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Publication numberUS3623009 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 23, 1971
Filing dateNov 18, 1968
Priority dateNov 18, 1968
Also published asCA933663A1
Publication numberUS 3623009 A, US 3623009A, US-A-3623009, US3623009 A, US3623009A
InventorsRobert A Ragen
Original AssigneeSinger Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Electronic printing calculator
US 3623009 A
Images(7)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [72] Inventor Robert A. Ragen Primary Examiner-Raulfe B. Zache Hayward, Calif. ArlomeyCharles R. Lepchinsky [2|] Appl. No. 776,583 [22] Filed Nov. 18, I968 t [45] Patented 23. 1971 ABSTRACT: A desk-type calculator having a set of dec mal [73] Assign The Singer Company digit keys, a decimal po nt key. a decimal point-setting switch.

a set of function-initiating keys, a printing means, and electronic control means. A number. which may include either or [54] ELECTRONIC PRINTING CALCULATOR both a whole portion and a decimal fraction portion. is en- 20 Claims, 10 Drawing Figs. tered into a memory means by operation of the digit keys and/or the decimal point key Operation of a function key 'i causes the number to be printed on a paper strip. The entered [so] i i i i i IMO/I72 numbers are printed so that the least significant actually en- 235 tered digits occupy the rightmost print positions; the decimal points are not intentionally aligned vertically, Upon execution [56] m- Chad ofthe operation commanded by the function key, such as. for UNITED STATES PATENTS example, addition. multiplication. division, etc., the result, or answer, is automatically printed on paper strip with the g at 34 0777 2 2 decimal point appearing at a location determined by the EI'OUSSOS flh d I t 3.495.221 2/1970 Herendeen 340/1725 Se mgo mm pom cc SHIFT LEFT SHIFT LEFT co ms 05 0; c: C2

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SHEET 8 [IF 7 [145 179 175 D? 164 l 150 167 a) mm 14 DEC. A 168 PT. CTR #159 MEMoRU L \160 1 1 BACKGROUND 1. Field of Invention This invention concerns a data-handling apparatus and more particularly pertains to a printing calculator for printing entered numbers in a natural or floating decimal point mode and for printing results of calculations in a predetermined fixed decimal point mode.

2. Prior Art Throughout this application, the term fixed decimal point" refers to the arrangement of digits and decimal point in a number wherein the location of the decimal point occurs at a predetermined location according to the setting of a switch, a thumbwheel, or other means on a calculator. If the decimal point switch is set at 2, the decimal point will always appear between the third and second rightmost digit positions on printout of the number or visual display of the number. For example, if the number 25 is entered, the printout will appear as 25.00. On the other hand, if the number 25.463 is entered, the printout will appear as 25.46; it will be noted that the least significant digit (3) has been truncated or lost.

The term natural or floating decimal point" used in this application refers to an arrangement of digits and a decimal point in a number wherein the location of a decimal point occurs at a location determined by the natural entry of the number into a calculator. For example, if the number 25 is entered, the printout will appear as 25, while if the number 25.463 is entered, the printout will appear as 25.463.

Some prior art calculators of the mechanical and/or electronic type having what is termed a lO-key keyboard for sequential entry of the separate digits of a number include a switch or thumbwheel for presetting the location where a decimal point is to appear in the entered numbers and in the result of arithmetic operations on those numbers. Certain advantages are found with the use of such a preset or fixed decimal point. In adding a series of numbers with such a calculator, it is usually necessary to set the decimal point switch so as to accommodate a number having the most number of digits in a decimal fraction portion. For example, in adding a series of numbers, it is usually required that the numbers be entered manually into the calculator in such a manner that the decimal points of all the numbers be aligned so that the operation of addition may be performed correctly. The automatic decimal point-setting wheel must be preset to handle a number having the greatest expected quantity of decimal fraction portion digits. Thus, for example, if a series of numbers are to be added, any one of which could have up to four decimal fraction digits (digits to the right ofa decimal point) the decimal point setting switch must be set to 4. Now, when a number having less than four decimal fraction digits is entered, the internal logic will provide automatically additional zeros to the rightmost positions of the decimal fraction portion so that the decimal point will occur in printout or visual display in the proper place. Assume, as an example, that the decimal point switch is set at 4, and the number entered by manual operation of the digit keys and decimal point key is l2.3, the printout will appear as l2.3000. Likewise, the number [2.34 entered manually will appear on printout as l2.3400; addition of the two numbers will cause a printout of 24.6400. n the other hand, entry of the number l2.34563 will cause a printout of l2.3456; the fifth or least significant digit (LSD) of the entered number has been dropped or ignored. This is satisfactory if such least significant digit is not important.

However, if it is desired to maintain a printed record or have a visual display of all the digits entered, even though some of the lowermost significant digits are not utilized in the operations or calculations performed on the number, it can be readily appreciated that some other provision must be made. Thus, while the aforesaid prior art decimal point switch is use ful and advantageous, there is need, in a calculator, for providing control of printout of decimal fraction portion digits in both an entered number and the results of arithmetic operations on the entered numbers.

SUMMARY Therefore, in accordance with this invention, there is provided in an electronic calculator a control for limiting the answers of an arithmetic operation on numbers previously entered to a predetermined quantity of digits in the decimal fraction portion without, however, affecting any limitation (within the capacity of the machine) on the quantity of whole number digits that may be entered into the calculator having a capacity of l3 digits. Or, it may be desired to add a series of numbers having four digits in the decimal fraction portion but to have a sum having only two digits in the decimal fraction portion.

It is, therefore, an object of the present invention to provide an improved electronic calculator of the printing type.

The features of novelty that are considered characteristic of this invention are set forth with particularity in the appended claims. The organization and method of operation of the invention may best be understood from the following description when read in connection with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a perspective view of a calculator incorporating the principles of the present invention.

FIG. 2 is an illustration of the printout accomplished with the calculator of FIG. I.

FIG. 3 is a simplified block diagram of the calculator of FIG. 1.

FIG. 4 is a chart showing the organization of data in the memory means of FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is a simplified logic diagram showing the timing control for the present invention.

FIG. 6 is a timing diagram illustrating the bit times generated by the timing control of FIG. 5.

FIG. 7 is a timing diagram illustrating the register times generated by the timing control of FIG. 5.

FIG. 8 is a simplified block diagram showing the major operational unit's organization of the calculator incorporating the present invention.

FIG. 9 is a logic diagram illustrating various control features of the present invention.

FIG. 10 is a logic diagram illustrating the printing control of the present invention.

FIG. I0 is a logic diagram illustrating the printing control of the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT One preferred embodiment of the present invention will now be described with reference to the drawings in which like reference characters refer to the same parts throughout the different figures.

In FIG. I there is shown a calculator 10 of the printing type, having a set of 10 digit or numeral keys l2, including a zero or naught key 13, a decimal point key 14, a set of function keys, such as Enter key 16, Add key I7, Subtract key 18, etc., a battery or array 19 of four register contents indicating lamps 20, 22, 24, and 26, a decimal point setting switch 28, and a printing unit 30.

In FIG. 2 there is shown a typical printout on paper 31 of an augend 32, an addend 34, and their sum 36 according to the present invention. As seen in FIG. 2, augend 32, is a number having three whole portion digits (numerals to the left of the decimal point) and one decimal fraction portion digit (numerals to the right of the decimal point). The letter F to the right of the number 4 in the augend 32 indicates that the number was entered by operation of Enter key 16. Tl-le addend 34 is a number having four whole portion digits and three decimal fraction portion digits. The symbol to the right of the numeral 0 in the addend 34 indicates that the number was entered by operation of Add key 17.

It is to be noted that the rightmost digit of the addend 34 is a zero or naught; this results from the aught key I3 having been the third digit key depressed after the decimal point key 14 had been depressed when the addend 34 was entered into the calculator. It is shown in FIG. 2 that the augend 32 contains only one decimal fraction portion digit; this resulted from depressing only one digit key (the digit key for numeral 4 after depression of the decimal point key I4 when the augend 32 was entered into the calculator. FIG. 2 thus demonstrates one feature of the present invention, namely that the numbers entered into the calculator appear, on printout, in their natural order, i.e., the decimal point of the entered numbers does not appear in a fixed location but appears in a "floating" or variable location according to how many digit keys 12 are actuated afier the decimal point key 14 is actuated.

In FIG. 2 there is also shown the printed result or sum 36 of the addition of addend 34 to augend 32. It is shown that the sum 36 has two digits in its decimal fraction portion. The number of digits appearing in the result of any function or operation on entered numbers is determined and controlled by decimal point switch 28 (FIG. I). As shown in FIG. I, the decimal point switch 28 is positioned to display the numeral 2. Thus, according to another feature of the present invention, the result of arithmetic operations on numbers previously entered into the calculator will be printed with as many decimal fraction digits as dictated or controlled by the decimal point switch 28 regardless of how many decimal fraction portion digits are in the numbers entered into the calculator.

