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Publication numberUS3625260 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateDec 7, 1971
Filing dateJan 27, 1970
Priority dateJan 27, 1970
Publication numberUS 3625260 A, US 3625260A, US-A-3625260, US3625260 A, US3625260A
InventorsJames E Troy
Original AssigneeFieldcrest Mills Inc
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Fabrics with intricate pile arrangements
US 3625260 A
Abstract  available in
Images(9)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

limited States Patent.

Inventor James E. Troy Eden, N.C.

App1.No. .6,ll9

Filed Jan. 27, 1970 Patented Dec. 7, 1971 Assignee Fieldcrest Mills, Inc.

Eden, N.C.

Continuation of application Ser. No. 822,851, Dec. 8, 1969. This application Jan. 27, 1970, Ser. No. 6,119

FABRICS WITH INTRICATE PllLE ARRANGEMENTS 41 Claims, 42 Drawing Figs.

US. Cl 139/402 Int. Cl D03d 27/06 Field of Search 139/46,

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,655,951 10/1953 Clark 2,715,918 8/1955 Eisler etal.. 2,860,669 1 H1958 Moberg 2,974,690 3/1961 Park et a1. 3,349,812 10/1967 Troy Primary Examiner-Henry S. .laudon Allorney-Parrott, Bell, Seltzer, Park & Gibson ABSTRACT: This invention is directed to a variety of fabrics in which sets of warpwise extending pile yarns, preferably of different visual characteristics, extend weftwise over one or more groups of ground warp yarns to form warpwise rows of pile in the form of straight or oblique lines of pile, with the pile being in the form of loops or cut pile tufts of the same or different sizes and arranged in any desired pattern. Also, by floating at least one set of pile yarns, certain areas of the fabrics may be of lesser pile density, with such floatin variety of color effects obtainable.

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ATTORNEYS PATENTEU nan 7 Ian SHEET 9 OF 9 INVENTOR. JAM E5 E. TaoY ATTORNEYS FABRICS WI'I'II INTRICA'IE FILE ARRANGEMENTS This application is a continuation-in-part of my copending application entitled APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR WEAVING FABRIC WITH INTRICATE FILE FORMA- TIONS, Ser. No. 882,851, filed Dec. 8, 1969.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Pile fabrics of the general type having pile yarn looped beneath weft yarns and across and above groups of ground warp yarns are well known. Illustrative prior art disclosing pile fabrics of this type are Clarks U.S. Pat. Nos. Re. 24,949; 2,437,379; 2,578,173 and 2,655,951, Park et al. US. Pat. Nos. 2,974,690 and 3,001,552, and Moberg's U.S. Pat. Nos. 2,860,664 and 2,860,669. The Clark U.S. Pat. No. 2,655,95l further discloses pile fabrics formed from two sets of warpwise extending pile yarns, which as disclosed in the parent U.S. Pat. No. 2,437,378 referred to therein and which is now U.S. Pat. No. Re. 24,949, are guided through two interconnected sets of weftwise shiftable pile yarn guides controlled by a common cam, and thus of limited pattern capabilities, and wherein in all cases, two pile yarns; one from each set, form a common warpwise row of pile loops over a common group of ground warp yarns.

As disclosed in my copending application, it has been found that much more intricate designs in pile arrangements may be produced in pile fabrics than have been known heretofore by independently controlling each of a plurality of weftwise rows of pile yarn guides, and respective pile yarns guided thereby, so that each row of guides may be shogged selectively varying amounts weftwise of the loom independently of and/or in unison with the other row or rows of pile yarn guides during continuous operation of the loom in accordance with a predetermined pattern.

In view of the foregoing, it is the primary object of this invention to provide new and novel pile fabric constructions formed from a plurality of sets of pile yarns arranged in a wide variety of patterns.

