US 3621586 A
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NOV. 23, 1971 MEYER 3,621,585
APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS TREATMENT 0L" WEB-SHAPED MATERIALS, ESPECIALLY TEXTILE WEBS Filed Dec. 2, 1969 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Flg-1 523142 H1325 24 2.210
NOV. 23, 1971 A MEYER 3,621,586
APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS TREATMENT OF WEB-SHAPED MATERIALS, ESPECIALLY TEXTILE WEBS Filed Dec. 2, 1969 3 Sheets-Shoot .1
3,621,586 -SHAPED A. MEYER Nov. 23, 1971 APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS TREATMENT OF WEB MATERIALS, ESPECIALLY TEXTILE WEBS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Dec. 2, 1969 United States Patent O APPARATUS FOR THE CONTINUOUS TREATMENT OF WEB-SHAPED MATERIALS, ESPECIALLY TEXTILE WEBS Arnfried Meyer, Neckargartacherstrasse, 7101 Franlrenbach, Germany Filed Dec. 2, 1969, Ser. No. 881,401 Claims priority, application Germany, Dec. 7, 1968, P 18 13 334.11 Int. Cl. F2611 19/00 US. Cl. 34-60 8 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Apparatus for the continuous treatment of web-shaped, elastic material, especially textile webs, wherein the material to be treated is placed on a perforated supporting plate and is retained on this supporting plate under gas pressure. In order to advance this material in the feed direction and to loosen the material simultaneously, nozzles are provided which move in the feed direction and extend over the width of the web to be treated, while having a gas flowing therethrough. This gas produces a pressure directed oppositely to the first-mentioned gas pressure and lifts the material in ripples or waves off from the plate in the longitudinal zone of the nozzle. Each wave moves with the nozzle in the feed direction and thus effects the advancement of the material, which is simultaneously subjected to a heat treatment by heating the gas.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to an apparatus for the continuous treatment, such as, for example, drying, setting and/or shrinking, of web-shaped materials, particularly textile webs, and more particularly, to an apparatus comprising a perforated supporting plate carrying the material, on which plate the material is retained by a gas pressure produced by a blower.
A conventional perforated drum dryer is known for the drying and simultaneous shrinking of web-shaped materials, particularly textile webs, wherein a vacuum is produced in the internal space of a rotating perforated drum, by means of which the material, disposed on the outer surface, is held on the shell of the drum. Such a perforated drum dryer is shown in German published application [DAS] 1,108,280. In order to permit the textile web to contract during the drying process, the circumferential speed of the feed rolls at the material inlet is somewhat higher than that of the drum, i.e, the material is disposed on the circumference of the drum in folds. Furthermore, by means of cross bars provided on the suction side of the drum, the vacuum is interrupted at certain points in order to facilitate the contraction of the material. Except for the relatively minor movements during contraction, the material is stationary during" the entire treatment time. Therefore, the folds formed at the feed end by the excess material can readily be fixed, so that permanent transverse creases are produced.
Moreover, it was discovered that the drying and especially the shrinking of a material becomes substantially more intensive if the material is in constant motion, as is the case, for example, in connection with the drum of another conventional drum machine. However, in such a drum, web-shaped material tends to tangle and, in addition, cannot be subjected to a continuous treatment. For this reason, the treatment of Web-shaped material inside of a drum is possible only in certain cases. On the other hand, the results obtained with the continuous treatment in the first-mentioned drum dryer are likewise unsatisfactory.
Furthermore, in accordance with German published application [DAS] 1,097,943, nozzle arrangements are known for the floating guidance of material webs in nozzle dryers. Here again, the treatment of the material is con ducted in the stationary condition. In this device, another impediment to the free contractability of the material is the longitudinal tension produced by pulling the material through the dryer. Thus, a shrinking effect cannot be obtained by means of this apparatus.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Therefore, it is the aim of the present invention to overcome the problems encountered in the prior art, especially the problem of conducting the treatment of the Web-shaped material continuously and in such a manner that the material is constantly in intense motion, during which the material can shrink freely, according to need.
The underlying problems are solved in accordance with the present invention by mounting the supporting plate fixedly with respect to the housing and by providing at least one nozzle moving in the feed direction of the material and having a gas flowing therethrough, by means of which a gas pressure is produced which is opposed to the gas pressure for holding the material on the supporting plate, thus producing a wave or undulation in the material advancing together with the nozzle in the feed direction.