In addition, it is seen in FIG. 2 that the numbers to the left of the decimal point are printed in groups of three, i.e., there is a space between each group of three characters. This provides the advantage of easy readability of multidigit whole portion numbers.

In FIG. 3 there is illustrated, in block diagram form, the major functional or operational units comprising one embodiment of the calculator of FIG. I. The calculator 10 includes a dynamic memory or storage means 38 interconnected with an arithmetic unit 40 to form a recirculating data or memory loop. A timing control unit or means 42 is interconnected with other units of the calculator to synchronize the flow of data and control signals between the memory and the other functional units. A keyboard unit 44, which contains the digit keys I2, naught key 13, decimal point key I4. decimal point switch 28, and function control keys as shown in FIG. 1 is connected with a function control unit 46 and the arithmetic unit 40. The printer 30 is connected between the timing control unit 42 and arithmetic unit 40 for printout of numbers entered into the calculator and results of arithmetic operations on the numbers so entered.

Only those details of the functional units of FIG. 3 that are necessary to an understanding of the present invention are set forth in this application.

The memory 38 in the illustrated embodiment of the present invention comprises a dynamic memory of the type commonly known as an ultrasonic or magnetostrictive delay line through which information or data is represented by and caused to travel in the form of a train of mechanical disturbances commonly termed acoustic pulses. Other types of memory means 38, either static or dynamic, such as for example, a magnetic drum or disc, may be utilized as will readily occur to those skilled in the art to which the present invention pertains. The acoustic pulses are entered or launched serially into the memory 38 from the arithmetic unit, take a predetermined time to travel the length of the memory, and then are entered back into the arithmetic unit; this is termed a data loop.

Each number entered from the keyboard 44 by operation of the digit keys is converted or transformed into a series or set of pulses traveling serially through the data loop. Briefly described, a digit of a number (which number may include a whole portion and decimal fraction portion) is represented, in the memory 38, by a set of pulses, the number of pulses being equal to the ordinal value of the digit. Thus, for example, the digit or numeral 4 is represented by a set of four pulses, while the digit or numeral 7 is represented by a set of seven pulses. It can be understood that digits or numerals having different ordinal values will be represented by different sets of pulses. This is termed a pulse-count system of notation.

For the purpose of verbally describing this invention, the binary symbol I is representative of a pulse in the memory 38 at a particular space-time unit, or pulse-time, hereinafier termed bit-time, while the binary symbol 0" is representative of the lack of a pulse at a particular bit-time in the memory. Assume that the amount of bit-times in the memory required to hold the absolute value ofa digit is equal to nine. It can be understood that the decimal digit 4 would appear in the memory 38 as 0 O 0 0 0 l I I I while the decimal digit 7 would appear as O O I l I l I l l Thus, the number 47 would appear as OOOOOIIIIOOIIlIllI From the above, it can be understood that each single decimal digit of a number requires a fixed number of bit-times in the memory 38.

The organization of the data or space-time compartments in the memory 38 will now be described with reference to FIG. 4. The memory 38 may be considered to be divided into 25 equal space-time compartments termed column-times or C-times and labeled Cl through C25. It is to be noted that in FIG. 4 there is also indicated a CO-time, the length (space-time) of which is somewhat indefinite, but may be said to be the space or time between the occurrence of a last C-time (C25) and the occurrence of the next succeeding first C-time (Cl Each C-time is subdivided into six register or R-times of equal space-time length. For example, in FIG. 4 there is shown that C15 is subdivided into RS, R0, RI, R2, R3, and R4-times. It will be understood that each of the other Ctimes (except C0) are also subdivided into similar equal length (space-time) RS, R0, RI, R2, R3, and R4-times. The set of the 25 RS-times comprise a special storage register, the use of which is not germane to the present invention. The set of 25 RO-times comprise a special register termed R0 register used internally by the calculator as will be described later. The other four sets of register times comprise internal storage registers, the first (RI) and second (R2) of which will be described in more complete detail as the description proceeds.

Each register time or R-tirne is further subdivided into l6 bit-times or B-times as illustrated in FIG. 4 with respect to R2C15. Each bit-time is the space-time required for occupan cy of one acoustic pulse or binary l in the memory 38. In general, a maximum of only nine bit-times in each set of 16 bit-times are utilized to represent a decimal digit's ordinal value, according to the pulse-count system of notation mentioned previously.

A single internal register, within the meaning of that term as used herein, may be considered to be formed by a set of 25 successive RN-times (where N represents S, 0, 1,2, 3, or 4).

In the lower half of the strip of paper 3I, shown in FIG. 2, there is illustrated the printout of typical contents of each of the four registers R1, R1, R3, and R4. It is to be noted that each registers printout contains l3 digits (the maximum possible). The number in R4 is a whole number and has no decimal fraction portion. Thus, the least significant digit (the numeral 1 of the number in R4 is the digit immediately to the left of the decimal point. The other three registers (R3, R2, and RI) contain numbers having decimal fraction portions. Those numbers that contain a decimal fraction portion have their least significant digit at the extreme rightmost portion of the printed number and, of course, such location is to the right of their decimal points. It should be kept in mind that if the aught digit key 13 on the keyboard (FIG. I) is the last digit key operated when entering a number having a decimal fraction portion a naught or 0 will appear in the number's printout as the number's least significant digit. Such a number having an aught as a least significant digit is shown in the upper portion of the paper strip 31 of FIG. 2 as previously mentioned addend 34.

Each particular digit of a number entered into a particular register occupies the associated Rtime of a particular C-time in the memory. In the preferred embodiment, the least significant digit of a number in a register occupies the associated R- time of C3-time, the next least significant digit occupies the associated R-time of C4-time, etc. Thus, the least significant digit 1 ofRl (as shown in FIG. 2) occupies the Rl-time ofC3- time shown in FIG. 2; the least significant digit l of R2 (as shown in FIG. 2) occupies the R2-time of C3-time shown in FIG. 5, etc.

The CI and CZ-times are reserved for other uses as will be described below. It can thus be understood that the internal registers (RS, R0, R1, R2, R3, and R4) of the calculator of the present invention are comprised of serially interspersed or interlaced compartments (R-times) according to a regular sequence, and the digits ofa number in any one or more internal registers occupy interspersed space-time compartments (C-times) according to a regular order.

The arrangement of digits of a number (or as is sometimes called data word) as just described, is not an invariable arrangement. The foregoing described arrangement is to be kept in mind, however, as a reference point in the discussion of shifting operations on the digits according to the present invention, to be described hereinafter.

According to one feature of the present invention, a first number having up to l3 digits is entered into register R1 from the keyboard. Each digit of the number, when entered, occupies the Rl-times of column-times C3 up to C16. If the number includes a decimal fraction portion, the quantity of digits or numerals in such decimal fraction portion is recorded in the CZRI-time. For example, if the first number entered into the calculator contains nine digits in its decimal fraction portion (as shown in FIG. 2 for the printout of R1), there will be recorded a 9" in C2Rl-time. The recording of decimal fraction digits is accomplished by counting the number of times the digit keys are operated subsequent to operation of the decimal point key 14.

According to another feature of the invention, after a number is entered, and an arithmetic function key, such as for example, Add key 17 is operated, shifting of the contents of internal registers RI and R2 to the left as many digit positions as required to have the least significant digit of the whole number portion in the respective CIZRl-time and CI2R2- time. This, of course, will place the most significant digit of the decimal fraction portions (if the number contains a decimal fraction portion) in CI IRl-time and ClIR2-time, respectively. It can thus be understood that a number having 13 digits in its whole number portion (such a number is shown in FIG. 2 as the printout for R4) will be contained in the associated R- times associated with CI2 through C24-times. On the other hand, a number having only four whole portion digits (such as the number shown in FIG. 2 as the printout for R1) will be contained in the R-times associated with C15 through C3- times. It is to be noted that since the number shown in FIG. 2 as the printout for R] contains nine decimal portion digits when first entered, the least significant digit of the whole number portion is automatically placed in the Cl2RI-time position when the number is first entered and thus will have no left shift performed on it.

It can thus be understood that from zero to nine digit shifts will be required to shift an entered number so that the least significant digit of its whole number portion will be placed in CIZRI-time, depending on how many decimal faction portion digits are part of the entered number. The quantity recorded in CZRl-time (which, it will be recalled, is equal to how many digits are in the decimal fraction portion of the entered number) is used to control the number of left-digit shifts. It should be clear that the number of left-digit shifts is equal to nine minus the quantity of decimal fraction digits in the entered number.

According to the present invention, the number of decimal fraction portion digits as recorded or stored in CZRl-time is utilized to control the printing of the number in register RI. This is accomplished according to the present invention by appropriate shifting operations as will be described in more detail hereinafter.