It is a more specific object of this invention to provide a variety of pile fabric constructions formed from at least two sets of warpwise extending pile yarns, which constructions include the following nonlimiting examples:

I. In at least one section of the fabric, each pile yarn of one set forms a series of successive pile loops extending weftwise in the opposite direction from at least certain loops formed from the pile yarns of the other set, and wherein each loop in the series extends over and across one or more groups of warp yarns.

2. In at least one section of fabric, each yarn of one set forms a loop, which may be in a series with other loops, if desired, and wherein such loop extends weftwise over a plurality of groups of warp yarns, but in the opposite weftwise direction from at least certain loops formed from the pile yarns of the other set.

3. A pile loop fabric section has each pile yarn of both sets forming a loop extending weftwise over one or more groups of warp yarns, of forming a series of successive loops extending weftwise over successive groups of warp yarns, with the weftwise extent of the loops formed from each yarn of one set being greater than the weftwise extent of the loops fon'ned from each yarn of the other set.

4. In a first fabric section each pile yarn of both sets forms a loop extending weftwise over one or more groups of warp yarns, or forms a series of successive loops extending weftwise over successive groups of warp yarns, with the loops of the respective sets extending in the same or opposite weftwise directions, but not necessarily to the same extent; and in another section of the fabric, pile loops formed from one set of pile yarns extend in the opposite weftwise direction from that in which they extend in the first section and also extend in the opposite weftwise direction from pile loops formed from the other set of pile yarns.

5. First and second pile loop fabric sections formed from both sets of pile yarns have weftwise extending loops, with the weftwise extent of the loops formed from each yarn of one set being greater in one section than in the other section, and wherein at least one section has the loops of one set of yarns extending in the opposite direction from the loops formed from the other set of yarns.

6. In at least one fabric section, each pile yarn of one set extends weftwise in the form of a pile loop over one or more groups of warp yarns, or in the form of a series of pile loops over groups of warp yarns, and the pile yarns of the other-set may be in the form of warpwise floats to obtain additional pile pattern and color effects.

7. In at least one first fabric section, the pile yarns of one set form pile loops across groups of warp yarns and the pile yarns of the other set form floats; and at least one second fabric section is a reversal of the first section in that the pile yarns of said one set form floats and the pile yarns of the other set form pile loops.

8. Cut or uncut pile tufts are formed from both sets of pile yarns in at least one first fabric section, and at least one second fabric section has cut or uncut pile tufts formed from only one set of yarns and thereby forms a pile surface of lesser density than the pile surface of the first fabric section.

The above-enumerated examples and various combinations thereof are illustrative of only a few of many different pile fabric constructions which may be made according to this invention as will be apparent as the description proceeds when taken in connection with the accompanying drawings.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a perspective view of one embodiment of the invention in which a portion of pile fabric is provided with a few of many of different ornamental pile effects which may be incorporated in a pile fabric by use of pile yarns of different visual characteristics according to the instant invention;

FIG. 2 is a schematic, fragmentary perspective view of a portion of a loom adapted for weaving pile fabrics according to the instant invention;

FIG. 3 is an enlarged schematic perspective view of the portion of pile fabric shown in FIG. 1, showing the pile loops in exploded relationship;

FIG. 4 is an enlarged warpwise sectional view taken substantially along line 44 in FIG. 1, showing a portion of a row of double pile loops interwoven with the base fabric in a oneshot weave;

FIG. 5 is an enlarged weftwise sectional view taken substantially along line 5--5 in FIG. 3;

FIG. 6 is a view similar to FIG. 4, showing additional weftwise rows of loops, and wherein three different heights of loops are shown by way of example;

FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 are views similar to FIG. 6 illustrating various arrangements of cut and uncut pile tufts;

FIGS. 10-13 are perspective views of various forms of pile wires or pile fonners over which pile loops may be formed in weaving various types of pile fabrics of this invention;

FIG. 14 is an enlarged sectional view taken along the variegated or central warpwise row of loops in fabric section F-2 of FIG. 3, particularly illustrating alternating floated portions of two different types of pile yarns in a one-shot weave loop pile fabric;

