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Publication numberUS3623431 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 30, 1971
Filing dateJul 15, 1968
Priority dateJul 15, 1968
Publication numberUS 3623431 A, US 3623431A, US-A-3623431, US3623431 A, US3623431A
InventorsHendricks Grover E
Original AssigneeEduardo R Bermudez
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Shot shell
US 3623431 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Nov. 30, 1971 G. E. HENDRICKS SHOT SHELL Filed July 15, 1968 INVI'IN'I'UR. GROVE/Q E. HE/VD/P/C/(S ATTO/QNE Y United States Patent 3,623,431 SHOT SHELL Grover E. Hendricks, Niles, Mich assignor to Eduardo R. Bermndez, Rolling Meadows, Ill. Filed July 15, 1968, Ser. No. 744,922 Int. Cl. F421) 7/02, 7/08 US. Cl. 102-42 C Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A shot shell including a cartridge case, a primer, a powder charge, shot and a wad. The wad is formed of flexible shape-retaining plastic and has a closed air chamber which permits the partial collapse of the wad during detonation of the powder charge.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a shot shell which includes a shell casing having a base portion and a tubular portion of uniform outer diameter. A primer is disposed within the casing base portion. A wad of flexible shape-retaining plastic material is snugly seated in the tubular portion of the shell casing and cooperates with the base portion of the casing to define a chamber in which a powder charge is confined. The forward margin of the shell casing is inwardly folded and crimped so as to define a shot retaining wall. Shell shot is confined within the shell casing between the wad and the shot retaining Wall. This invention pertains to an improvement in the abovedescribed conventional shot shell and concerns a wad which includes a tubular wall having two spaced end walls defining a closed concentric air chamber therebetween which cushions the immediate blast effect of the powder charge on detonation thereof.

Heretofore, some shot shells have included wads intended to produce a cushioning efi'ect. Such wads have had a plurality of transverse spaced openings intermediate the length thereof which are defined and separated by spaced supporting webs. An example of this type wad may be found in US. Pat. 3,217,648. In these shells, leakage of air occurs between the wad sides and the adjacent casing side wall during collapse of the wad webs upon powder charge detonation. The extent of air leakage from the wad openings will vary from shell to shell, thus causing an unpredictable variation in the cushioning effect and resulting in inconsistent shot accuracy.

The improved shot shell of this invention utilizes a unique wad having a closed concentric air chamber which collapses inwardly circumferentially at its tubular wall in a uniform manner causing the air entrapped therein to be compressed within the chamber. The result is a consistent cushioning effect from shell to shell and greater accuracy of the shooter.

Accordingly, it is an object of this invention to provide a shot shell of a construction which will react to detonation in a known predetermined manner to enable a shooter to achieve consistent accurate shooting.

It is another object of this invention to provide a shot shell capable of effectively minimizing gun recoil without sacrifice of shot pattern.

Another object of this invention is to provide a collapsible wad of simplified construction.

Another object is to provide a wad for a shot shell Patented Nov. 30, 1971 BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is an axial sectional view of a shot shell containing a wad constructed in accordance with the teachings of my invention.

FIG. 2 is an end view of the shot shell as viewed from the right of FIG. 1.

FIG. 3 is an exploded perspective view of the wad of the shot shell shown in FIG. 1 with portions broken away.

FIG. 4 is an axial sectional view of one part of the wad in FIG. 3.

FIG. 5 is an axial sectional view of another part of the wad in FIG. 3.

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary axial sectional view of the wad shown in FIG. 1 in collapsed form.

FIG. 7 is an axial sectional view of another construction of a wad for use in the shot shell of FIG. 1.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The preferred embodiments illustrated are not intended to be exhaustive or to limit the invention to the precise forms disclosed. They are chosen and described in order to best explain the principles of the invention and their application and practical use to thereby enable others skilled in the art to best utilize the invention.

One embodiment of this invention is illustrated in FIGS. 1-6 wherein a shell casing 10 includes a base portion 12 and a tubular portion 14. The base portion 12 has an end recess within which a primer 16 is disposed. A wad 20, 22 within the shell casing defines in cooperation with base portion 12 a chamber 23 within which a powder charge 26 is confined. The end margin of tubular portion 14 of shell casing 10 is inwardly folded and crimped to define a shot retaining wall 34. Shot 36 is confined within the shell casing between the Wad and the retaining wall 34. The parts thus far described are conventional in all shot shells.

The wad separating the powder charge 26 from the shot 36 is preferably formed from a flexible shape-retaining plastic material, such as polyethylene, and includes a rear part 20 and a front part 22. Front wad part 22 includes a short confining thin skirt 28, an integral transverse wall 38, and a concentric cylindrical part 40. The outer diameter of part 40 is less than the transverse outer dimension of skirt 28 to define a circumferential shoulder 42 at wall 38. Tubular part 40 preferably has a flat end face 48. The recess 46 defined by part 40 and wall 38 may be cylindrical, as shown, or of some other configuration, such as conical.

