fusing the PGA of the suture, or molding additional PGA onto the suture end, the needle being bent and pointed as may be surgically preferred for a specific surgical procedure. The ends or edges of monocomponent or bicomponent fabrics containing PGA may be rendered rigid by moulding such edges, with or without additional solid PGA to a desired configuration. It is often easier to insert and retain a flexible fabric prosthetic tube if the end of the tube is of a size and shape to be inserted into the severed end of a vessel.
The drawings above are illustrative only of embodiment of the present invention in which various prosthetic devices are incorporated into the human body to aid impaired functions of natural elements. From the above drawings and descriptions, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that many other modifications may be adapted for particular injuries or ills to which the flesh is heir.
The finding that polyglycolic acid, abbreviated PGA, is absorbable in living tissue, and has marked mechanical strength, as a fiber or solid, including sheet, and hence can be used as an element in, or as, a surgical prosthesis, is most unexpected and unpredictable.
Following the method set forth in the American Society for Testing and Materials, 1969 Books of Standards, Part 27, PlasticsGeneral Methods of Testing, Nomenclature, ASTM, 1916 Race St., Philadelphia, Pa. 19103, May 1969, procedure 709-66 at page 303 to 310, (procedure B); a flexure strength of about 40,000 pounds per square inch and a flexure modulus of 1.2 to l.4 l0 pounds per square inch is developed by the solid bars of PGA. For an unfilled plastic these values are spectacularly high. It is even more remarkable that such highstrength values are developed by a polymer that is absorbable by living mammalian tissue.
Catgut, or regenerated collagen has in the past been used for tissue emplacement, but with collagen, as the collagen is absorbed, a fibrotic tract replaces the collagen, so that in effect scar tissue remains at the site of the emplanted collagen for many years, in many instances for life. Some patients are allergic to collagen. PGA is not a protein, has no amino acids, and has given no evidence of allergic reactions in thousands of implants. With the present PGA prostheses, the PGA is completely absorbed, and a minimal or no trace of the inserted matter remains after a comparatively short period. This complete absorption, without residual fibrotic tissue, is unique, and an important contribution to surgery.
I. An absorbable prosthesis for the anastomosis of vessels in the tissue of a living mammal consisting essentially of a hollow cylinder of polyglycolic acid, having an inner diameter approximately the same as the inner diameter of the subject vessel, and a smooth outer surface of a diameter which is insertable in said vessel when stretched, whereby one end of a vessel from traumatic or surgical severance may be emplaced over each end of said cylinder, and fixedly positioned thereon, said cylinder being open to and permitting the flow of body fluids, and being absorbable by living mammalian tissue within a few weeks.
2. The absorbable prosthesis of claim I in cooperative eonfiguration with at least one circular cooperative clamp, whereby in assembled relationship, with a vascular vessel end on each end of said cylinder, the vascular vessel ends are uniformly positioned and retained on said cylinder, tightly enough to avoid substantial slippage, and loosely enough to permit circulation into the vessel ends, and hence avoid necro- SIS.
3. The absorbable prosthesis of claim 2 in which the said cooperative clamp is a single split ring, with inward tension sufficient to hold the ends of said vascular vessels, when positioned over said vessels in place over said hollow cylinder.
4. The absorbable prosthesis of claim 2 having two circularly bent rod clamps, said clamps having radii of curvature such that the vascular vessels are held against the hollow cylinder with approximately uniform pressure, around the periphery of said cylinder sufficiently tight to retain the vascular vessels during regeneration, but loosely enough to avoid necrosis.