FIG. 15 is a warpwise view through another piece of fabric utilizing a floating technique on the order of that employed in forming the fabric portion of FIG. 14 so as to form relatively wide weftwise areas or of low density cut pile tufts, each weftwise area being of a separate pile yarn, and to form other weftwise areas of high density pile tufts from both types of those pile yarns which form the low density areas;

FIGS. I6 and I7 are views similar to FIG. 6, but showing a two-shot weave in FIG. 16 and a three-shot weave in FIG. 17;

FIG. 17A is an exploded plan view of a piece of pile fabric embodying various forms of pile loops extending in different weftwise directions and at different angles in certain successive weftwise rows.

FIG. 18 is a schematic plan view of a portion of pile fabric in which certain pile yarns are floated adjacent certain other pile yarns of which pile loops are formed, and particularly illustrating how the floats may be bound intermediate their ends to the base fabric by crossing the said certain other pile yarns beneath the floats;

FIG. 19 is a perspective view showing the arrangement of only two of the pile yarns of FIG. 18 with one lower bight of that pile yarn from which loops are being formed extending beneath the floated portion of the adjacent pile yarn;

FIG. 20 is a fragmentary view similar to FIG. 19 showing how the pile yarn guides cause the pile yarn from which loops are being fonned to extend across and beneath a medial portion of the floats then being formed of the next adjacent pile y FIGS. 21, 22, and 23 are fragmentary perspective views of various pile fabrics illustrating additional ornamental pile effects which may be incorporated therein by use of pile yarns of different visual characteristics and utilizing pile wires having different heights of loop-forming stages thereon;

FIGS. 24 to 35 are schematic views illustrating some of many other different loop pile designs or patterns which may be produced individually or in various combinations according to the instant invention, but wherein only one of the pile yarns of each of two sets are shown, along with grids representing the groups of ground warp yarns and the weft yarns, so that the paths traced by each pile yarn in each set may be clearly understood;

FIG. 36 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional view of the pile yarn guides and pile formers shown in FIG. 2, but wherein both sets of guides occupy a lowered position in the warp shed, and two superposed weft inserters are employed such that all the pile yarns are looped beneath both the upper and lower strands of weft yarn inserted by the respective upper and lower weft inserters;

FIG. 36A is a fragmentary warpwise sectional view through a portion of pile fabric produced by the arrangement of the pile yarn guides in FIG. 36;

FIG. 37 is a view similar to view 36, but wherein the rear set of pile yarn guides is positioned on a higher level than the front set of pile yarn guides such that the respective pile yarns thereof straddle the lowermost of a pair of upper and lower weft inserters, resulting in the lower bights of some of the pile tufts being positioned between upper and lower weft strands, and the lower bights of others of the pile tufts being positioned beneath all the weft strands of each pile forming weft shot;

FIG. 37A is a warpwise vertical sectional view through a portion of pile fabric produced by the arrangement of pile yarn guides in FIG. 37;

FIG. 38 is a view similar to FIGS. 36 and 37, wherein the positions of the pile yarn guides are such relative to the supporting bars therefor that all the pile yarns extend between the upper and lower weft inserters when the pile yarn guides occupy their lowermost positions, and so that the lower bights of all the pile tufts are positioned between the upper and lower weft strands in the resulting fabric; and

FIG. 38A is a warpwise fragmentary vertical sectional view through the pile fabric produced by the pile yarn guides as arranged in FIG. 38.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION THE LOOM Referring more specifically to the drawings, although many different embodiments of the novel pile fabric of this invention are illustrated therein, a salient characteristic of all the fabrics resides in the fact that pile tufts are formed from generally warpwise extending pile yarns which extend varying weftwise distances or directions across and above groups of ground warp yarns either in the space between an immediately adjacent pair of weft shots or in the collective spaces between a plurality of pairs of adjacent weft shots, or both, according to the desired pile tuft pattern. In most of the illustrated embodiments of the fabric, pile yarns of different visual characteristics are required in order to discern the pattern effects. In other words, one or more pile yarns may differ from one or more other pile yarns by color, shade, fiber, amount of twist, texture, size or any other visual characteristic. In other embodiments, in which variations in density of the pile tufts in adjacent areas are present, as will be later described, all the pile yarns may be of the same visual characteristics if desired, since variations in the pile tuft density of adjacent areas of the fabric may be discernible even in the absence of pile yarns of different visual characteristics in the respective areas.