It can be understood from the above that the two numbers now in registers RI and R2 are effectively, decimally aligned, that is, the least significant digit of their whole number portions each occupy CI2-time of the associated R2 and R1- times. It can thus be appreciated that arithmetic operations may now be performed readily without having to make special adjustments for misaligned "decimal points." If an arithmetic operation was called for by depreaion of an appropriate arithmetic key on the keyboard at the time of entering the second number, that arithmetic operation will now be performed. The results of the arithmetic operation will be automatically placed in register R1 and appropriately or automatically aligned around Cl2RI-time. If the arithmetic function performed was multiplied or divided, the product or quotient, respectively, will be automatically printed on paper tape. If the arithmetic function performed was an addition or subtraction, the sum or difierence, respectively, is not automatically printed out at this time, but is merely held in register R1. The new contents of RI may be considered to be simply a first-entered number and, accordingly, a second number may be entered into the calculator for appropriate operations in the same manner as described above. However, if as a result of an addition or subtraction operation it is desired to printout the sum or difference (number in R1), the Enter key 16 is actuated. This will initiate printout of such result or answer, such as for example, the sum 36 shown in FIG. 2. Printout of the answer resulting from any arithmetic operation will include only as many decimal fraction portion digits as determined by a previous setting of the decimal point setting switch 28 (FIG. 1), regardless of how many decimal fraction portion digits were contained in any ofthe numbers entered into the calculator for operation thereof, according to another feature of the present invention.

Further, printout at any time whether upon entry of a number or upon the answer derived by arithmetic operations is accompanied in a manner so as to divide the whole portion digits of the number into groups of three for ease in reading such number. For example, as shown in FIG. 2, the numbers shown as the printout for R4 contains four groups of three digits each, plus a fifth group of one digit (most significant. digit 3. The manner of accomplishing this separation into groups of three or less according to another feature of the present invention will be described in detail along with the detailed description herein below of the printing operations.

There will now be described in more particular detail the preferred embodiment of the present invention by means of what is generally known as logic diagrams. The logic elements shown and described herein to implement the present invention may comprise any well-known electronic (or mechanical, electromechanical, fluidic, etc., as desired) circuit for implementing the required logic function, such as for example, AND, OR, a shift register, a binary counter, an inverter, etc. The voltages and/or current values from a power supply to operate the various logic elements may be any predetermined value compatible with the circuits utilized. Throughout the remainder of this description. various logic element input and output pulses or signals will be designated true or l-level. while other pulses or signals will be designated false or 0- levels; the actual values of such pulses or signals may be any predetermined value required for the logic element to properly perform its intended function.

In order to properly gate and synchronize information and data signals in the calculator, there is provided a source of regularly recurring timing signals.

The timing control unit 42 of FIG. 3 is shown in further detail in FIG. 5 and is described more fully herein. Means for generating regularly recurring sets of timing signals are well known in the art to which the present invention pertains. More complete details of the timing control unit are shown and described in [1.5. patent application, Ser. No. 682,194, filed Nov. I3, 1967, by Carl E. Herendeen entitled Data Detector now U.S. Pat. No. 3,495,22l issued Feb. 10, 1970 and assigned to the same assignee as the present application.

Briefly described, a free-running oscillator 50 transmits a continuous train of alternate l-level and O-level pulses, via a lead 52, to a Clock flip-flop S4 and a Bit Clock flip-flop 56. The Hit Clock flip-flop is enabled by l-level Clock signals from Clock flip-flop 54, via a lead 58, while the Clock flip-flop is enabled by a l-level signal from a Home flip-flop 60 via a lead 62. So long as the Clock flip-flop 54 is enabled, the oscillator's output pulses, which in one embodiment occurs at a rate of about 2.8 MHz., cause the Clock flip-flop to transmit a series of Clock Pulses (shown in timing diagram FIG. 6) to the Bit-Clock 56, and other parts of the calculator, at a rate of one-half the oscillator frequency. The Bit-Clock 56 will be caused to transmit a series of Bit Clock Pulses (shown in timing diagram FIG. 6) over lead 64 at the same rate as the Clock pulses, but lagging by 90.

A bit-time counter 66 receives and counts the incoming Bit Pulses on lead 64. The bit-time counter may be any wellknown binary or decade counter capable of counting from zero to l5 and returning to zero on the l6th count and then resuming the counting again. Each time the bit-time counter changes from a count of to a count of zero (the 16th count), a Bit-Time Pulse is transmitted via a lead 68 to a register-time counter 70. The register-time counter, like the previously mentioned bit-time counter 66, may be any wellknown binary or decade counter capable of counting from zero to five, returning to zero on the sixth count and proceeding to count up again. Each time the register-time counter changes from a count of five to a count of zero (the sixth count), a pulse is transmitted via a lead 72 to a column-time counter 74.

The column-time counter 74 may be any well-known binary or decade counter capable of counting input pulses from zero to 25, returning to zero on the 26 pulse and proceeding to count pulses again.

Throughout the calculator 10 of the present invention, various logic gates and other logic elements are enabled and disa bled at various times by appropriate leads connected between the element or gate and various stages of the bit-time counter 66, the register-time counter 70, and column-time counter 74, in addition to the output leads from the Clock flip-flop 54 and Bit Clock flip-flop 56. In order to simplify the logic diagrams and the description, most of the decoding gates for detecting the various states or counts (timing signals) of the timing chain elements will not be shown; instead, short leads will be shown and marked with the appropriate timing signals. it will be understood that such leads or timing signals originate from appropriate gates suitably connected directly or indirectly with the elements of the timing chain just described.

Home flip-flop is placed in its set condition, thereby changing the signal on output lead 62 from l-level to O-level which thus disables the Clock flip-flop 54. Disabling of the Clock flip-flop will inhibit transmission of any further Clock pulses on lead 58 to the Bit-Clock; no further counting in the timing chain takes place. A short, indeterminate time after the Home flip-flop is set, a SYNC pulse will be read from the memory 38 and transmitted, via a lead 80, to the reset input of Home flipflop 60, thereby placing the flip-flop back in its reset state. The timing chain then proceeds through another cycle of counting until once again at COBZ-time the Home flip-flop is set.

At the same time that the Home flip-flop is reset, the SYNC pulse is read into an A-counter (FIGS. 8 and 9) of the arithmetic unit 40. Now, at Bl3-time of CORS-time, the SYNC pulse is transferred to the C-counter and thence back into the memory 38.

Various arithmetic and data or number manipulation operations require that the timing chain pass through one or more complete cycles. There is, therefore, provided a means for counting cycles of the timing chain, which means is shown in FIG. 5 as Entry Phase Counter 82. The Entry Phase Counter may be any well-known binary or decade counter that will respond to input pulses or signals on a lead 84. ln one preferred embodiment of the calculator 10 (FIG. I the Entry Phase Counter was a three-stage binary counter capable of being preset to a desired number by signals on a channel 86 and capable of being oounted up to seven, then returning to zero and beginning the count over again. The Entry Phase Counters counting input lead 84 is shown connected to the output of an AND-gate 88. One input to AND-gate 88 is shown as a lead 90 from die function control logic 46 while the other input to AND-gate 88 is a lead 92 from the columntime counter 74. A l-level pulse will be transmitted on lead 92 each Cl6-time; if the other input (lead 90) to AND-gate 88 is also l-level a l-level incrementing pulse will be transmitted via lead 84 to the input of the Entry Phase Counter. Thus, at each Cl6-time of a timing cycle, the Entry Phase Counter will be incremented by one. Various logic gates are incorporated in the calculator of the present invention to detect various counts or conditions of the Entry Phase Counter. In order to simplify the drawings and descriptions, some of the Entry Phase Counter count detector gates are not shown but are merely indicated by a lead which is marked with an appropriate legend, such as for example, EPCl (Entry Phase Counter, count 1). It is within the skill of a person skilled in the art to which the present invention pertains to provide such count detection decoding gates.

in addition to those bit-times, register-times, and columntirnes generated by the appropriate counters shown in FIG. 5, a special set of timing signals shown in FIG. 6 as T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 are generated during the B13, 14, and I5 times of each register-time. Appropriate gates are incorporated in the system to generate these signals. The use of the signals will be set forth as the description proceeds.

lDLlNG MODE Reference is made to FIG. 8. in this FlG., there is shown the essential operating sections of the arithmetic unit 40. As shown in the FIG., data exits from the memory 38 into control logic section 13]. The data pulses are then read serially into an A-counter 159. The A-counter may be any well-known electronic device capable of accepting input pulses and storing such pulses therein as will become more clear as the description proceeds. In the normal idling mode of operation after a complete data word (for example, the data read from ClRlBO-IO), a complete data word is read into the A- counter and is parallel shifted into a C-counter [55. The C- counter may be similar to the A-counter and capable of accepting parallel input and capable of shifting its contents out to a write control 132 and thence back into the memory 38.