5. A method of anastomizing two vessels in living mammalian tissue comprising inserting one end of a hollow cylinder of polyglycolic acid having an inner diameter of ap-
|Cited Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2127903 *||May 5, 1936||Aug 23, 1938||Davis & Geck Inc||Tube for surgical purposes and method of preparing and using the same|
|US2428918 *||Sep 12, 1944||Oct 14, 1947||Grover C Miller||Anastomosis ring|
|US2676945 *||Oct 18, 1950||Apr 27, 1954||Du Pont||Condensation polymers of hydroxyacetic acid|
|US3155095 *||Feb 7, 1961||Nov 3, 1964||Brown Adolph M||Anastomosis method and means|
|US3297033 *||Oct 31, 1963||Jan 10, 1967||American Cyanamid Co||Surgical sutures|
|US3463158 *||Jan 9, 1967||Aug 26, 1969||American Cyanamid Co||Polyglycolic acid prosthetic devices|
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3883901 *||Nov 27, 1973||May 20, 1975||Rhone Poulenc Sa||Method of replacing or repairing the body with bioresorbable surgical articles|
|US4032993 *||Jun 25, 1975||Jul 5, 1977||Rhone-Poulenc Industries||Bioresorbable surgical articles|
|US4243775 *||Nov 13, 1978||Jan 6, 1981||American Cyanamid Company||Synthetic polyester surgical articles|
|US4275813 *||Jun 4, 1979||Jun 30, 1981||United States Surgical Corporation||Coherent surgical staple array|
|US4317451 *||Feb 19, 1980||Mar 2, 1982||Ethicon, Inc.||Plastic surgical staple|
|US4379138 *||Dec 28, 1981||Apr 5, 1983||Research Triangle Institute||Biodegradable polymers of lactones|
|US4443895 *||Jul 9, 1982||Apr 24, 1984||American Hospital Supply Corporation||Low-pressure fixation of valvular tissue intended for implantation|
|US4503568 *||Nov 25, 1981||Mar 12, 1985||New England Deaconess Hospital||Small diameter vascular bypass and method|
|US4523591 *||Oct 22, 1982||Jun 18, 1985||Kaplan Donald S||Polymers for injection molding of absorbable surgical devices|
|US4650488 *||May 16, 1984||Mar 17, 1987||Richards Medical Company||Biodegradable prosthetic device|
|US4670286 *||Dec 26, 1985||Jun 2, 1987||Allied Corporation||Method of forming prosthetic devices|
|US4674506 *||Nov 29, 1984||Jun 23, 1987||Kirk Alcond||Surgical anastomosis stent|
|US4744365 *||Sep 22, 1987||May 17, 1988||United States Surgical Corporation||Two-phase compositions for absorbable surgical devices|
|US4808351 *||Mar 25, 1985||Feb 28, 1989||American Cyanamid Company||Process for manufacturing a molded prosthetic device|
|US4841968 *||Sep 26, 1986||Jun 27, 1989||Southern Research Institute||Antithrombotic/thrombolytic suture and methods of making and using the same|
|US4863457 *||Apr 22, 1988||Sep 5, 1989||Lee David A||Drug delivery device|
|US4871365 *||Dec 24, 1986||Oct 3, 1989||American Cyanamid Company||Partially absorbable prosthetic tubular article having an external support|
|US4873977 *||Feb 11, 1987||Oct 17, 1989||Odis L. Avant||Stapling method and apparatus for vesicle-urethral re-anastomosis following retropubic prostatectomy and other tubular anastomosis|
|US4913903 *||Apr 10, 1989||Apr 3, 1990||Alza Corporation||Post-surgical applications for bioerodible polymers|
|US4997440 *||Aug 10, 1990||Mar 5, 1991||American Cyanamid Company||Vascular graft with absorbable and nonabsorbable components|
|US5124103 *||Aug 2, 1990||Jun 23, 1992||United States Surgical Corporation||Two phase compositions for absorbable surgical devices|
|US5160341 *||Nov 8, 1990||Nov 3, 1992||Advanced Surgical Intervention, Inc.||Resorbable urethral stent and apparatus for its insertion|
|US5180392 *||Nov 15, 1990||Jan 19, 1993||Einar Skeie||Anastomotic device|