The various embodiments of the fabric described herein may be woven on a loom of the type disclosed and claimed in my said copending application, Ser. No. 882,85l, essential components of which are shown in FIG. 2. Generally, the loom disclosed in said copending application includes means for weaving a base or ground fabric from closely spaced parallel groups of ground warp yarns and weft yarns and is provided with at least two weftwise rows of pile yarn guides through which respective continuous pile yarns pass. Such guides move upwardly to a position spaced above the fabric, following the insertion of each pile forming shot of weft yarn through the open shed formed of the warp yarns and, before the next succeeding pile forming weft shot is inserted in the warp shed, either or both weftwise rows of pile yarn guides are shifted or shogged laterally substantially simultaneously with the corresponding beat up stroke of the reed. The pile yarn guides then dip downwardly into the warp shed preparatory to another pile forming weft shot being inserted over the strands of pile yam. In so doing, those pile yarns last shogged laterally are looped over respective groups of warp yarns and/or respective groups of loop forming fingers, pile wires or pile formers. The pile formers may be of a type provided with stepped loop-forming surfaces or stages on their free end portions of varying heights, with or without cutting blades thereon, and having pattern controlled means for shifting selected pile formers longitudinally of the warp yarns and relative to the reed in accordance with the desired pattern.

The term "pile forming weft shot" is used throughout the description and claims to define each weft shot which binds a particular weftwise row of pile tufts to the base fabric, by virtue of the lower bights of the tufts passing entirely beneath all the weft yarn strands of the weft shot or between upper and lower weft yarn strands of the weft shot. It follows that all the weft shots of a one-shot pile fabric are pile forming weft shots, alternate weft shots of a two-shot pile fabric are pile forming weft shots, every third weft shot of a three-shot pile fabric is a pile forming weft shot, etc.

Referring particularly to FIG. 2, the portion of a loom illustrated therein includes a reed or beating-up means shown in phantom lines and broadly designated at 40. Ground warp yarns broadly designated at W extend from a suitable source, not shown, through a suitable shed-forming means, not shown, and through the reed 40 to the fell of the pile fabric 60 being woven. A suitable weft inserting means necessarily cooperates with the reed and the shed forming means in weaving the fabric. The weft inserting means is shown in FIG. 2 in the form of a single weftwise reciprocating weft-carrying needle or weft inserter 41, in this instance. Weft inserter 41 functions in the usual manner to insert a hairpin form of double-strand shot of weft yarn 42 in the warp shed prior to each successive beat up stroke of reed 40, as is well known. The usual type of shuttle and bobbin may be used or other forms of weft inserting means may be used with equal facility for inserting a single strand of weft yarn in the warp shed between successive beat up strokes of the reed 40, or as is the case with respect to FIGS. 36-38, two parallel, superposed weft inserters may be employed.

A plurality of suitable warpwise extending pile formers 44, shown in the fonn of pile wires, extends forwardly through reed 40, beyond the fell of the fabric, over the usual breast plate or breast beam 45 and above the level of weft inserter 41. Various forms of pile formers may be used, a few of which are shown in detail in FIGS. l13, and which will be later described. The pile formers 44 may be of the stationary type or they may be shiftable warpwise, relative to the loop-forming zone between the reed and the fabric being woven, by suitable connections 46 with a pattern mechanism 47 as shown schematically in FIG. 2. As further shown in FIG. 2, at least two weftwise rows of relatively weftwise shiftable pile yarn guides; namely, a front or primary row 50 and a rear or secondary row 51, are provided which, during each beat up stroke of the reed 40, are spaced above the level of the pile fabric being woven and the pile formers 44.