Other shifting operations between the A-counter, D counter, and C-counter take place during various operations of the apparatus as will be described below. Reference is now made to FIG. 9. Near the top middle portion of the FlG., there is shown an AND-gate 167 having two inputs, one input of which is from an inverter 169, the other input of which is the Tl-timing signal. Data is read from the memory 38 during each register-time (BO-BIO). The output of inverter 169 is normally l-level; thus, at each Tl-time of each register-time, AND-gate 167 is fully enabled and transmits a l-level A-to-C signal to the C-counter which causes the contents of the A-counter to be parallel shifted via signal channel 168 to the C-counter. Now, during the next BO-BlO of the next registertime, the contents of the C-counter will be written back into the memory by means of AND-gate 158. It should be noted, however, that the data shifted serially from the C-counter to the memory would, at first impression, appear to have been delayed by one register-time. However, recalling the SYNC pulse is also read from memory, it is also caused to pass through the A-counter, thence to the C-counter, and back onto the memory and it also is aflected by this l -register-time delay." However, since all data is designated as occupying a bit-space-time compartment in the memory 38, with reference to the SYNC pulse, the data is automatically correctly aligned in the memory with respect to the SYNC pulse. Thus, while it is true that there is a Lregister-time delay, the orientation of the data with respect to the SYNC pulse remains the same.

ENTRY OF A WHOLE NUMBER PORTION, FIRST DIGIT Reference is now made to the simplified logic diagram of FIG. 8. It may be assumed that the operation prior to entry of the first digit ofa number was a functional operation, initiated by operation of a function key on the keyboard unit 44. Operation of any function key causes a printout. and a l-level signal is transmitted from the print control unit 30 (see also FIG. 3) via lead 130 to the set input of a memory means or Common Function Storage flip-flop 134, thereby setting that flip-flop. When the Common Function STORAGE flip-flop 134 is set, a l-level CFS signal is transmitted on lead 136 to one input of an AND-gate I38. Another input to AND-gate I38 is by way of a lead I40 which is l-level when the timing controls register counter 70 (FIG. indicates with R1, R2, R3, or R4-time and is O-level when the register counter indicates an RS or RO-time. Additionally. another input to AND-gate I38 is a lead I16 which will have a l-level CD signal thereon as soon as any digit key or decimal point key is operated as will be described below. The last input to AND- gate 138 is by way of lead I21 which will have a l-level EPC3 signal thereon when the Entry Phase Counter (FIG. 5) contains a count of3.

Depression or actuation of any one of the digit keys on the keyboard (FIG. I) associated with numerals zero through nine (or decimal point key [4) will immediately cause a set of code signals to be transmitted, in parallel, via a signal channel I00, to a five-stage keyboard buffer-register or set of flip-flops 102. Certain of the stages or flip-flops comprising buffer-register I02 will be set, and certain stages will remain reset, according to a predetermined code implemented by an encoding scheme which is part of the'digit keys structure and internal wiring. The five-bit code now contained in the buffer-register 102 will be transmitted to an encoding logic unit I04 which, in turn, will transmit and hold in parallel a five-bit set of code signals, via signal channel 106, to a D-counter 108; no significant action takes place in the D-counter at this time.

At the same time that the buffer-register 102 receives information signals from the keys, a l-level signal is sent from the operated digit key, via lead IIZ, to the set input of Common Digit flip-flop I14, thereby setting that flip-flop. Setting of Common Digit flip-flop [I4 causes a l-level CD signal to be transmitted via lead 116 to an input of AND-gates I38, I39, and 141.

The above action takes place at any time during a basic timing cycle. Now when the Entry Phase Counter 82 (FIG. 5) reaches a count of three (CORlBO-time), a l-level EPC-3 signal is transmitted via lead 12! to AND-gate I38. Also, a I- level RI signal is transmitted to the ANDgate 138 via lead I40. The AND-gate 138 is thus completely enabled at this time and transmits a l-level shift-up (SU) signal via lead I42 to one input ofOR-gates I44, I46, I48, and I50.

The OR-gate I48 transmits a l-level signal to one input of AND-gate I48; OR-gate 144 transmits a l-level signal to one input of AND-gate I54; and OR-gate 146 transmits a l-level signal to AND-gate I56.

Now, at the next Tl-time which occurs during CORIBI3- time, a l-level D-toC signal is transmitted from AND-gate 152 to the C-counter 155 via lead I51, thereby causing the contents of the D-counter I08 to be shifted to the C-counter in parallel via a signal channel [53. THe data shifted to the C- counter at this time is not important.

During the CORI period of time, as above discussed, the 82-810 data is read from the memory 38 into the A-counter 159. Also, during the above-discussed CORIBZ-BIU time, the contents of the C-counter are read into the memory by virtue ofa llevel Bil-BIZ signal, pulse l-level clock pulses to AND- gate 158 which, in turn, transmits a train of l-level signals to the C-counter on a lead l6I which cause the contents of the C-counter to be serially entered into the memory on a lead 160.

Now, at TZ-time of the CORl-time under discussion, the AND-gate 154 is fully enabled, thereby transmitting a l-level clear D-counter (CDC) pulse via lead I62 to the D-counter 108, which pulse causes the D-counter to be cleared or reset to a 0 or no-data condition.

Now, at T3-time of the CORI-time under discussion, AND- gate I56 transmits a l-level A-to-D-pulse, via lead 157, to the D-counter I08, which pulse causes the contents of the A- counter I59 to be transferred, in parallel, via signal channel I49, to the D-counter. It will be recalled that the A-counter contained CORIBZ-BIO data, which data is thus transferred to the D-counter.

From the above, it may be understood that during CORI- time, the first digit" of Register I is read from the memory 38 into the A-counter, a digit" is read into the memory 38 dur ing the same Rl-time (which Rl-time becomes RO-time due to the shifting of the SYNC pulse as described previously) from the C-counter, a "digit is shifted from the D-counter to the C-counter, the D-counter is cleared of data, and the first digit of Register I (now in the A-counter) is shifted from the A-counter to the D-counter.

Now, at the next set of B2-BIO times, which occurs during RZ-time of the same CO-time discussed above, the first digit of Register 2 is read from the memory 38 into the A-counter 159, and a digit in the C-counter is read into the CORZ-time of the memory (which RZ-time becomes RI-time due to the shifting of the SYNC pulse as described previously). Then, at TI-time of COR2-time, the contents of the D-counter 108, which it will be recalled is the first digit of Register 2, is transferred to the C-counter I55. Then, at T2-time, the D-counter is cleared as before. Now, at T3-time, the contents of the A- counter I59, which it will be recalled is the first digit of Re gister 2, is transferred to the D-counter I08.

At the next set of BZ-BIO-times, which occurs during R3- time of the CO-time under discussion, the first digit of Register 3 is read from memory into the A-counter I59, and the digit in the C-counter I55, which as described in the immediately preceding paragraph is the first digit of Register I, is read into the COR3-time of the memory (recall that such R3- time becomes RZ-time due to the shifting of the SYNC pulse). Then, at TI-time ofCOR3-time, the contents of the D-counter I08, which it will be recalled is the first digit of Register 2, is transferred to the C-counter I55. The D-counter 108 is then cleared of data at T2-time. Now, at TB-time, the contents of the A-counter I59, which it will be recalled is the first digit of Register 3, is transferred to the D-counter 108.

At the next, or fourth, set of BZ-BIO, which occurs during R4-time of the CO-time under discussion, the first digit" of Register 4 is read from memory 38 into the A counter I59, and the "digit" in the C-counter I55, which as described above is the first digit of Register 2, is read into COR4-time of the memory (recall that R4-time becomes R3-time due to the shifting of the SNYC pulse). Then, at Tl-time of COR4-time, the contents of the D-counter, which it will be recalled is the first digit of Register 3, is transferred to the C-counter. At T2- time, the D-counter is cleared of data. At T3-time, the con tents ofthe A-counter, which it will be recalled is the first digit of Register 4, is transferred to the D-counter.

The register-time counter will then advance to RS-time. Thus, the signal on lead I40 will change to O-level since neither R1, R2, R3, or R4-time is detected from the register time counter (FIG. 5); AND-gate [38 is thus disabled, thereby transmitting a O-level signal on lead I42 to the OR-gates 144, I46, I48, and I50. The AND-gates 152, 154 and [56 are thus disabled. However, it is to be especially noted that during the BZ-BIU-time of RS-time, the contents of the C-counter 155, which it will be recalled from the previous paragraph is the first "digit" of Register 4, is shifted from the C-counter into the CIRS-time of the memory, however, due to the shifting of the SYNC pulse, as described previously, the first digit of Register 3 will thus be occupying COR4-time.

