US 3622718 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent  Inventor Paul Lipschutz 2,223,097 1 l/l940 Ehret 180/82 X Croissy-sur-Selne, France 2,286,921 6/1942 Morris 200/83 H X 1 1 pp 6,716 FOREIGN PATENTS [221 Ned Jan-29,1970 838,668 5/1952 Germany  Patented Nov.23, 1971 922 501 H1955 Germany  Assignee Societe D'Exploitation Des Brevets Neiman I Neuilly.sur.seine ("ants de Seine) France Primary Examiner Robert Schaefer 2 priority Jan 30, 19 9 Assistant ExaminerWilliam J. Smith  France Attorney-Stevens, Davis, Miller & Mosher  6901858 ABSTRACT: Safety device for preventing the actuation of an 54 SAFETY V E FOR T T T S 1? electric starter motor of an internal-combustion engine al- INTERNALCOMBUSTION ES ready running and providing a source of low pressure, this 7 maimSBDrawina Fig5 device comprising a key-operated safety-lock body, with or U I without a disc-shaped cam member for controlling an antitheft Isl C I a r s 1 Hug. unbiluulzlln a l l 0/ DA200/83 H tary switch provided with terminal pins for connecting said [5 C Switch to electric circuits to be controlled including the ener Fleld 0 Search 44, switch of Said Starter moor, wherein Said lock has 8 340/64 180/82 formed therein a chamber connected to said source of low pressure of the engine and a member movable in said chamber  References Cited and responsive on the one hand to the action of said low pres UNITED. STATES PATENTS sure and on the other hand to that of a resilient reaction Re. 23,340 2/1951 Lincoln ZOO/83 H X b r, aid ovable member being associated with said 1,205,010 1 H1916 Pearson 200/33 H X lock with a view to prevent said switch from closing the ener- 1,542,051 6/1925 Gedney 130/82 X gizing circuit of said starter motor when the engine is running, 9 L 2/1935 H H ZOO/33 H and to permit the action of said switch with respect to said 2,143,104 1/1939 Critchfield 200/83 H t ter motor when the engine is inoperative PAIENTEmuv 23 nan sum 2 .UF 2
SAFETY DEVICES FOR STARTER MOTORS OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES This invention relates to a safety device for preventing the actuation of a starter motor of an internal-combustion engine already in operation.
It is known that if the starter motor of a running intemalcombustion engine is actuated inadvertently serious damage may result to the starter motor and its drive pinion, and also to the toothed ring on the periphery of the engine flywheel.
It is the object of the present invention to provide a safety device so designed that it is not possible to energize the starter motor unless the internal-combustion engine is inoperative.
This device comprising in a body a key-operated safety lock with or without a cam controlling an antitheft device and incorporating means for controlling a rotary switch inserted in electric circuits to be closed, inter alia the starter motor energizing circuit, is characterized in that the lock body comprises a chamber connected to a source of low pressure or suction such as the engine induction manifold and a member movable in-said chamber and responsive on the one hand to said suction and on the other hand to the contrary force exerted by a resilient element, said member being so associated with said lock to prevent said switch from closing the starter-energizing circuit when the engine is running and said member is subjected to said suction, and to permit the operation of said starter switch only when the engine is inoperative.
When the engine is inoperative the pressure in the induction manifold or in the head of one of its volumetric chambers, for example a cylinder, is zero, so that the safety feature is inoperative and the starter can be energized to start the engine.
When the engine is running, a suction is produced in the induction manifold which is capable of either operating a carburetor in the case of a carburetion engine or ensuring a proper filling of the combustion chambers in the case of an injection engine. This suction is applied to a piston, a diaphragm or any other movable or deformable (flexible) member actuating in turn either a lock-forming mechanism to inhibit the starter motor drive means, or a switch to open the electric energizing circuit of the starter motor.
Reference will now be made to the attached drawing illustrating diagrammatically different forms of embodiment of this invention, it being understood that these forms of embodiment are given by way of example only and that various modifications and variations may be brought thereto without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention. In the drawing:
FIG. I is an axial section showing a key switch provided with a steering-lock antitheft device and with the safety device of-this invention;
FIG. 2 is a cross section taken along the line llII of FIG. 1;
F IG. 3 shows in elevational view of a modified form of embodiment, i.e., the central portion of the lock provided with the safety device of this invention;
FIG. 4 is a plan view from above of the modified form of embodiment of FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 illustrates in fragmentary plan view and sectional view another form of embodiment of this device;
FIG. 6 is a section showing a further form of embodiment of the present invention;
FIG. 7 illustrates a modified form of embodiment of the structure shown in FIG. 1, wherein a flexible diaphragm is used, and
FIG. 8 illustrates a modified construction of the device of FIG. 6, also incorporating a flexible diaphragm.