Respective primary and secondary or first and second sheets or sets of pile yarns, broadly designated at A, B and represented by the two lines A, B in FIG. 2, extend downwardly from a suitable source above the reed, and under predetermined tension, and pass through respective eyelets in the free lower ends of the respective guides 50, 51. The front and rear guides 50, 51 are carried by respective weftwise extending bars 52, 53 selectively shifted or shogged weftwise while the pile yarn guides are spaced above the fabric by suitable means 54 connecting bars 52, 53 to pattern mechanism 47. Pile yarn guides 50, 51 may be of substantially the same construction as, and operated by the same means as, are disclosed in my said copending application. As disclosed in said copending application, the movement of guides 50, 51 into and out of the warp shed, and the selective movements of these guides laterally with respect to corresponding groups of warp yarns W and/or corresponding pile formers 44, are effected in proper timed relation to the shed-forming means, reed 40 and weft inserter 41 so that, following each insertion of a weft shot in the warp shed by weft inserter 41, reed 40 beats up the respective weft shot against the fell of the fabric being woven. Of course, if the weft shot last inserted in the warp shed is a pile forming weft shot, as explained earlier in this description, the previously lowered pile yam guides 50, 51 are raised to their uppermost, inactive, position above pile formers 44 so as to loop the tensioned pile yarns A, B beneath the corresponding pile forming weft shot as pile loops are formed over pile formers 44 from any pile yams previously shogged over the pile formers.

Thereafter, one or the other or both rows of pile yarn guides 56, 51 are shogged weftwise a predetermined distance as determined by pattern mechanism 47. Then, while reed 44 is moving rearwardly or occupies back position, and immediately before another pile forming weft shot is inserted in the warp shed, pile yarn guides 50, 51 again are lowered into the shed below the path of weft inserter 41 to loop any previously shogged pile yarns over and across corresponding groups of warp yarns W or respective pile formers 44 to complete a loop forming cycle in the operation of the loom. Since the structure incident to the operation of the loom as described above is fully disclosed in said copending application, a further detailed description of the loom is deemed unnecessary.

As heretofore stated, pile formers 44 may be of various forms, such as are shown in FIGS. -13. All the pile formers may be of only one of the types illustrated, or various combinations thereof may be used. The pile former of FIG. 10 is indicated at 44 to correspond with FIG. 2, and is shown having a free end portion or loop forming stage of one height only. This type of pile former 44 may remain stationary, or certain selected pile formers 44, or all the pile formers 44, may be withdrawn from the loop forming zone so that, at times, raised loops of predetermined height will be formed over corresponding pile formers and, at other times, ground-engaging loops will be formed over corresponding warp yarn groups. The term ground-engaging loops" is used to identify those loops whose upper bights extend across and above, and in engagement with, corresponding warp yarn groups.

Pile formers having loop forming stages of two different heights are indicated at 44a, 44b, Me in respective FIGS. 11, 12 and 13. The relatively low and relatively high loop forming stages are indicated at Me in each of FIGS. 11, 12 and 13. The relatively low loop forming stages 44:! of pile formers 44b, 44c are provided with respective relatively high and relatively low cutting blades 44f, 44g thereon. The height of the cutting blade 44f of pile former 44b is such as to sever both the low and high pile loops formed over the respective surfaces 44d, 442, and the relatively low cutting blade 44g of pile former 440 is of such height as to miss the bights of the relatively high loops formed over the corresponding high loop forming stage 44c, but to sever all the low loops formed over the corresponding relatively low loop forming stage 44d of pile former 44c. Conventional shearing equipment may be employed for randomly or entirely shearing the tops of the loops after the fabric is removed from the loom, if desired. Of course, where the fabric includes loops of different heights, such shearing equipment would be used for severing relatively high loops only. Reference is made to Clarks US. Pat. Nos. 2,860,666 and 3,140,592 for details of other forms of pile wires or pile formers with cutting blades thereon.