From the above description, it will be understood that data in CORI is shifted to CORZ, the data in CORZ is shifted to COR3, the data in COR3 is shifted to COR4, and the data in COR4 is lost. The same action takes place over and over to cause succeeding digits (C1, C2, C3, etc.) of the first three registers to be transferred or shifted upward into corresponding digit positions of the next higher register, and the content of Register 4 is lost or destroyed in the process.

Now, at the end of CZS-time, the column-time counter 74 (FIG. 5) is returned to its zero count (CO); as the columntime counter returns to its zero count, the Entry Phase Counter (FIG. 5) is caused to advance to a count of four. Thus, the EPC-3 signal on lead I21 (FIG. 8) is changed to level, thereby preventing any D-to-C and A-to-D shifting operations since AND-gates I44, I46, I48, and ISO are disabled. However, the data now in the memory is merely circulated in the idle mode of operation, as described previously.

Now, when the Entry Phase Counter is advanced to a count of six (CORSBO-time), a l-level EPC-6 signal is transmitted to the second input of AND-gate I39; it will be recalled that the other input to AND-gate I39 is l-level via lead 116 by virtue of the Common Digit flip-flop 114 being in the set state. AND-gate I39 transmits a l-level K-to-D signal to the D-register via lead I43 which causes the contents of the keyboard flip-flops 102 and encoding logic I04 to be transferred. in parallel, via signal channel 106 to the D-counter. Thus, the code representing the first (most significant) digit of the number to be entered is now in the D-counter.

Now, the Entry Phase Counter 82 (FIG. advances to a count of seven at the next COR3BO-time. When the Entry Phase Counter contains a count of seven, a l-Ievel EPC-7 signal is transmitted to AND-gate 141. Since the other input to AND-gate 14I is l-level from the Common Digit flip-flop 114 via lead 6, the AND-gate I41 transmits a l-level signal on lead 165 to AND-gate I37, AND-gate I47, and the reset input of Common Function flip-flop 134. The other inputs to AND gate 137 are a lead I45 which will contain a l-level signal if the decimal point key was not the key pressed; since this section of the description is concerned with entry of a first numerical digit, the lead I45 does have a l-level signal thereon at this time. Another input to AND-gate I37 is lead I63 which will be l-level (CO-Ci) at all times except during C0, CI, and CI-times. The fourth and last input to AND-gate 137 is a lead 164 which is at l-level during RI-times (from the registercounter 70, FIG. 5). From the above description of the inputs to AND-gate 137, it can be understood that AND-gate 137 will transmit a l-level signal on its output lead 166 during all EPC-7 RI-times except those Rl-times associated with C0, C1, and C2, if the decimal point key was not actuated.

Thus, during CJRl-time, a l-level signal is transmitted via lead I66 to OR-gates I44, 146, 148, and 150. The OR-gate 148 thus transmits a l-level signal to AND-gate I52.

During this CJRI-time, the digit data in the associated B2-Bl0-time is read into the A-counter (this data is zero or aught since a first digit of a number is being entered as described).

Now, at TI-time ofC3Rl-time, the AND-gate I52 transmits a l-level D-to-C pulse on output lead I51 which causes the contents of the D-counter (keyboard digit information or data) to be transferred to the C-counter.

Since OR-gate ISO is furnished with a l-level input signal, its output to inverter I69 is l-level; this causes inverter 169 to transmit a OleveI signal to AND-gate 167, thereby disabling that AND-gate and thus prohibiting generation of the normal or idling A-to-C l level signal on lead 170 at Tl-time.

At TZ-time of C3R I -time, AND-gate I54 transmits a l-level CDC pulse to thereby clear the D-counter 108.

Now, at TS-time ofCJRl-time, the AND-gate I56 transmits a l-level A-to-D pulse to the D-counter, thereby causing the contents of the A-counter (C3RIB2-BIO) to be parallel shifted into the D-counter. The A-counter is then cleared at T4-time by means of a l-Ievel signal (Clr A) on lead I72 from AND-gate [TL Now, during the above-mentioned CJRZBZ-BIO-times, the contents of the C-counter which, it will be recalled, is the encoded keyboard flip-flop data, are serially shifted into the memory 38 (due to shifting of the SYNC pulse, this data will occupy CSRlBZ-BIO-times Also, during such C3R2-time, the C3R2B2-B10 data is read into the A-counter. Since AND-gate I37 is now disabled by virtue of the fact that the signal on R! lead I64 is O-level, AND-gate I67 is enabled by a l-level signal from inverter 169. Now, at Tl-time of CJRZ, the contents of the A-counter are parallel shifted to the C-counter. It is to be noted that during RZ-times, AND-gate 152 is also disabled by lack of any l-level signals to OR-gate I48; thus no D-to-C signals are transmitted on lead I51. Additionally, AND-gate 156 is disabled by virtue of the fact that no l-level signals are present at the inputs of OR-gate 146; thus no A-to-D signal is transmitted on lead 157.

At T2-time, it is to be noted that the D-counter is not cleared of data since no l-level signals are present on OR-gate I44; thus during RZ-time (and also R3, R4, RS, and RO-times immediately following), the CSRIBZ-BII] data remains in the D-counter. At T3-time, no significant action takes placev At T4-time, the A-counter is cleared.

Now, during CJRJBZ-Bllltimes, the C3R3 data is serially read into the A-counter, while at the same time, the contents of the C-counter (C3112 data) is serially shifted into the memory). At TI-time of C3R3, the contents of the A-counter (C3R3 data) is parallel shifted into the C-counter. At T l-time of C3R3, the A-register is cleared.

At C3R4-time, the C3R4B2-BIO data is serially read into the A-register while, at the same time, the contents of the C- counter (C3R3 data) are serially read into the memory.

The same idling action takes place to cause C4RS and C4RO data to be placed back in the memory.

Now, at C4Rl-time, AND-gate I37 is once more enabled by the return ofa l-level RI signal on lead 164. AND-gate 167 is thus disabled while ANDgates I52, 154, and I56 are enabled.

During the BZ-BIO-times of C4RI, the C4Rl data is read into the A-counter. At TI-time of C4RI, the contents of the D-counter (at this time an aught) is transferred to the C- counter by action of gate 152. At TZ-time of C4Rl, the D- counter is cleared by action of AND'gate I54. At T3-time of C4Rl, the contents of the A-counter are parallel shifted into the D-counter by action of AND-gate 156. At T4-time, the A- counter is cleared by action of AND-gate l7l.

Now, during C4R2, C4R3, C4R4-times normal idling transfer action takes place in the same manner as described above.

From the above description, it can be understood that the RI data for each column-time is shifted left one column-time after entry ofa new digit into the C3RI-time, i.e., the Register I data read from the memory is delayed one column-time before being written back into the memory.

At the time (EPC-7) that AND-gate I41 transmits a l-level signal to AND-gates I37 and I47, as just described, a l-level signal is also sent to the reset input of the Common Function Storage flip-flop I34, thereby resetting that flip-flop. Resetting of flip-flop I34 inhibits any further shift up of register data as controlled by AND-gate I38 described above for the remainder of the digits entered for the first number.

The Entry Phase Counter (FIG. 5) then advances from a count of seven to a count of zero and causes a I-level EPC-O pulse to be transmitted to the reset input of the common digit flip-flop 114, thereby resetting that flip-flop.

An AND-gate I73 detects the fact that both the common digit flip-flop I17 and common function storage flip-flop I34 are in their reset states and thus a l-level signal is transmitted from AND-gate 173 via a lead I74 to clear or reset the keyboard flip-flops I02.

Normal idling action of circulating data through the data loop then takes place until further keys are actuated as will now be described.

The decimal point key 14 (FIG. 1) may be the first key actuated (the number to be entered has no whole portion digits). or may be the key actuated after the whole portion digits of a number have been entered. There will now be described the structure and action involved when the decimal point key is the first key actuated Operation of the decimal point key I4 causes a l-level signal to be transmitted on lead 2 to the set input of common digit flip-flop 4. In addition, a set of signals are transmitted from the keyboard 44 via signal channel I to the keyboard flip-flops 102; at least one of the keyboard flip-flops will be set which identifies and stores the fact that the decimal point key I4 has been actuated. A l-level decimal point (DP) signal is decoded in the encoding logic unit 104 and transmitted via lead I77 to an AND-gate 175.

No pertinent action takes place at EPC-O-time nor EPC-ltime.

Now, at EPC-Z-time, AND-gate 175 is fully enabled and transmits a l-level decimal point key (DPK) signal via lead 178 to an inverter I79, plus the set input of the decimal point storage flip-flop I76; the flip-flop is thus placed in its set state. It will be noted that the decimal point storage flip-flop 176 is placed previously in its reset state by l-level signal on lead I30 from the print control unit 30 at the end of the previous printout operation. The l-level DPS signal to inverter 179 has no significant effect at this time.