A particularly suitable embodiment of the apparatus in accordance with the present invention is obtained by providing that the supporting plate is designed as a drum and the nozzle is disposed on a driven hollow shaft. In this connection, the inner space of the hollow shaft is in communication with the pressure side of the blower, and the inner space of the drum is in communication with the suction side of the blower.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING These and further features, advantages and objects of the present invention will become more apparent from the following description when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, which shows, for purposes of illustration only, several embodiments in accordance with the present invention, and wherein;
FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view of the apparatus in accordance with the present invention along line I-I of FIG. 2;
FIG. 2 is a cross-section through the apparatus along line IIII of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view through the drum with an adjusting device for varying the free cross sections of the perforations;
FIG. 4 is a top view of the drum with the adjusting device according to FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged cross-section of the supporting plate with the adjusting device;
FIG. 6 shows another embodiment of the apparatus in accordance with the present invention along line VIVI of FIG. 7;
FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view of the apparatus along line VIIVII of FIG. 6.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING Referring now to the drawing and, in particular, to FIGS. 1 and 2, the apparatus for the continuous treat ment of web-shaped materials comprises a housing 1, wherein a drum-like perforated supporting plate 2 is disposed in a fixed manner between two end walls 3 and 4. A hollow shaft 5, which extends through the end Walls 3 and 4 with its ends, is concentrically arranged in the drum 2 and is sealed, together with the end walls 3 and 4, with respect to the outside.
One shaft 7 and 8, respectively, is attached to each end of the hollow shaft by means of a cross member 6. The shafts 7 and 8 are rotatably arranged at outer walls 9 and 10. On the outside, the shaft 8 carries a wheel or the like 11 which is in driving connection with a motor 12. Several nozzles 13 are attached to the hollow shaft 5, and the nozzle ports or orifices of the nozzles extend into close proximity with the internal circumference of the drum 2. Openings 14 connect the inner spaces of nozzles 13 and the hollow shaft 5 with each other.
A blower 16 is arranged underneath the drum 2 and is driven by a motor 15. The vacuum space 28 of this blower is in communication, by way of a screen 17, with the space underneath the drum 2, and the pressure side of the blower is divided toward both sides by means of a double-spiral housing 18 and is in communication, via heating units 19 and 20, with one duct or channel 21 and 22 between the end wall 3 and 4, respectively, and the outer wall 9 and 10, respectively. The ducts 21 and 22 are extended toward the top and terminate in a warm or hot air nozzle 23 arranged above the drum 2 in the longitudinal direction thereof and directed onto the drum. Flaps 24 regulate the feed into this warm air nozzle 23 and can be adjusted by way of a common linkage 25 by means of a handle 26.
For an additional control of the suction and pressure effect, apertures 27 are provided between the blower 16 and the heating units 19 and 20. These apertures can be completely or partially closed by flaps and lead toward the outside, preferably into an exhaust air duct. In order to feed fresh air, an opening 29 is finally provided additionally thereto, which terminates in the suction space 28 and can likewise be closed off by flaps.
For the introduction of the web-shaped material 34, a roll 30 is provided which is partially surrounded by a correspondingly rounded guide 31 terminating at the drum 2. The number of revolutions of the roll 30 can be selectively adjusted, whereas the rotation per se can be effected continuously or also intermittently. The guide 31 also seals the space underneath the drum 2 with respect to the outside. Cover 32 fulfills a similar purpose at the outlet end. A conveying device 33, or also directly a laying or depositing device can follow this outlet end. Openings 46 are provided in the lower zone of the drum 2 and laterally outside of the nozzles 13 in order to remove the air out of the drum 2 by suction.