THE FABRIC OF FIGS. 1, 3, 4, 5 AND 14 The first embodiment of the fabric is shown in FIGS. 1, 3, 4, 5 and 14, broadly designated at 60, in the form of a one-shot loop pile fabric, including a base 61 formed from spaced groups of warp yarns W interwoven with shots of double strands of weft yarn. Each warp yarn group may include two or more chain warp yarns, and preferably includes four chain warp yarns a, b, c, 11 (FIGS. 4 and 5) with the warp yarns a, c passing over alternate weft shots 42, beneath which warp yarns a, d pass, and passing beneath intervening weft shots 42 over which warp yarns a, c pass. Since fabric 40 is a one-shot weave, all of the weft shots 42 serve as pile forming weft shots.

In weaving some fabrics, such as the fabric 60 of FIGS. 1, 3, 4 and 5, one or more pile yarns are threaded through each pile yarn guide 50, 51, there is a pile former 44 corresponding to each group of warp yarns, and there is a pile yarn guide 50 and a pile yarn guide 51 corresponding to each pile former 44. Other pile fabrics may be woven by omitting alternate pile yarn guides in each row or, preferably, by simply omitting altemate pile yarns in each set A, B so that one or more ends of pile yarn A are threaded through each alternate primary guide 50 and one or more ends of pile yarn B are threaded through each intervening secondary guide 51. In either event, it is preferred that the guides 50 through which pile yarns A extend are arranged in alternating relation to the guides 51 through which pile yarns B extend.

There are instances in which it may be desirable to omit pile formers 44 and corresponding pile yarns A, B at certain weftwise spaced warp yarn groups and to arrange the loop pattern so that none of the pile yarns will cross over such certain spaced groups of ground warp yarns. Thus, when the pile fabric is being installed in a building, it may be cut along such certain spaced warp yarn groups as needed, without cutting any pile loops of the fabric.

Referring again to the pile fabric 60 in FIGS. 1 and 3, wherein one weftwise repeat of a composite pile pattern arrangement is shown, the pile surface of this fabric may be made from pile yarns, some of which are of different visual characteristics than others. Accordingly, for illustrative purposes only, it may be assumed that the majority of the pile yarns of each set A, B are grey yarns and that pile yarns A, B, of the respective sets A, B, and extending through the centermost pile yarn guides 50, 51 in each row are of contrasting colors; e.g., red and blue. Assume further that zero gauge indicates the optimum or centermost position of the respective rows of pile yarn guides 50, 51. Many forms of pattern lines of red and blue pile loops may be interspersed with the grey background loops of the fabric by selective shogging of the rows of pile yarn guides 50, 51 weftwise of the loom.

The term gauge" is used herein to indicate that distance between the centers of any two immediately adjacent pile formers 44. In some instances, but not in all instances, the loom would be provided with the same number of pile yarn guides 50, 51 in each row as there are pile formers 44. Obviously, the guage of the pile fabric also indicates that distance between the centers of two immediately adjacent warpwise rows of pile loops, the gauge of most carpet fabrics being about three-sixteenths to one-quarter inch. Also the gauge" of the pile fabric indicates that distance between the centers of adjacent groups of ground warp yarns, as well as the distance between the centers of adjacent warpwise rows of pile loops in most instances.

To distinguish the grey pile loops formed from primary pile yarns A from the grey pile loops formed from secondary pile yarns B in FIGS. 1, 3, 4 and 5, each pile loop formed from a primary pile yarn A is not shaded and each pile loop formed from a secondary pile yarn B is shaded by diagonal lines. However, since contrasting pile loops are formed from the red and blue pile yarns A, B of the respective sets A, B, they are shown in relatively heavy lines as compared to the background loops formed from the grey pile yarns, and the loops formed of the pile yarn A are stippled. Also, the loops formed from effect pile yarn B are shaded with relatively dense diagonal lines as compared to the shading of the adjacent grey loops of the other secondary pile yarns B.