At EPC-S-time, AND-gate I38 is enabled since the common digit flip-flop I14 is in the reset state. Thus, action exactly like that described above for entry of a first numeral digit ofa whole portion ofa number will take place to shift the con tents of Register I to Register 2, shift the contents of Register 2 to Register 3, and shift the contents of Register 3 to Register 4.

No significant action takes place at EPC-4-time nor EPG-S- time. At EPC-6-time, the contents of the keyboard flip-flops are entered into the D-counter since AND-gate 139 is enabled; however, the contents of the D-counter will be subsequently cleared and thus, no data corresponding to the set state of the keyboard flip-flops is entered into the memory 38.

At EPC-7-time, the Common Function Storage flip-flop I34 is reset by a l-level signal from AND-gate 141.

Also at EPC-7-time, the AND-gate 175 is enabled, thereby transmitting a l-level DPK signal to inverter I79 which, in turn, transmits a O-level disabling signal on lead 145 to AND- gate I37. Since AND-gate 137 is now disabled, no shifting of the contents of Register I one column-time to the right will take place. It is to be noted that AND-gate 147 is also disabled by the O-level signal on lead I45 at this EPC-7-time.

The entry phase counter (FIG. then is advanced to a count of zero. The common digit flip-flop 114 is reset by the 1- level EPC-0-signal. Since both the common digit flip-flop I14 and the Common Function Storage flip-flop 134 are now in the reset state, AND-gate I73 is enabled fully and transmits a l-level signal on lead I74 to reset the keyboard flip-flops I02.

DECIMAL POINT KEY ACTUATION SUBSEQUENT TO DIGIT KEY OPERATION If the decimal point key I4 is operated subsequent to a digit key operation (the number being entered has a whole number portion), the following action differing from that described above takes place.

It will be recalled that when a digit key is actuated, the Common Function Storage flip-flop I34 is reset and will not be set again until the end of another printout operation. Thus, at EPC-3-time, after the decimal point key has been actuated, AND-gate I38 is disabled and the Registers I, 2, 3, and 4 will not be shifted upward. Except for this difference, the action as described previously takes place.

DIGIT KEY ACT UATION. DECIMAL FRACTION PORTION If the Decimal Point Storage flip-flop 176 has been set by operation of the decimal point key 14 as described above, and then a digit key is operated, the following described action takes place.

Action at ECO-I, -2, -3, -4. -5, and -6 times takes place in the same manner as described previously for operation of digit key (whole number portion, first digit or subsequent digits).

Now, at EPC-7-time, AND-gate 141 is enabled, thereby transmitting a l-level signal via lead to AND-gate I47, AND-gate I37, and the reset input of Common Function Storage flip-flop 134. The Common Storage flip-flop is already in the reset state having been placed in such reset state by the previous operation of either a digit key or the decimal point key.

AND-gate I75 is disabled since the signal on lead I77 is 0- level from the encoding logic 104 (a key other than the decimal point key is being actuated). Thus, a O-level signal is transmitted from the AND-gate I75 to inverter 179 which, in turn, transmits a l-level signal on lead I45 to AND-gate 137, plus AND-gate I47.

The decimal point storage flip-flop is in the set state having been placed in such set state by the previous operation of the decimal point key and thus transmits a l-level signal on set output lead I80 to AND-gate 147.

Thus, at C2RO-time, AND-gate I47 is enabled completely and transmits a l-level signal on lead I8] to AND-gate I82 and inverter I83. Inverter 183 thus transmits a O-level disabling signal on lead 184 to AND-gate I"; there will thus be no l-level clear A-counter (Clr A) transmitted to the A- counter during this C2ROT4-time.

Now, during T4-time of CZRO-time, AND-gate 182 trans mits a l level preset A-counter to one signal (A-to-l to the A-counter. This l-level A-to-l signal clears the A-counter of any data that may be contained therein and presets it to a count of one. The count of one is indicative of the fact that a digit key has been operated after the decimal point key has been operated.

Now, the timing chain is advanced to C2RI-time. AND-gate 147 is thus disabled.

During the C2RIBO-B10 the contents of C2Rl are read into the A-counter I59. THe contents of C2Rl are a count or record of how many prior digit keys have been operated subsequent to operation of the decimal point key. Thus, if the digit key currently being operated is the first digit key operated subsequent to operation of die decimal point key, the contents of C2RlB0Bl0 now being entered into the A- counter will be zero. On the other hand, if the digit key currently operated is, for example, the fourth digit key operated subsequent to operation of the decimal point key, the contents of C2R1 being entered into the A-counter at this time are a "three."

The CZRI data or count entered into the A-counter is added to the contents of the A-counter. It will be recalled that the A-counter has been preset with a count of one." Therefore, the contents of CZRI are added to a "one," Or, to express it another way, the contents of CZRI are incremented by one.

AND-gate I37 is disabled at C2-time. AND-gate I38 is disabled during this EPC-7-time. Therefore, OR-gate I50 has no l-level inputs and thus transmits a O-level output to inverter I69 which, in turn, transmits a l-level signal to AND-gate I67. At TItime of CZRI, a l-level A-to-C signal is transmitted via lead to the C-counter, thereby causing the contents of the A-counter to be parallel shifted to the Gcounter. It will be recalled that at this time, the contents of the A-counter are the former contents of CZRI incremented by one, The register counter then advances to a count of R2 and in doing so, the contents of C2R2B0-Bl0 are read into the A-counter, etc., thus, the normal idling mode of operation as previously described. The register counter finally is advanced to a count of two indicative of RS-time. When the register counter changes to a count to two, the column-time counter is changed to a count of three indicative of column-3-time. Idling mode action continues until the register time counter now reaches a count of four indicative of RI-time. AND-gate I37 is now fully enabled and, thus, AND-gate I52 rather than AND-gate I67 is enabled; thus, AND-gate I52 transmits a I- level D-to-C signal on lead I51 to the C-counter at CSRI- time. During this same CSRI-time, the CJRI contents of the delay line are being read into the A-counter. It may be recalled that the contents of the D-counter at this time are the coded signal received from the keyboard flip-flops during the previous EPC-6-time. Thus, it will be recognized that that action which has been described above for entering the contents of the keyboard flip-flops into C3RI-time takes place and the contents of Register I are shifted one place or column-time to the left as described previously.

PRINTOUT OF AN ENTERED NUMBER Afier a number has been entered into Register 1, as described above, a function key, such as for example, the Add key I! (FIG. I) is actuated. or the first number entry key 16 (FIG. I) is actuated. Actuation of either a function key or the first number entry key will cause printout of the number thus contained in Register 1. The printout will be exactly as the number was entered; i.e., if there were six digit keys actuated subsequent to actuation of the decimal point key, the number will be printed out with six digits to the right of decimal point.

According to another feature of the present invention. the printout will be such that the digits printed to the left of the decimal point will be in sets of three digits, each set being spaced from adjacent sets by a space as shown in FIG. 2.

Reference is now made to FIG. 10. FIG. includes a simplified schematic of the mechanical structure in one fonn of printer utilized with the present invention. Only those mechanical details necessary to an understanding of the present invention are shown and described herein. Further details of the printer utilized in the preferred embodiment of the present invention are shown and described in copending U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 663,292, filed Aug. 25, I967 by L. D. Chamness and A. F. Marion now U.S. Pat. No. 3.406.625 issued Oct. 22, I968 which is a continuatiomin-part of U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 528,501, filed Feb. l8, I966 by L. D. Chamness and A. F. Marion for High Speed Printing Apparatus now abandoned; both of said applications being assigned to the same assignee as the present application. Another copending U.S. patent application showing various other mechanical details of a printer of the type utilized in the preferred embodiment of the present invention is U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 650,501, filed June 30, I967 by L. D. Chamness, A. F. Marion and K. H. Steward for lnking Device now U.S. Pat. No. 3,526,309 issued Sept. 1, I970; another application showing still other details of a printer utilized with the present invention is U.S. Pat. application Ser. No. 724,880, filed Apr. 29,l968 by L. D. Chamness for Printing Means now abandoned. Both of the latter mentioned copending applications are also assigned to the same assignee as the present application.

Briefly described, the printing apparatus 30 includes an electric motor 191 to which a font wheel mounting and rotat ing shaft 192 are operatively coupled for rotation when the motor is energized as will be described below.

A carriage drive member I93 is suitably mounted for synchronized rotation with the shaft 192 by suitable means, such as for example, tooth pulley and belt combination I94. The member 193 is formed with a helical groove I94 having a predetermined pitch and sense.

It will be noted that the shaft 192 and member I93 are mounted for rotation about parallel spaced-apart axes.