Skirt 28 is preferably interrupted by a plurality of elongated longitudinal equally spaced slots 32 which extend from its free end to points adjacent wall 38. Each part of skirt 28 may be reinforced between slots 32 by an integral rib 33. Wall 38 referably includes an integral concentric projection 39 which extends forwardly within skirt 28.

The rear wad part 20 includes a tubular wall 52 and an integral transverse wall 50. The outer transverse dimensions of wall 52 of rear wad part 20 and of skirt 28 of front wad part 22 are similar and uniform. Tubular wall 52 is of substantially uniform thickness except for a plurality of equally circumferentially spaced internal ribs 54 which are integrally formed therein. The inner diameter of tubular wall 52 is preferably equal to or slightly less than the outer diameter of the cylindrical part 40 of front wad part 22 so as to have a tight frictional circumferential fit therewith. The ribs 54 are of equal length and extend from wall 50 and terminate spaced a predetermined distance from end edge 56 of tubular wall 52. The spacing between the tips or ends 58 of ribs 54 and the end edge 56 of rear wad part 20 is preferably slightly greater than the spacing between end face 48 and shoulder of front wad part 22 and determines the assembled relation of the wad parts as seen in FIG. 1. End wall 50 of rear wad part 20 preferably has a concentric conical inner shape at 6t). The outer side face 62 of end wall 50 prefereably defines a conical recess 63 which outlines a portion of the powder charge chamber 23 of the shot shell.

The open end of tubular wall 52 of rear wad part 20 is snugly and slidably applied around cylindrical part 49 of front wad part 22 and abuts shoulder 42 of wall 28 to form a substantially sealed or airtight chamber 66 within the wad. With rear part 20 and front part 22 so interfitting or engaged, the wad is inserted within tubular portion 14 of shell casing 10 with which it has a snug fit, as shown in FIG. 1.

Upon detonation of the powder charge 26 in the shot shell housed within a gun chamber, the percussive force of the charge causes tubular wall 52 of rear wad part 20 to collapse upwardly in a plane normal to the wad axis and substantially uniformly circumferentially, as shown in FIG. 6, compressing the entrapped air in chamber 66 and thereby providing a cushioning effect counteracting the usual recoil action of the gun at the moment of initial detonation of the powder charge. As soon as the inertia of the shell shot 36 is overcome, the collapsed wad and shot are expelled from shell casing 10 and out the barrel of the gun.

FIG. 7 illustrates a modified construction of the wad. Front wad part 22' includes a slotted thin skirt 28 and an integral fiat end wall 70. Rear wad part 20' includes a tubular wall 72 and an integral end wall 50. Both skirt 28 and wall 72 have similar and uniform outer transverse dimensions. Wall 72 of rear wad part 20 is of substan tially uniform thickness except for a plurality of equally circumferentially spaced internal ribs 54 fonned therein. Each rib 54 extends from end wall 50 to end face 74 of rear wad part 20. Rear wad part 20' coaxially abuts front part 22' and is secured thereto by the bonding of end face 74 of part 20 to end face 76 of part 22'. The bonding of engaging faces 74 and 76 may be effected by any method well known in the plastic art, such as by an adhesive or a bonding agent.

It will be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the details herein given but may be modified within the scope of the appended claims.

What I claim is:

1. In a shot shell including a shell casing having a primer-receiving base portion and a tubular portion, a primer disposed within said base portion, a wad disposed within said tubular portion and cooperating wtih said shell casing base portion to define a powder chamber, a powder charge confined within said powder chamber, the margin of said tubular portion being inwardly folded and crimped at its free end to define a shot retaining wall, and shell shot confined within said shell casing between said wad and said retaining wall, said wad formed of flexible shape-retaining material having a tubular wall and two spaced end walls defining a closed concentric air chamber, the improvement wherein said tubular wall includes a plurality of longitudinally directed internal ribs, said ribs being circumferentially positioned around said tubular wall and spaced a substantially equal distance apart, each of said ribs protruding into said air chamber and terminating spacedly from the other of said ribs.

2. The shot shell of claim 1, wherein said internal ribs extend substantially from one said end wall to the other said end wall.