|US5234006 *||Jan 18, 1991||Aug 10, 1993||Eaton Alexander M||Adjustable sutures and method of using the same|
|US5331975 *||Mar 2, 1990||Jul 26, 1994||Bonutti Peter M||Fluid operated retractors|
|US5354305 *||Dec 17, 1992||Oct 11, 1994||United States Surgical Corporation||Nerve repair device|
|US5403347 *||Mar 2, 1994||Apr 4, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5425739 *||Dec 17, 1992||Jun 20, 1995||Avatar Design And Development, Inc.||Anastomosis stent and stent selection system|
|US5431679 *||Mar 10, 1994||Jul 11, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5475063 *||Dec 14, 1994||Dec 12, 1995||United States Surgical Corporation||Blends of glycolide and/or lactide polymers and caprolactone and/or trimethylene carbonate polymers and absorbable surgical devices made|
|US5489297 *||Nov 2, 1994||Feb 6, 1996||Duran; Carlos M. G.||Bioprosthetic heart valve with absorbable stent|
|US5522841 *||Dec 29, 1994||Jun 4, 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5527324 *||Sep 7, 1994||Jun 18, 1996||Krantz; Kermit E.||Surgical stent|
|US5542594 *||Oct 6, 1993||Aug 6, 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical stapling apparatus with biocompatible surgical fabric|
|US5551954 *||Oct 12, 1994||Sep 3, 1996||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Biodegradable drug delivery vascular stent|
|US5554170 *||Jan 26, 1995||Sep 10, 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5607474 *||Sep 20, 1993||Mar 4, 1997||Board Of Regents, University Of Texas System||Multi-phase bioerodible implant/carrier and method of manufacturing and using same|
|US5618301 *||Jan 19, 1996||Apr 8, 1997||Angiomed Ag||Reducing stent, device with reducing stent and use of a reducing stent|
|US5618313 *||Oct 11, 1994||Apr 8, 1997||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US5634946 *||Jun 7, 1995||Jun 3, 1997||Focal, Inc.||Polymeric endoluminal paving process|
|US5674287 *||Jan 14, 1994||Oct 7, 1997||Endoluminal Therapeutics, Inc.||Biodegradable polymeric endoluminal sealing process, apparatus and polymeric product for use therein|
|US5702656 *||Jun 7, 1995||Dec 30, 1997||United States Surgical Corporation||Process for making polymeric articles|
|US5749915 *||Jun 7, 1995||May 12, 1998||Focal, Inc.||Polymeric endoluminal paving process|
|US5749922 *||Jun 7, 1995||May 12, 1998||Endoluminal Therapeutics, Inc.||Biodegradable polymeric endoluminal sealing process, apparatus and polymeric products for use therein|
|US5800538 *||Jun 7, 1995||Sep 1, 1998||Endoluminal Therapeutics, Inc.||Biodegradable polymeric endoluminal sealing process|
|US5876418 *||Apr 7, 1997||Mar 2, 1999||Angiomed Ag||Device for providing a duct in a living body|
|US5908427 *||May 30, 1997||Jun 1, 1999||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical stapling apparatus and method|
|US5922022 *||Dec 31, 1997||Jul 13, 1999||Kensey Nash Corporation||Bifurcated connector system for coronary bypass grafts and methods of use|
|US5964774 *||Sep 12, 1997||Oct 12, 1999||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical stapling apparatus and method with surgical fabric|
|US5997568 *||Jan 17, 1997||Dec 7, 1999||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer blends and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6007565 *||Sep 5, 1997||Dec 28, 1999||United States Surgical||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6013853 *||Feb 15, 1994||Jan 11, 2000||The University Of Texas System||Continuous release polymeric implant carrier|