A carriage I95 is mounted by suitable means (not shown) for reciprocating movement in a path of travel parallel with the axes of rotation of shaft I92 and screw member I93.

A solenoid-actuated drive pin 196 is mounted on the carriage I for selective movement into and out of the helical groove I94. It will be understood that with the screw member rotating counterclockwise about its axis as shown by arrow 19'! when the drive pin 196 is inserted into the groove I94, the carriage 195 will be driven from right-to-left which is the normal printing direction. A biasing spring (not shown) normally biases the carriage in the rightward direction. Thus, if the drive pin is pulled out of engagement 196 with the groove I94 while the carriage is being moved to the left, the carriage will be returned to its right-hand or home position.

The longitudinal extent of the shaft 192 is square shaped in cross section. A disclike font wheel 199 is mounted on the square-shaped portion of the shaft 192 such that the font wheel rotates with the shaft and is movable axially along the shaft.

A yokelike member 198 is mounted on the carriage I95 and extends upward alongside the font wheel where it engages with a hub on the wheel. Thus, as the carriage I95 is moved back and forth, as described above, the yoke members act on the font wheel I97 and cause a like amount of right or left movement of die font wheel.

The radially outer periphery of the font wheel is formed or has suitably attached thereto a plurality of character types equally spaced circumferentially thereabout and axially offset from each other such that the geometrical arrangement is like that ofa helix. The sense of the helix is opposite to the sense of the helical groove I94 of carriage drive member I93 for reasons that will be made clear in the discussion below. In the preferred printer used in one embodiment of the present invention there are two partial turn helix patterns of characters on the font wheel which provide for different character-tocharacter spacing between the printout for some of charac- IBIS.

The pitch of the helical arrangement of the printing types provides for constant rotation of the wheel I99 and axial movement of the carriage I95 across the printing line and yet provide predetermined character-to-character spacing.

A print hammer 200 is energized at appropriate times by a solenoid 20I to cause the paper 31 to be driven into printing contact with the correct type on the print wheel.

Actuation of any of the function keys 44 causes the motor 19I to be energized by means of a motor start circuit 203. Rotation of the shaft I92 causes rotation of a timing wheel 205 and as a Digit Home tooth or dog 207 passes by a sensor 209, a Home signal is generated on a lead and transmitted to a Decimal Point Counter (DPC) 21 I, thereby causing a count ofone to be entered.

A count detector 2 detects a count of one in the DPC counter 21] and transmits a signal to a carriage start circuit 2I3 which causes the pin I96 to engage with the now rotating screw or helical groove I94. The carriage is thus moved to the left in synchronism with the rotation of the font wheel 199.

In addition, the content of the first register R1 is copied into the next lower register R0 and the thus new content of register R0 is shifted one column-time (C-time) to the left (except C3) according to the shifting principles described previously.

The next four revolutions of the timing whee] 205 advance the DPC counter to a count of five. No significant action takes place during these times insofar as printing of numerals are concerned. However, symbols are printed during these times.

When the DPC count detector 214 detects a count of five, a gating means shown as AND-gate 216 causes the count of nine to be added to the contents of CSRO which, it will be recalled, contains the count representing the number of decimal places in the entered number. Such addition will not cause a carry if the sum is greater than nine.

The contents of CJRO are then shifted to the C-counter (FIG. 8). During this time, the A-counter (C3R0) is sampled to determine if it contains a count of nine; if it does, a decimal point flip-flop 215 is set to thereby cause printing of a decimal point. If the A-counter does not contain a count of nine, further action to print a numeral takes place as now described.

The contents of the A-counter 159 are then shifted to the D- counter 108. A compare gate 217 compares the count in the decimal point counter with the C-times and renders and provides for gating of character pulses from a character transducer 219 adjacent the timing wheel 205 into the D-counter for counting down the contents of the D-counter.

The first digit to be printed is in CSRO-time and the DPC is at a count of five at this time. Thus, the contents of the D counter when CSRO is contained therein will be counted down to zero. A detector gate 220 detects when the contents of the D-counter are zero and transmits a hammer driver signal to the print hammer solenoid 201, thereby causing printing contact between the paper and the now correctly positioned printing type on the font wheel 199.

At the next occurrence or movement of the Digit Home dog 207 past its associated transducer 209, the decimal point counter 211 is advanced by one count and the abovedescribed action takes place again to cause the next digit to be printed.

From the above description, it can be understood that adding of nine to the CJRO contents of the A-counter actually counts the contents of C3R0 down by one. Now, when the content of the A-counter is nine, after the addition of nine thereto, this is an indication that the decimal point is to be printed as will now be described.

When the A-counter 159 contains a count of nine, the decimal point flip-flop 215 is set. Setting of the decimal point flip-flop transmits an inhibit INH) signal to the decimal point counter 211 to prevent advancing of the counter at the next revolution of the timing wheel and also prevents shifting of information from the A-counter to the D-counter at this time.

Setting of the decimal point flip-flop 215 causes setting ofa Print Decimal Point (PDP) flip-flop 222 at the next Digit Home signal generated at the next revolution of the timing wheelv Setting of the Print Decimal Point flip-flop 222 causes the D-counter to be cleared to zero; this action causes the print hammer to be energized at this time, the type in position to be printed is a decimal point. A decimal point is printed.

Shortly thereafter (less than l revolution of the timing wheel), a Symbol Home signal is generated from transducer 225 adjacent the timing wheel 205 and causes resetting of the Decimal Point flip-flop 215.

The Symbol Home signal also enters a count of one into a Space Counter (SCT) 226 which is enabled by the set condition of the Print Decimal Point counter 222. The space counter will control printing of numeral symbols to the left of the decimal point in groups of three.

Resetting of the Decimal Point flip-flop 215 enables the decimal point counter 211 to be advanced at the next Digit Home signal and enables the D-counter to accept new data.

Appropriate digit data from R as determined from the decimal point counter 21! and gate 217 is now entered into the D-counter 108.

Printing action like that described previously now causes a numeral which is the least significant digit of the whole number portion of the number in register R0 (copied from re gister R1) to be printed.

The Digit Home signal will then cause the decimal point counter 21] to be advanced as described previously.

However, it is to be noted that since the Print Decimal Point flip-flop 222 is now in the set state, a signal is sent from that flip-flop to disable AND-gate 216; thus, a count of nine will not be added to the A-counter for the remainder of the printing function.

Now, at the next Symbol Home signal, the space counter 226 will be advanced to a count of two.

The next (second) digit of the whole number portion to be printed is entered into the D-counter as described before and will be printed.

At the next Digit Home signal, the decimal point counter 211 will be advanced by one and this action causes the next (second) digit of the whole number portion to be printed.

Now, at the next Symbol Home signal, the space counter 226 is advanced to a count of three.

Now, at the next Digit Home signal, the next (third) digit of the whole number portion is printed as described previously. The Symbol Home signal generated immediately after the third digit is printed causes the space counter 226 to be counted to zero or cleared.

When the space counter 226 is advanced from a count of three to a count of zero, an inhibit or 0" signal is transmitted to the Decimal Point Counter 211, thereby preventing that counter from being advanced at the next Digit Home signal. This space or 0" signal also disables AND-gate 217. Thus, the contents of the D-counter are not counted down and thus no digit will be printed.

The type wheel 199 continues to advance to the left and the timing wheel 20$ continues to rotate. Thus, the type wheel advances leftwardly across the paper by a character-to-character or symbol-to-symbol "space.

Now, at the next Symbol Home signal, the space counter 226 is advanced to a count of one. Thus, the inhibiting 0" signal is removed from the Decimal Point Counter 21 1 and the ANDgate 217.

The system is thus enabled to print the contents of the D- counter (the fourth digit of the whole number portion) in the same manner as described previously.

It will be understood that the above-described action takes place over and over to print the whole number portion digits in groups of three.

A most significant digit detector 230 is set when the most significant digit ofthe number is printed. Such most significant digit is detected by noting the absence of any data in register R0 at the appropriate C-times. When such condition is encountered, it is desired to inhibit printing of the symbols for zero."

When the most significant digit is detected as having been printed, a signal is transmitted to the carriage start circuit 213 and motor start circuit 203, thereby causing the motor 191 to turn off and the carriage to be returned to the right under action ofa biasing spring (not shown). In addition, the most sig nificant digit detector resets the printing circuits in preparation for another cycle of printing operation.

READ STACK It is often desirable to cause the entire contents of the registers R1, R2, R3, and R4 to be printed out as a group and to do so without destroying the contents of these four registers. This ability or feature is desirable when it is desired to check intermediate results or entry of numbers that are in the upper three registers (R2, R3, and R4). The read stack operation is accomplished in the manner now to be described.