In FIG. 3, the straight vertical lines, extending longitudinally of the drawing along the length of fabric 60, each represents a group of warp yarns a-d, and the straight horizontal lines, crosswise of the drawing, each represents a pile forming weft shot. Reading upwardly from the bottom of FIG. 3, in weaving the first fabric section F-l, both rows of pile yarn guides are shogged simultaneously the same distance and in the same weftwise direction with each pile yarn guide in each row being shogged above and across a single corresponding pile former 44 (FIG. 2). In the first and third weftwise rows of loops in FIG. 3, all of the pile yarns are shogged from right to left, and in the second and fourth weftwise rows of loops, all the pile yarns are shogged from left to right. Following each such shogging motion of the pile yarn guides 50, 51, the eyelets of the pile yarn guides are dipped into the warp shed, a weft shot is inserted in the warp shed over the pile yarns, and the pile yarn guides are withdrawn from the warp shed as reed 40 beats the corresponding weft shot against the fell of the fabric. This will form double parallel loops of complementary pairs of pile yarns A, B throughout the width of fabric section Fl, with each double pile loop extending weftwise across and above a single warp yarn group.

In weaving the second fabric section F-2 of FIG. 3, although the eyelets of both rows of pile yarn guides 50, 51 dip into the warp shed below the path of weft inserter 41 before each weft shot is inserted, one row of pile yarn guides remains stationary during the shogging of the other row across and above the pile fonners, with one row of pile yarn guides being shogged in alternation with the other row of pile yarn guides. Thus, in fonning the first, third and fifth weftwise rows or pile loops in fabric section F-2, each pile yarn guide 51 is shogged over a single respective pile former 44 while the pile yarn guides 50 remain stationary as to weftwise movement, thus only forming pile loops of pile yarns B in these particular weftwise rows of loops while pile yarns A are being floated beneath the corresponding weft shots (FIG. 14). Conversely, the second and fourth weftwise rows of loops in fabric section R2 are formed by shogging each primary pile yarn guide 50 across and above a respective pile former 44 while the pile yarn guides 51 remain stationary as to weftwise movement. Thus, in the second and fourth rows of fabric section F-2 pile loops are fonned from pile yarns A only and floats are being formed from the pile yarns B. It can be seen that the centermost warpwise row of pile loops in fabric section F2 of FIG. 3 includes alternating blue and red pile loops therein and the loops throughout fabric section F2 are collectively of about onehalf the density of the pile loops in fabric section F-l and the subsequently woven fabric sections F-3 through F-7.

Fabric section F-3 is woven in substantially the same manner as the first fabric section F-l with the exception that each time that pile yarn guides 50 are shogged in one direction a distance equivalent to one gauge, pile yarn guides 51 are shogged in the opposite direction the same distance so that, in effect, each of the double pile loops in fabric section F-3 has one loop thereof extending weftwise in the opposite direction from the other loop thereof. In other words, in the first and third weftwise rows of pile loops of section F-3, each loop formed from pile yarns A, A extends from right to left and each loop formed from pile yarns B, B extends from left to right, and in the second and fourth weftwise rows of loops in section F-3, each loop formed from the pile yarns A, A extends from left to right, and each loop formed from the pile yarns B, B extends from right to left across and above a respective warp yarn group.

Referring again to fabric section F-l in FIG. 3, it will be apparent that all of the loops of both sets of pile yarns in each weftwise row of loops in fabric section F] are angularly disposed with respect to the loops in adjacent weftwise rows. This is caused by the fact that the yarns of both sets forming the alternate or first and third rows are carried over the pile formers from right to left in FIG. 3 before being looped beneath respective pile forming weft shots and are then carried in a reverse direction over the pile formers to form the respective intervening or second and fourth weftwise rows of loops.