|US6017352 *||Jan 16, 1998||Jan 25, 2000||Kensey Nash Corporation||Systems for intravascular procedures and methods of use|
|US6030395 *||May 28, 1999||Feb 29, 2000||Kensey Nash Corporation||Anastomosis connection system|
|US6036705 *||Jun 1, 1999||Mar 14, 2000||Kensey Nash Corporation||Anastomosis connection system and method of use|
|US6045560 *||Jun 17, 1996||Apr 4, 2000||United States Surgical Corporation||Surgical stapling apparatus with biocompatible surgical fabric|
|US6046251 *||Apr 18, 1997||Apr 4, 2000||Kureha Kagaku Kogyo K.K.||Injection-molded product of polyglycolic acid and production process thereof|
|US6056762 *||May 22, 1997||May 2, 2000||Kensey Nash Corporation||Anastomosis system and method of use|
|US6063114 *||Sep 4, 1997||May 16, 2000||Kensey Nash Corporation||Connector system for vessels, ducts, lumens or hollow organs and methods of use|
|US6136018 *||Aug 2, 1999||Oct 24, 2000||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6183679||Feb 15, 2000||Feb 6, 2001||Kureha Kagaku Kogyo, K.K.||Production process for injection-molded product of polyglycolic acid|
|US6191236||Oct 10, 1997||Feb 20, 2001||United States Surgical Corporation||Bioabsorbable suture and method of its manufacture|
|US6197050 *||Sep 14, 1998||Mar 6, 2001||Heartstent Corporation||Transmyocardial implant with compliance collar|
|US6206908||May 3, 1999||Mar 27, 2001||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6224626||Apr 1, 1999||May 1, 2001||Md3, Inc.||Ultra-thin expandable stent|
|US6228111||Sep 27, 1996||May 8, 2001||Bionx Implants Oy||Biodegradable implant manufactured of polymer-based material and a method for manufacturing the same|
|US6228954||Nov 1, 1994||May 8, 2001||United States Surgical Corporation||Blends of glycolide and/or lactide polymers and caprolactone and/or trimethylene carbonate polymers and absorabable surgical devices made therefrom|
|US6258122||Feb 5, 1997||Jul 10, 2001||St. Jude Medical, Inc.||Bioresorbable annuloplasty prosthesis|
|US6273897||Feb 29, 2000||Aug 14, 2001||Ethicon, Inc.||Surgical bettress and surgical stapling apparatus|
|US6277136||Feb 18, 1999||Aug 21, 2001||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Method for developing an anatomic space|
|US6277927||Nov 23, 1998||Aug 21, 2001||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable block copolymers and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|US6325810||Jun 30, 1999||Dec 4, 2001||Ethicon, Inc.||Foam buttress for stapling apparatus|
|US6350280||Feb 3, 2000||Feb 26, 2002||Kensey Nash Corporation||Surgical connector systems and methods of use|
|US6358266||Oct 9, 1996||Mar 19, 2002||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Active cannulas|
|US6402767||Mar 6, 2000||Jun 11, 2002||Kensey Nash Corporation||Anastomosis connection system and method of use|
|US6409750||Feb 1, 2000||Jun 25, 2002||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Woven bifurcated and trifurcated stents and methods for making the same|
|US6443941||Jul 24, 2000||Sep 3, 2002||Endoluminal Therapeutics, Inc.||Biodegradable polymeric endoluminal sealing process, apparatus and polymeric products for use therein|
|US6524345||Oct 22, 1997||Feb 25, 2003||Bionx Implants Oy||Surgical implant|
|US6546188||Jan 13, 1999||Apr 8, 2003||Sony Corporation||Editing system and editing method|
|US6623521||Dec 14, 2000||Sep 23, 2003||Md3, Inc.||Expandable stent with sliding and locking radial elements|
|US6648911||Nov 20, 2000||Nov 18, 2003||Avantec Vascular Corporation||Method and device for the treatment of vulnerable tissue site|