Upon the second actuation of the first number entry key without an intervening actuation of an arithmetic function key, or an actuation of the first number entry key immediately after actuation ofa key that causes entry ofa new number into the first register R1, such as for example, a duplicate key or a recall from memory key, will cause enabling of a read stack circuit 235. This circuit will then cause the contents of the fourth register R4 to be transferred to the register R0 in a like manner as described previously for printing of the contents of register Rl. In addition, the motor start circuit 203 will be energized by a signal from the read stack circuit, thereby causing the motor to start rotation of the type wheel 199 and timing wheel 205 so as to cause printout of the new contents of register R0 in a manner like that described previously.

After the contents of R0 are printed, the read stack circuit causes the contents of register R3 to be copied into the R0 re gister and printed.

After the contents of R0 are printed (copied from R3), the read stack circuit causes the contents of register R2 to be copied into register R0 and printed.

After the contents of R0 (copied from R1) are printed, the read stack circuit 235 causes the contents of register R1 to be copied into the R register and printed. At the end of this printing. the printing operation is ceased in the same manner as described before.

While the principles of the invention have been made clear in the illustrative embodiments. there will be obvious to those skilled in the art. many modifications in structure. arrangement, proportions. the elements. materials. and components used in the practice of the invention. and otherwise. which are adapted for specific envisionments and operating requirements. without departing from these principles. The appended claims are. therefore. intended to cover and embrace any such modifications within the limits only of the true spirit and scope of the invention.

What is claimed is:

1. In an apparatus for handling a number having a maximum quantity of digits. each digit being one of the first l0 cardinal numerals, the combination comprising:

a first means for storing the digits of a first number;

second means for storing a second number indicative of the quantity of decimal fraction digits in the number stored in said first storage means;

means for initiating the printing of the contents of said first storage means;

means for printing the individual cardinal numeral symbol associated with successive ones of the digits in said first storage means;

means for incrementing the contents of said second means for each printed cardinal numeral symbol;

means for comparing said contents with a predetermined number;

means for generating a decimal point print signal when said contents and said predetermined number are equal;

said printing means including means responsive to said decimal point print signal for effecting the printing of a decimal point symbol.

2. In an apparatus according to claim I wherein:

said first storage means is a multistage storage means having as many stages as said maximum quantity of digits of said first number. individual digits of said first number occupying individual stages of said first storage means.

3. In an apparatus according to claim 2 wherein said first storage means and said second storage means include an acoustic delay line.

4. in an apparatus according to claim 2 wherein there is further included a single digit storage means coupled to said printing means. and

means responsive to said printing initiating means for transferring. one by one. in a predetermined order. the digits stored in said first storage means to said single digit storage means;

said printing means printing the individual cardinal numeral symbol associated with the digit transferred into said single digit storage means.

5. In an apparatus according to claim l wherein said predetermined number is nine.

6. in an apparatus according to claim I wherein said means for incrementing includes means for adding the numeral nine to said contents.

7. in an apparatus according to claim I wherein said first and second storage means are implemented on an information-recirculating delay line.

8. In an apparatus according to claim I wherein there is further included a set of manually operable switches for effecting entry of digits. one by one. into said first storage means;

a manually operable decimal point indicative switch;

means responsive to the operation of said decimal point indicative switch for counting the number of times individual ones of said set of manually operable switches are operated subsequent to operation of said decimal point indicative switch and for entering said count of the number of times said manually operable switches are operated into said second storage means.

9. In an apparatus for handling a number having a maximum quantity of digits. each digit being one of the first l0 cardinal numerals. the combination comprising:

a first storage means for storing the digits of a first number;

means for initiating the printing of the contents of said storage means; means for printing the individual cardinal numeral symbol associated with the individual digits of the number stored in said storage means. said printing means including spacing means for selectively printing adjacent symbols with a normal symbol-to-symbol spacing. and control means for altering said spacing in response to a first signal; and

cyclical counting means coupled to said printing means for counting the quantity of symbols printed after operation of said printing-initiating means and for generating said first signal when a predetermined count is contained therein. wherein the cardinal numeral symbols associated with a number in said storage means are printed in groups. each group being separated from adjacent groups by a greater than normal symbol-to-symbol spacing.

l0. ln an apparatus according to claim 9 wherein said storage means includes an information recirculating delay line.

H. In an apparatus according to claim 9 wherein said cyclical counting means comprises a scale of three counter.

12. In an apparatus according to claim 9 wherein there is further included:

second means for storing a second number indicative of the quantity of decimal fraction digits in the number stored in said first storage means;

means for comparing the number stored in said second storage means with the quantity of times a cardinal numeral symbol is printed after operation of and in response to said means for initiating printing, said means for comparing generating a second signal when the number of times a cardinal numeral symbol is printed by said printing means is equal to the number contained in said second storage means;

said printing means being responsive to said second signal for effecting the printing of a decimal point symbol; and means for rendering said cyclical counting means nonoperative until the occurrence of said second signal.

13. ln an apparatus for handling a plurality of numbers. each number having a maximum quantity of digits. the combination comprising:

a plurality of storage means;

means for entering a number into a first one of said storage means, said number-entering means including means for transferring the contents of certain ones of said storage means into certain other ones of said storage means as a number is entered into said first one of said storage means;

means for printing the cardinal numeral symbols associated with the individual digits of the numbers stored in said storage means;

means for initiating printing of the number stored in said first storage means; and

means conditioned by the printing of the number stored in said first storage means for initiating printing of each of the numbers stored in each of said storage means accord ing to a predetermined order.

14. In an apparatus according to claim 13 wherein said means for entering a number into said first storage means includes a set of manually operable cardinal numeral represent ing switches, and wherein said means for initiating printing includes a manually operable switch means.

15. In an apparatus according to claim 13 wherein each of said storage means includes means for storing a value indica- 7 tive of the quantity of decimal fraction digits in the number means for comparing said contents with a predetermined number;

means for generating a decimal point print signal when said contents and said predetermined number are equal;

said printing means including means responsive to said decimal point print signal for effecting the printing of a decimal point symbol.

[6. In an apparatus according to claim 13 wherein said printing means includes spacing means for selectively printing adjacent symbols with a normal symbol-to-symbol spacing. and control means for altering said spacing in response to a first signal;

cyclical counting means coupled to said printing means for counting the quantity of symbols printed as each number stored in each of said storage means is printed and for generating said first signal when a predetermined count is contained therein, wherein the cardinal numeral symbols associated with the numbers in each of said storage means are printed in groups, each group being separated from adjacent groups by a greater than normal symbol-to-symbol spacing; and

means for resetting said cyclical counting means to an initial state after said symbol corresponding to the most significant digit of said each number has been printed.

l7. In an apparatus according to claim 16 wherein said cyclical counting means comprises a scale of three counter.

18. In an apparatus according to claim 13 wherein said each of said storage means includes means for storing a value indicative of the quantity of decimal fraction digits in the number stored in the associated storage means;

means for incrementing the contents of each of said valuestoring means for each printed cardinal numeral symbol corresponding to said number in said associated storage means;

means for comparing said contents with a predetermined number; means for generating a decimal point print signal when said contents and said predetermined number are equal; said printing means including means responsive to said decimal point print signal for effecting the printing of a decimal point symbol; said printing means including spacing means for selectively printing adjacent symbols associated with a number being printed with a normal symbol-to-symbol spacing. and control means for altering said spacing in response to a second signal; cyclical counting means coupled to said printing means for counting the quantity of symbols printed subsequent to printing of said decimal point symbol as each number stored in each of said storage means is printed and for generating said second signal when a predetermined count is contained therein, wherein the cardinal numeral symbol associated with the whole number portion of the numbers in each of said storage means are printed in groups, each group being separated from adjacent groups by a greater than normal symbol-to-syrnbol spacing; and means for resetting said cyclical counting means to an initial state after said symbol corresponding to the most significant digit of said each number has been printed. 19. in an apparatus according to claim I8 wherein said cyclical counting means comprises a scale of three counter 20. in an apparatus according to claim I wherein said printing-initiating means includes a manually operable switch means, and said printing means includes a type wheel secured to a rotatably mounted shaft;

power means for rotating said shaft; and means for energizing said power means in response to operation of said manually operable switch means.

I i Q 1

Patent Citations
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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3828322 *Apr 24, 1972Aug 6, 1974Olivetti & Co SpaElectronic computers
US3934229 *Dec 10, 1973Jan 20, 1976Texas Instruments IncorporatedExternal register memory chip in a calculator system
US3958225 *Jan 28, 1974May 18, 1976Teletype CorporationApparatus and method for controlling a communications terminal
US6650317Jan 5, 1995Nov 18, 2003Texas Instruments IncorporatedVariable function programmed calculator
Classifications
U.S. Classification358/1.1, 358/1.18
International ClassificationG06F15/02
Cooperative ClassificationG06F15/02
European ClassificationG06F15/02