It can be seen that after the blower 16 is actuated, the air is sucked out of the drum 2 and is conveyed, while being heated by the heating units 19 and 20, through the ducts 21 and 22 on both sides into the hollow shaft 5. The air exits from the hollow shaft 5 through nozzles 13 in a radial orientation and flows through the perforated wall of the drum 2. The material 34, which is introduced by the roll 30, is pressed and held against the drum 2 due to the suction elfect. The compressed air exiting from the nozzles 13 overcomes the vacuum and forms an outwardly bulging wave 35 in the material 34 which moves, along with the respective nozzle 13, over the circumference of the drum 2. The feed of the roll 30 thus is to be adjusted so that a slackened portion is formed in the interval between two adjacent nozzles 13, which slackened portion then constitutes the wave 35. The size of the slackened portion and thus of the wave 35 represents the amount of advancement at which the material 34 passes through the apparatus. The air passing out of the warm air nozzle 23 has an additional effect on the surface of the material 34 and enhances the drying process. The amount of warm air can be adjusted by flaps 24, whereas the volume of fresh air feed or exhaust'air, and thus also the size of the vacuum, as well as the amount of efflux from the nozzles 13, are determined by adjusting the free fiowthrough cross-sections of the openings 27 and 29.
A shrinking of the material is obtained, to a great extent, by slackening or buckling. This effect can be increased by varying the effective amount of compressed air exiting or effluxing from the nozzles 13. For this purpose, it is possible to make the perforations of drum 2 of varying sizes, or provide that the perforations become smaller toward the exit end, in order to reduce the internal pressure on the slackened portion or running wave 35.
To make this effect adjustable, a control plate 36, as seen in FIGS. 35, can be provided, consisting of, for example, a thin sheet metal material and being placed over the drum 2. At one end, a spring 50 engages the control plate 36, and at the other end, a lever 51 is connected which can be pivoted by rotating a threaded spindle 39. The threaded spindle 39 is operated from the outside by means of a crank 40. The perforations of drum 2 and control plate 36 are synchronized with each other in such a manner that in one terminal position, shown in FIG. 5, all perforations 37 of the drum 2 are completely open. In this connection, at the inlet end, illustrated on the left-hand side of FIG. 5, the right-hand edge of the perforations 37 is disposed underneath the right-hand edge of the larger perforations 38 of the control plate 36 provided thereabove, whereas, at the exit end which is disposed on the right-hand side, the lefthand edges of the two perforations 37 and 38 are flush. The spring 50 can pull the control plate 36 toward the right when the threaded spindle 39 is correspondingly adjusted. During this procedure, a reduction of the free cross section is at first effected at the exit end, which reduction is continuously spread up to the inlet end until, in the other terminal position, all perforations 37 are sealed by the control plate 36. The latter measure can become necessary in order to adjust the operating width on the drum 2 to the respective width of the material. For this purpose, several control plates 36 are arranged side-by-side, as shown in FIG. 4, which can be adjusted independently of one another. Consequently, in addition to effecting the opening and closing of the perforations 37, a different fiowthrough relationship can also be obtained over the width of the material. Of course, it is likewise possible to to dispose several control plates 36 one above the other, one of which, for example, serves for the varying change of the throughfiow cross-sections, and the other serves for the uniform changes of the cross-sections.
Another embodiment of the treatment apparatus is illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7, wherein like numerals are used to designate like parts. Therefore, the components corresponding to FIGS. 1 and 2 bear identical reference numerals. The nozzles 13 are carried by a band or belt 41, which is unperforated and is guided over guide rolls 42 and 43. The guide roll 42 is in driving connection with the motor 12. The supporting plate 2 surrounds the outer circulating path of the nozzles 13 at a minor spacing therefrom and is likewise perforated in the zone where the material 34 is supported. The space encompassed by the band 41 is sealed at the sides by gaskets 44 disposed on the end walls 3 and 4, and is in communication with the pressure side of the blower 16 by means of pipelines 45. The annular space between the band 41 and the supporting plate 2, in contrast thereto, is in communication with the suction side of the blower 16 by an opening 47 in the end Walls 3 and 4, as well as by pipelines 48. From the pipeline 45, a conduit 49 branches off to the warm air nozzles 23 above the supporting plate 2. The mode of operation of this embodiment corresponds to the one described above, only with the difference that the supporting plate 2 forms a planar surface passed through by the material 34. The control plate 36 can also be correspondingly arranged in this embodiment, and the air feed means can be controlled in the same manner.
It is furthermore possible to make the effect of the pressurized air exiting from nozzles 13 adjustable by varying the spacing between the nezzl'e orifice and the supporting plate 2. For this purpose, the bearing of the supporting plate 2 and/ or the bearing of the hollow shaft 5 or of the guide rolls 42 and/or 43 can be made adjustable.