|US6699272||Dec 13, 2001||Mar 2, 2004||Endoluminal Therapeutics, Inc.||Biodegradable polymeric endoluminal sealing process, apparatus and polymeric products for use therein|
|US6716932||Jul 25, 2001||Apr 6, 2004||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||High consistency absorbable polymeric resin|
|US6792979||Sep 16, 2002||Sep 21, 2004||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Methods for creating woven devices|
|US6881766||Feb 7, 2003||Apr 19, 2005||Tyco Healthcare Group Lp||Sutures and coatings made from therapeutic absorbable glass|
|US6923820||Feb 19, 2002||Aug 2, 2005||Kensey Nash Corporation||Surgical connector systems and methods of use|
|US6926690||Sep 20, 2001||Aug 9, 2005||Percardia, Inc.||Transmyocardial shunt and its attachment mechanism, for left ventricular revascularization|
|US6953476||Mar 27, 2000||Oct 11, 2005||Neovasc Medical Ltd.||Device and method for treating ischemic heart disease|
|US7018401||Feb 1, 2000||Mar 28, 2006||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Woven intravascular devices and methods for making the same and apparatus for delivery of the same|
|US7048014||Sep 16, 2002||May 23, 2006||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Methods for creating woven devices|
|US7097907||Jul 30, 2003||Aug 29, 2006||United States Surgical Corporation||Bioabsorbable branched polymers containing units derived from dioxanone and medical/surgical devices manufactured therefrom|
|US7163557 *||Jan 16, 2002||Jan 16, 2007||D Eredita Riccardo||Biodegradable auricular prosthetic device|
|US7217273||Dec 5, 2003||May 15, 2007||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Fluid operated retractors|
|US7264624||Jul 11, 2005||Sep 4, 2007||Kensey Nash Corporation||Surgical connector systems and methods of use|
|US7311719||Apr 8, 2003||Dec 25, 2007||General Surgical Innovations, Inc.||Active cannulas|
|US7321008||Aug 28, 2006||Jan 22, 2008||United States Surgical Corporation||Bioabsorbable branched polymers end-capped with diketene acetals|
|US7695483||Apr 13, 2010||Kensey Nash Corporation||Surgical connector systems and methods of use|
|US7704275||Jan 26, 2007||Apr 27, 2010||Reva Medical, Inc.||Circumferentially nested expandable device|
|US7722662||Oct 13, 2006||May 25, 2010||Reva Medical, Inc.||Expandable stent with sliding and locking radial elements|
|US7763065||Jul 27, 2010||Reva Medical, Inc.||Balloon expandable crush-recoverable stent device|
|US7794490||Jun 22, 2004||Sep 14, 2010||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Implantable medical devices with antimicrobial and biodegradable matrices|
|US7833282 *||Nov 16, 2010||Mandpe Aditi H||Eustachian tube device and method|
|US7914574||Mar 29, 2011||Reva Medical, Inc.||Axially nested slide and lock expandable device|
|US7947071||May 24, 2011||Reva Medical, Inc.||Expandable slide and lock stent|
|US7988721||Dec 4, 2007||Aug 2, 2011||Reva Medical, Inc.||Axially-radially nested expandable device|
|US8172894||Apr 26, 2010||May 8, 2012||Reva Medical, Inc.||Circumferentially nested expandable device|
|US8192481||Aug 27, 2010||Jun 5, 2012||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Implantable medical devices with anti-microbial and biodegradable matrices|
|US8277500||Jun 20, 2006||Oct 2, 2012||Reva Medical, Inc.||Slide-and-lock stent|
|US8292944||Oct 23, 2012||Reva Medical, Inc.||Slide-and-lock stent|
|US8377080||Apr 13, 2010||Feb 19, 2013||Kensey Nash Corporation||Surgical connector systems and methods of use|
|US8388616 *||Feb 27, 2006||Mar 5, 2013||Endosmart Gesellschaft Für Medizintechnik MbH||Compression sleeve|