3. In a shot shell including a shell casing having a primer-receiving base portion and a tubular portion, a primer disposed within said base portion, a wad disposed within said tubular portion and cooperating with said shell casing base portion to define a powder chamber, a powder charge confined within said powder chamber, the margin of said tubular portion being inwardly folded and crimped at its free end to define a shot retaining wall, and shell shot confined within said shell casing between said wad and said retaining wall, said wad formed of flexible shape-retaining material and having a tubular wall and two spaced end walls defining a closed concentric air chamber, the improvement wherein said wad comprises front and rear axially aligned separable parts, said rear wad part including one of said end walls and having said tubular wall extending integrally therefrom, said front wad part including the other of said end walls, the end wall of said front wad part including an axially directed projection of reduced transverse outer dimension seated snugly in the free end of said tubular wall, said tubular wall having a plurality of equally circumferentially spaced longitudinally directed internal ribs, said ribs extending from the end wall of said rear wad part and terminating spaced from the free end of said tubular wall.

4. The shot shell of claim 3, wherein said projection abuts said ribs.

5. The shot shell of claim 3, wherein said projection is spaced from said ribs.

6. The shot shell of claim 3, and a thin skirt part extending from the end wall of said front wad part oppositely of said projection, said skirt part and said tubular wall having a uniform transverse outer dimension, said skirt part having a plurality of elongated longitudinally directed slots extending substantially the full length thereof.

7. A wad for use in shot gun shells formed of flexible plastic material and comprising a tubular wall and two spaced end walls defining a closed concentric air chamber therebetween, said tubular wall including a plurality of longitudinally directed internal ribs, said ribs being circumferentially positioned around said tubular wall and spaced a substantially equal distance apart, each of said ribs protruding into said air chamber and terminating spacedly from the other of said ribs.

8. The wad of claim 7, and a thin skirt part extending outwardly from one of said end walls, said skirt part and said tubular wall having a uniform transverse outer dimension, said skirt part having a plurality of elongated longitudinally directed slots extending from the free end thereof.

9. A wad for use in shotgun shells formed of flexible plastic material and comprising a tubular wall and two spaced end walls defining a closed concentric air chamber therebetween, said tubular wall having a plurality of equally circumferentially spaced longitudinally directed internal ribs and including front and rear coaxial parts, said rear wad part including one of said end walls and having said tubular wall extending integrally therefrom, said front wad part including the other of said end walls, the end wall of said front wad part including an axially directed projection of reduced transverse outer dimension seated snugly in the free end of said tubular wall, said ribs extending from the end Wall of said rear wad part and terminating spaced from the free end of said tubular wall.

10. The wad of claim 9, wherein said projection is positioned spaced from said ribs.

(References on following page) 5 6 References Cited FOREIGN PATENTS UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,465,217 1/1966 France 10242 C 3 266 421 96 Comerford v 102 95 X 651,736 4/1951 Great Britain 102-42 3,270,669 9/1966 Atkins et a1 102-42 5 3,289,586 12/1966 Horn 61 a1. 102 12 ROBERT STAHL, PrlmaryExammer 3,368,489 2/1968 Herter 102-95 3,405,638 10/1968 Stower, Jr. 102-95 X US. Cl. X.R. 3,420,178 1/ 1969 Rempel 10295 102-95 3,444,777 5/1969 Lage 102-95 X

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3763740 *Jul 27, 1971Oct 9, 1973NasaCollapsible pistons
US3786753 *Jul 24, 1972Jan 22, 1974Remington Arms Co IncWad column for shotshells
US3835783 *Dec 4, 1972Sep 17, 1974Remington Arms Co IncShot container wad for hard shot
US4220090 *Sep 5, 1978Sep 2, 1980Fackler David GShot wad column
US4574701 *Oct 11, 1983Mar 11, 1986Fiocchi Munizioni SpaWad for cartridges of hunting and shooting arms
US5299502 *Sep 10, 1992Apr 5, 1994Nagatoshi MakiContainer for shot of shotshell
US5471931 *Nov 1, 1994Dec 5, 1995Olin CorporationWater resistant shot wad
US5644100 *Aug 19, 1996Jul 1, 1997The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmySabot for high-dispersion shot shell
US5792979 *Aug 21, 1996Aug 11, 1998Pietro; Pedro DiazTwo-element wad with pneumatic damping
US5979330 *Jan 23, 1998Nov 9, 1999Cornell; John S.Integrated one-piece plastic shotshell wad
US6067909 *Apr 3, 1998May 30, 2000Sabot Technologies, Inc.Sabot pressure wad
US7201104Aug 19, 2003Apr 10, 2007Ra Brands, L.L.C.Lead attached sabot slug
US8261667Jan 31, 2007Sep 11, 2012Ra Brands, L.L.C.Lead attached sabot slug
US20040079256 *Aug 19, 2003Apr 29, 2004Mcmurray Christopher R.Lead attached sabot slug
WO1999051933A1 *Mar 30, 1999Oct 14, 1999Sabot Technologies IncSabot pressure wad
Classifications
U.S. Classification102/450, 102/452
International ClassificationF42B7/08, F42B7/00
Cooperative ClassificationF42B7/08
European ClassificationF42B7/08