Furthermore, the supporting plate 2 can be made unperforated in the zone which cannot be covered by the web-shaped material -34. In the embodiments shown, the material 34 is held on the supporting plate 2 by suction draft, which is overcome by the compressed air exiting from the nozzles. Of course, it is also possible to retain the material by means of compressed air blown thereon from the outside, or the slackened portion or waves 35 can be produced by a corresponding suction draft by means of the nozzles guided along above the material 34. The treatment zone can be subdivided into several partial regions by means of partitions extended closely above the material 34, into which regions additional hot and/or cold air can be introduced, and steam or sizing agents can be sprayed. This last step can also be effected by spraying into the compressed air flowing through nozzles 13. In order to obtain directional spraying into a limited zone, a spray pipe can be disposed in the hollow shaft 5 or in the space surrounded by the band 41, which spray pipe extends over the entire width of the supporting plate 2. In order to additionally correct the spraying direction, baffies can be arranged laterally.
The advantages obtained by the present invention reside, in particular, in that the web-shaped material passing through the apparatus is continously exposed to a constant motion, by means of which the advancement or feeding is simultaneously effected as well. The periodic lifting of the web of material from the supporting plate and the subsequent adherence to the plate make it possible to freely vary the dimensions of the material, without the danger of crease formation. By selectively adjusting the suction air and/or compressed air which is effective upon the material, a slackening or buckling effect is, moreover, achieved, by means of which the material is shrunk. This shrinking effect can be finely adjusted by selecting the respective manner in which the air is guided or passed through, as well as by varying the effective air throughflow cross-section in the supporting plate in the feed direction as well as at right angles thereto. Therefore, the respective material can be processed with the optimum treatment method. Consequently, the apparatus of the present invention makes it possible to continuously treat indefinitely long webs of material and, moreover, can be inserted into treat ment lines.
While I have shown and described several embodiments in accordance with the present invention, it is to be clearly understood that the same is susceptible to numerous modifications and changes as will be apparent to a person having ordinary skill in the art, and I, therefore, do not wish to be limited to the details shown and described herein, but intend to cover all such changes and modifications as are encompassed by the scope of the present invention.
1. Apparatus for the continuous treatment, such as, drying, setting and/ or shrinking, of web-shaped materials, especially textile webs, comprising a housing; perforated supporting plate means for carrying the material being operatively arranged at the housing; blower means for producing pressure so as to retain the material at the supporting plate means, and at least one nozzle means being operatively arranged with respect to the housing so as to be spaced from the supporting plate means and adapted to be moved in the feed direction of the material, wherein the nozzle means is adapted to have gas flowing therethrough; whereby a pressure is produced by the nozzle means which is opposed to the pressure retaining the material at the supporting plate means, thereby forming a slackened position in the ma terial which moves along with the nozzle means in the feed direction.
2. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein the supporting plate means has a drum-like configuration, and further including a hollow shaft arranged in the drumlike supporting plate means and adapted to be driven, the nozzle means being provided at the hollow shaft, wherein the inner space of the hollow shaft operatively communicates with the pressure side of the blower means and the inner space of the drum-like supporting plate means operatively communicates with the suction side of the blower means.
3. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein at least one second nozzle means is provided in opposed relationship with the first nozzle means, the second nozzle means operatively communicating with the pressure side of the blower means and serving to blow additional gas onto the material.
4. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein at least one perforated control plate means is located at the top of the supporting plate means for controlling the throughflow cross-section thereof, and wherein the control plate is adapted to be adjustable.
5. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein several control plate means, as viewed in the feed direction of the material, are arranged in side-by-side relation, and wherein each of the control plate means is adapted to be individually adjustable.
6. Apparatus according to claim 4, wherein the perforations in the control plate means, as compared to the perforations in the supporting plate means, are so constructed and arranged that the narrowing of the through flow cross-section begins at the exit end.
7. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein a feed roll is provided for feeding the material, and the feeding speed of the feed roll is adapted to be independently adjustable.
8. Apparatus according to claim 1, wherein an unperforated band means is arranged at the housing and guided over guide rolls provided therefor, the nozzle means being arranged at the unperforated band means, wherein the inner space of the band operatively communicates with the pressure side of the blower means, and the space between the band and the supporting plate means operatively communicates with the suction side of the blower means.
References tCited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,279,091 10/1966 Freuler 34-156 CARROLL B. DORITY, Jr., Primary Examiner US. Cl, X.R.