|US8414635||Apr 9, 2013||Idev Technologies, Inc.||Plain woven stents|
|US8419788||Jul 13, 2012||Apr 16, 2013||Idev Technologies, Inc.||Secured strand end devices|
|US8460363||Jun 11, 2013||Reva Medical, Inc.||Axially-radially nested expandable device|
|US8491612||Jun 17, 2009||Jul 23, 2013||Covidien Lp||Anastomosis sheath and method of use|
|US8506588||Sep 16, 2009||Aug 13, 2013||Toby Orthopaedics, Inc.||Suture retriever-sheath dilator tool and method for use thereof|
|US8512394||Jul 26, 2010||Aug 20, 2013||Reva Medical Inc.||Balloon expandable crush-recoverable stent device|
|US8523936||Apr 8, 2011||Sep 3, 2013||Reva Medical, Inc.||Expandable slide and lock stent|
|US8540762||May 7, 2012||Sep 24, 2013||Reva Medical, Inc.||Circumferentially nested expandable device|
|US8545547||May 23, 2011||Oct 1, 2013||Reva Medical Inc.||Expandable slide and lock stent|
|US8556954||Oct 21, 2009||Oct 15, 2013||Neovasc Medical Ltd||Methods for treating abnormal growths in the body using a flow reducing implant|
|US8617235||Mar 28, 2011||Dec 31, 2013||Reva Medical, Inc.||Axially nested slide and lock expandable device|
|US8679146||Dec 8, 2011||Mar 25, 2014||Toby Orthopaedics, Inc.||Method for use of suture retriever-sheath dilator tool|
|US8739382||Jul 13, 2012||Jun 3, 2014||Idev Technologies, Inc.||Secured strand end devices|
|US8747439||Jul 10, 2006||Jun 10, 2014||P Tech, Llc||Method of using ultrasonic vibration to secure body tissue with fastening element|
|US8808329||Apr 3, 2012||Aug 19, 2014||Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc||Apparatus and method for securing a portion of a body|
|US8814902||Jul 31, 2006||Aug 26, 2014||Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc||Method of securing body tissue|
|US8845687||Sep 17, 2013||Sep 30, 2014||Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc||Anchor for securing a suture|
|US8845699||Mar 6, 2012||Sep 30, 2014||Bonutti Skeletal Innovations Llc||Method of securing tissue|
|US8858612||Sep 13, 2013||Oct 14, 2014||Neovasc Medical Inc.||Methods for treating abnormal growths in the body using a flow reducing implant|
|US8876880||Jul 13, 2012||Nov 4, 2014||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Plain woven stents|
|US8876881||Oct 22, 2007||Nov 4, 2014||Idev Technologies, Inc.||Devices for stent advancement|
|US8900302||Aug 31, 2012||Dec 2, 2014||Toby Orthopaedics, Inc.||Tendon crimp for passage into a bone tunnel and method for use thereof|
|US8966733||May 28, 2014||Mar 3, 2015||Idev Technologies, Inc.||Secured strand end devices|
|US8974516||Dec 17, 2013||Mar 10, 2015||Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas System||Plain woven stents|
|US9023095||May 27, 2011||May 5, 2015||Idev Technologies, Inc.||Stent delivery system with pusher assembly|
|US9060772 *||Sep 17, 2010||Jun 23, 2015||Toby Orthopaedics, Inc.||Device for assisting in flexor tendon repair and rehabilitation|
|US9066827||Sep 4, 2013||Jun 30, 2015||Reva Medical, Inc.||Expandable slide and lock stent|
|US9149374||Apr 23, 2014||Oct 6, 2015||Idev Technologies, Inc.||Methods for manufacturing secured strand end devices|
|US9149378||Aug 18, 2008||Oct 6, 2015||Reva Medical, Inc.||Axially nested slide and lock expandable device|
|US9173751||Sep 13, 2012||Nov 3, 2015||Reva Medical, Inc.||Slide-and-lock stent|
|US9271734||May 14, 2013||Mar 1, 2016||Covidien Lp||Methods and devices for sheath compression|
|US9314354||May 10, 2013||Apr 19, 2016||Reva Medical, Inc.||Axially-radially nested expandable device|