Referring first to FIGS. I and 2, it will be seen that the body or barrel 1 enclosing a safety lock 2 is adapted to be actuated by means of a key 3, The rotor or barrel of this lock 2 is adapted on the one hand to rotate a cam member 4 of which the contour 5 is adapted to withdraw a bolt 6 from this steering-locking position by engaging a radial projection 7 rigid with said bolt, against-the resistance of a spring 8 normally urging said bolt to its locking position. This locking system however is no part of this invention and therefore it is shown in diagrammatic form only, since any other suitable keyoperated lock, with or without an antitheft device, may be used in the practical embodiment of the present invention.
On the other hand the lock 2 controls through a rod 9 the rotary switch 10 of which the contact pins 11 of the fixed portion are connected to the various electric circuits to be controlled (not shown), notably the circuit for controlling the delivery of energizing current to the starter motor of the engme.
The induction manifold of the internal-combustion engine (not shown) is connected via a pipeline 12 and a duct 13 to a chamber 14 in which a piston 15 normally urged upwards by a gauged spring 16 is slidably fitted. This piston 15 comprises an integral lateral or angle stud 17 adapted to drop" into a groove 18 formed in said cam member 4. When the piston 15 is responsive only to the gauged spring 26 its lateral stud 17 does not engage the cam 5 and a fortiori the groove 18. Since the lock can rotate without engaging any stop, the switch rotor 10 thereof can be positioned to obtain any desired control action, including the energization of the starter motor.
The mode of operation of this device is self-explanatory: after the engine has been started by turning the rotor of the lock-and-switch unit to the so-called Start" position, the bolt 6 being withdrawn from its locking position by the cam face 5, a suction builds up in the induction manifold of the engine and this low pressure is transmitted via pipeline 12 and duct 13 to chamber 14, whereby piston 15 is drawn to the bottom of the FIG. against the resistance of spring 16. During this movement, the lateral stud 17 of piston 15 drops into groove 18.
Under these conditions the properly calculated angular dimension of this groove 18, and the proper positioning thereof, permits limiting, by the engagement of said stud 17 against end radial walls of said groove 18, the permissible angular movement of the rotor of switch 10 to any desired control position except the aforesaid Start position.
Thus, when the engine is running and the component elements of the device are in the positions just indicated, the starter motor cannot be operated. On the other hand, if the engine stalled or was voluntarily stopped by opening the ignition circuit, the suction in the induction manifold is discontinued and as the piston 15 is now only responsive to the force of spring 16 urging same upwards, it rises in chamber 24 and its stud 17 is extracted from groove 18 of cam 4, thus permitting the free rotation of the lock rotor or barrel 2 and switch rotor 10 to any desired position notably the ignition circuit -closing position and the starter motor-energizing circuitclosing position.
According to a modified form of embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4 of the drawing the piston 15 and chamber 14 are not directed parallel to the general center line of the device but at right angles thereto, in the fashion of a worm drive. The groove 19of cam 4 has a partially toroidal configuration in this case. Thus, the piston 15 comprises a cylindrical notch 20 permitting the free rotation of said cam. When a suction is applied to the piston 15 in the manner explained in the foregoing, this piston 15 is withdrawn and drops like a key into said groove 19, thus limiting the cam and switch rotation to a predetermined angular value corresponding to the angular amplitude of the semitoroidal groove 19.
FIG. 5 illustrates another modified form of embodiment of the device according to this invention, wherein the axis of chamber 14 and the axis of lock 2 are also at right angles to each other but in convergent relationship. The piston 15 carries a finger l7 urged by spring means 16 against the inner wall of an arcuate slot 21 formed in cam 4 to permit the free movement of the contact member. HOwever, this arc uate slot 21 formed in cam 4 comprises an internal notch 22 limiting the angular movement of the device when the finger 17 engages this notch 22 as a consequence of the suction applied to the piston 15 as explained in the preceding cases, thus preventing the switch from being moved to the Start" position.
FIG. 6 illustrates another form of embodiment of the invention wherein the retaining action is exerted directly against a switch contact.
The suction produced by the engine started a first time constantly urges the piston in the direction to compress a gauge spring 16. This piston, when so withdrawn, carries along one arm of a bellcrank lever 23 which engages a notch formed to this end in piston 15 and has its other arm provided with a contact blade 24 connected to the pin 25 of rotary switch 10, i.e., the pin connected to the starter circuit. Thus, the movement of piston 15 in the lock body 26 (in the upward direction in this example) causes the bellcrank lever 23 to pivot and thus move the contact blade 24 away from the switch rotor; this movement prevents the actuation of the starter motor as long as the engine is running, according to the intended purpose.