|US9364354||Oct 3, 2014||Jun 14, 2016||Neovasc Medical Ltd||Methods for treating abnormal growths in the body using a flow reducing implant|
|US9402630||Jul 18, 2013||Aug 2, 2016||Covidien Lp||Anastomosis sheath and method of use|
|US9408729||Jan 20, 2015||Aug 9, 2016||Idev Technologies, Inc.||Secured strand end devices|
|US9408730||Jan 19, 2016||Aug 9, 2016||Idev Technologies, Inc.||Secured strand end devices|
|US9408732||Mar 11, 2014||Aug 9, 2016||Reva Medical, Inc.||Reduced-profile slide and lock stent|
|US20020052572 *||Sep 25, 2001||May 2, 2002||Kenneth Franco||Resorbable anastomosis stents and plugs and their use in patients|
|US20020103526 *||Dec 13, 2001||Aug 1, 2002||Tom Steinke||Protective coating for stent|
|US20030097172 *||Mar 27, 2001||May 22, 2003||Ilan Shalev||Narrowing implant|
|US20030199969 *||Jun 3, 2003||Oct 23, 2003||Steinke Thomas A.||Expandable stent with sliding and locking radial elements|
|US20040052992 *||Aug 15, 2003||Mar 18, 2004||Adele Boone||Biodegradeable shrink wrap|
|US20040058164 *||Jul 30, 2003||Mar 25, 2004||Bennett Steven L.||Bioabsorbable branched polymers containing units derived from dioxanone and medical/surgical devices manufactured therefrom|
|US20040097949 *||Dec 5, 2003||May 20, 2004||Bonutti Peter M.||Fluid operated retractors|
|US20040162580 *||Feb 7, 2003||Aug 19, 2004||Matthew Hain||Sutures and coatings made from therapeutic absorbable glass|
|US20040230288 *||Apr 17, 2002||Nov 18, 2004||Rosenthal Arthur L.||Medical devices adapted for controlled in vivo structural change after implantation|
|US20040249399 *||Jul 17, 2002||Dec 9, 2004||Phillippe Cinquin||Device for assembling blood vessels|
|US20050004584 *||May 4, 2004||Jan 6, 2005||Cohesion Technologies, Inc.||Resorbable anastomosis stents and plugs and their use in patients|
|US20050055082 *||Oct 3, 2002||Mar 10, 2005||Shmuel Ben Muvhar||Flow reducing implant|
|US20050075733 *||Jan 16, 2002||Apr 7, 2005||D'eredita Riccardo||Biodegradable auricular prosthetic device|
|US20050165428 *||Feb 25, 2005||Jul 28, 2005||Franco Kenneth L.||Absorable surgical structure|
|US20050245946 *||Jul 11, 2005||Nov 3, 2005||Nash John E||Surgical connector systems and methods of use|
|US20050267567 *||Jul 21, 2005||Dec 1, 2005||Neovasc Medical Ltd.||Device and method for treating ischemic heart disease|
|US20050283224 *||Jun 22, 2004||Dec 22, 2005||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Implantable medical devices with antimicrobial and biodegradable matrices|
|US20060009839 *||Jul 12, 2004||Jan 12, 2006||Scimed Life Systems, Inc.||Composite vascular graft including bioactive agent coating and biodegradable sheath|
|US20060014023 *||Jul 30, 2003||Jan 19, 2006||Bennett Steven L||Bioabsorbable branched polymers containing units derived from dioxanone and medical/surgical devices manufactured therefrom|
|US20060106449 *||Aug 7, 2003||May 18, 2006||Neovasc Medical Ltd.||Flow reducing implant|
|US20060106450 *||Apr 10, 2003||May 18, 2006||Neovasc Medical Ltd.||Geometric flow regulator|
|US20060149348 *||Feb 27, 2006||Jul 6, 2006||Bernd Vogel||Compression sleeve|
|US20060293406 *||Aug 28, 2006||Dec 28, 2006||Bennett Steven L|
|US20070043428 *||Mar 9, 2006||Feb 22, 2007||The University Of Tennessee Research Foundation||Barrier stent and use thereof|
|US20070233036 *||Feb 26, 2007||Oct 4, 2007||Aditi H Mandpe||Eustachian Tube Device and Method|
|US20070255422 *||Apr 25, 2007||Nov 1, 2007||Mei Wei||Calcium phosphate polymer composite and method|
|US20070293881 *||Aug 31, 2007||Dec 20, 2007||Nash John E||Surgical connector systems and methods of use|
|US20080051879 *||Aug 23, 2007||Feb 28, 2008||Cook Incorporated||Methods of treating venous valve related conditions with a flow-modifying implantable medical device|
|US20080103519 *||Dec 14, 2007||May 1, 2008||Bonutti Peter M||Active cannulas|
|US20080215076 *||May 7, 2008||Sep 4, 2008||Sentinel Group, Llc||Gastro-intestinal therapeutic device and method|
|US20100010517 *||Jun 17, 2009||Jan 14, 2010||Joshua Stopek||Anastomosis Sheath And Method Of Use|
|US20100010518 *||Jan 14, 2010||Joshua Stopek||Anastomosis Sheath And Method Of Use|
|US20100010519 *||Jan 14, 2010||Joshua Stopek||Anastomosis Sheath And Method Of Use|
|US20100114299 *||Oct 21, 2009||May 6, 2010||Neovasc Medical Ltd.||Flow reducing implant|
|US20100137883 *||Sep 16, 2009||Jun 3, 2010||Toby Orthopaedics, Llc||Suture retriever-sheath dilator tool and method for use thereof|
|US20100217290 *||Apr 13, 2010||Aug 26, 2010||Nash John E||Surgical connector systems and methods of use|
|US20100324667 *||Aug 27, 2010||Dec 23, 2010||Boston Scientific Scimed, Inc.||Implantable medical devices with anti-microbial and biodegradable matrices|
|US20110015656 *||Sep 17, 2010||Jan 20, 2011||Eduardo Gonzalez-Hernandez||Device for assisting in flexor tendon repair and rehabilitation|
|EP0158316A2 *||Apr 9, 1985||Oct 16, 1985||Walsh Manufacturing (Mississauga) Limited||Anastomosis devices and kit|
|EP0199074A1 *||Mar 17, 1986||Oct 29, 1986||American Cyanamid Company||Process for manufacturing an annealed prosthetic device|
|EP0282157A1 *||Feb 2, 1988||Sep 14, 1988||AVANT, Odis Lynn||Stapling apparatus for anastomosis, in particular for urethra-bladder anastomosis|
|EP0336148A2 *||Mar 14, 1989||Oct 11, 1989||Beiersdorf Aktiengesellschaft||Surgical implants|
|EP0480293A1 *||Oct 1, 1991||Apr 15, 1992||LaserSurge, Inc.||Clamp for approximating tissue sections|
|EP0701823A2||Sep 18, 1995||Mar 20, 1996||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|EP0786259A2||Jan 17, 1997||Jul 30, 1997||United States Surgical Corporation||Absorbable polymer blends and surgical articles fabricated therefrom|
|EP2036582A1||Jul 21, 1995||Mar 18, 2009||United States Surgical Corporation||Biobsorbable branched polymers containing units derived from dioxanone and medical/surgical devices manufactured therefrom|
|EP2301597A1||Jul 21, 1995||Mar 30, 2011||United States Surgical Corporation|
|WO1987004915A1 *||Feb 18, 1987||Aug 27, 1987||Ekkehard Euler||Device for the macro- and microsurgical junction of vessel ends|
|WO1994013356A1 *||Dec 7, 1993||Jun 23, 1994||Avatar Design And Development, Inc.||Anastomosis stent and stent selection system|
|WO1997016135A1 *||Nov 1, 1996||May 9, 1997||St. Jude Medical, Inc.||Bioresorbable annuloplasty prosthesis|
|WO1998018408A1||Oct 22, 1997||May 7, 1998||Bionix Implants Oy||Surgical implant|
|WO1999033403A1||Nov 19, 1998||Jul 8, 1999||Kensey Nash Corporation||Bifurcated connector system for coronary bypass grafts|
|WO2004089248A2 *||Mar 31, 2004||Oct 21, 2004||Giler Ltd.||Stent for use in mammalian anastomosis and method and system for implanting said stent|
|WO2004089248A3 *||Mar 31, 2004||Nov 18, 2004||Nachum Erlich||Stent for use in mammalian anastomosis and method and system for implanting said stent|
|U.S. Classification||606/154, 623/1.1, 606/155|
|International Classification||A61B17/11, D01F6/62, A61F13/15, A61L31/06, A61F13/00, A61B17/00, A61F13/20|
|Cooperative Classification||A61F2013/00157, A61F13/551, A61L31/06, D01F6/625, A61B2017/00004, A61B17/11, A61F13/20, A61F2013/00221|
|European Classification||A61L31/06, D01F6/62B, A61B17/11|