1n the above-described devices the piston 15, instead of being directly responsive to the engine suction, may be operatively connected to the central portion of a disc-shaped resilient deformable diaphragm 27 enclosed in a case 28 as illustrated in FIG. 7 constituting an application of this alternate form of embodiment to the device shown in FIG. 1.
The diaphragm case 28 is secured on one side to the lower portion of body 1 formed with a duct 13 (FIG. 1) and on the opposite side to a pipeline 29 communicating with the engine suction. The diaphragm 27 is clamped between the pair of flanges 30 of a hub rigid with a rod 31 locked at one end by a nut 32. This rod 31 is adapted to slide within the duct 13 of body 1 and has its opposite end screwed in a tapped hole 33 of piston 15.
The diaphragm 27 distorted by the suction produced when the engine is started carries along'the piston 15 towards the case 28. When the engine is stopped the diaphragm 27 resumes its initial condition shown in FIG. 7 and spring 16 moves the piston 15 back to its initial position.
In another form of embodiment illustrated in FIG. 8 and constituting a modification of the structure shown in FIG. 6 the flexible diaphragm 27 was distorted beforehand to obtain the shape illustrated in the FIG. and has its central portion clamped by means of a nut 32 between a cup-shaped member 34 and a hub 36 rigid with the rod 31 secured to piston 15. As in the preceding example the case 35 is secured on one side to the body 26 and on the other side to a pipeline 29 connected to the source of engine suction.
lf desired, the inherent resiliency of the diaphragm may be reinforced by the spring 16 to assist in returning the piston 15 to its initial position.
Of course, various modifications and variations may be brought to the specific forms ofembodiment of the present invention which are shown and described herein, without de parting from the scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.
1. A safety device for preventing energization of an electric starter motor of an internal-combustion engine which is already running and providing a source of low pressure, the device comprising a body, a key-operated safety-lock member rotatably mounted in said body, switch means having a rotor adapted to close at least one electric circuit including an energizing circuit for said starter motor, said switch means being mounted in said body and connected to be rotated by said safety-lock member, a chamber in said body connected to said source of low pressure, a piston member mounted in said chamber spring means biasing said piston member in said opposite direction, and means on said piston member to prevent rotation of said rotor when said piston member is moved in said one direction thereby preventing closure of the circuit of said starter motor when the engine is running.
2. A safety device according to claim 1, further comprising a cam integral with said safety-lock member having a groove formed therein, said means on said piston comprising a stud adapted to move parallel with the axis of rotation of said switch rotor and to drop in said groove when the piston moves in said one direction, said groove having a limiting contour against which said stud abuts to prevent said switch rotor from being rotated to a position in which the starter motor is enerized.
3. A safety device according to claim 2, wherein said piston has its axis disposed at right angles to the axis of rotation of said switch rotor, said piston being formed with two cylindrical end portions and a notched portion therebetween, further comprising a cam integral with said safety-lock member and having therein a toroidal groove engaged by one of the ends of said piston when the latter is moved by the engine in said one direction so as to positive lock said cam against movement to a starter motor-energization position when the engine is running, said notched piston portion being aligned with the cam when the engine is not operating thereby permitting free rotation of said rotor.
4. A safety device according to claim 2, further comprising a cam integral with said safety-lock member and having an arcuate groove therein, said piston having its axis disposed at right angles to and convergent with the axis of rotation of said switch rotor, said means on said piston comprising a finger rigid with said piston and adapted to engage said arcuate groove in said cam, an external notch in said groove so disposed that said finger engages into said notch when said engine moves said piston in said one direction and locks said cam against rotation to a position for energizing said starter motor, said finger being released from said notch when the engine stops to permit rotation of said switch rotorv 5. A safety device according to claim 2, wherein said piston has its axis parallel to the axis of rotation of said switch rotor and has a notch therein, a pivotally mounted bellcrank lever having a first arm engaged in said notch to be driven by said piston during the movement thereof, and a second pivoting arm connected with a movable contact of said switch relied to the starter motor energizing circuit, said movable contact being positively held out of contact with said switch rotor when the engine moves said piston in said one direction thereby opening the starter motor circuit.
6. A safety device according to claim 1, further comprising a case having a chamber therein, a diaphragm mounted in said chamber, conduit means connecting said chamber to said internal-combustion engine so that said diaphragm is displaced in response to the running of said engine, and means connecting said diaphragm to said piston whereby said piston is moved in said one direction when said engine is running.
7. A safety device according to claim I, further comprising an antitheft device and means on said safety-lock member to control said antitheft device.