On the other hand, in the same fabric, each loop of one set of pile yarns, forming each weftwise row in fabric section F-3, is disposed in different angular relation to each loop of the other set of pile yarns in the same weftwise row. This is caused by the fact that, in each of the rows of loops in fabric section F-3, all of the pile yarns A, of one set are shogged over the pile formers in the same weftwise direction, but all of the pile yarns B of the other set are shogged over pile formers in the opposite weftwise direction from the pile yarns B in the same weftwise row. It is also apparent that each set of pile yarns, A, B is looped in the opposite weftwise direction in alternate weftwise rows of loops from that at which it is looped in intervening weftwise rows of loops.

Thus, in fabric section F-I, all of the pile loops in any individual weftwise row are disposed in substantially the same angular relation to the warp and weft yarns, and in any individual weftwise row of loops in fabric section F-3, the loops of one set of pile yarns are disposed in different angular relation to the loops of the other set of pile yarns. Such angular relation of the pile loops is illustrated schematically in FIGS. 24-35. In the fabric of FIG. 31, for example, each of the upper five weftwise rows of pile loops in this view have all the loops in any given weftwise row extending at substantially the same angle relative to the weft shots. In the next four weftwise rows of pile, it will be observed that the loop of pile yarn A extends at a different angle from the loop of pile yarn B in any given one of these four rows. The fabric of FIG. 31 will be later described in detail.

It appears that the higher the pile loops extend above the base fabric, the more prominent is the angular relation of the loops with respect to the weft shots. Also, it appears that such angular relation becomes more prominent when using highly twisted pile yarns than is the case if the pile yarns are of relatively low twist.

The fourth fabric section F-4 of FIG. 3 illustrates how pile yarns of each set may form a weftwise series of successive pile loops with the pile yarns of one set extending weftwise in the opposite direction from the pile yarns of the other set across and above a plurality of warp yarn groups, with a separate loop being formed from each pile yarn across each successive warp yarn group over which it extends. As shown, each pile yarn A, A is successively looped to the right over three warp yarn groups in the formation of three successive weftwise rows of loops. At the same time, each pile yarn B, B is successively looped to the left over three warp yarn groups during the formation of three successive weftwise rows of loops. In weaving this fabric section F-4, it is apparent that, during each loop forming pick of the loom, the pile yarn guides 50 are each shogged one gauge to the right as the pile guides 51 are 9 shogged one gauge to the left. During the three successive loop forming picks of the loom in which the three weftwise rows of loops in section F4 are being formed, such shogging of the pile yarn guides 50, 51 is effected in a stepwise manner.

Fabric section lF-5 is woven in substantially the same manner as fabric section F-4 with the exception that the pile yarn guides are shogged in the opposite directions from which they were previously in forming the fabric section F-d, thus forming inwardly converging diagonal lines of loops of the two different colored effect pile yarns A, B in fabric section F5.

The sixth fabric section F-6 illustrates how loops of the pile yarns of one set may extend weftwise a different distance from loops of the pile yarns of the other set, with a single loop being formed from each pile yarn over each warp yarn group and between adjacent pairs of pile forming weft shots. In this instance, the loops of the pile yarns of each set also extend in the opposite weftwise direction from the loops of the pile yarns of the other set so that the ornamental diagonal lines of loops formed from the two effect yarns A, B cross each other at the juncture of fabric sections F-S, F d. As shown, the pile yarns A, A are each in the form of a series of successive loops extending from right to left across and above four successive warp yarn groups in the formation of the four weftwise rows of pile loops in fabric section F-6. At the same time, the effect pile yarn B, along with the remainder of the pile yarns B, forms a series of successive pile loops extending from left to right over two successive ground warp yarn groups in the formation of the first two weftwise rows of loops in fabric F-b. In the formation of the third and fourth weftwise rows of loops, the secondary pile yarns B, B are each looped from right to left over two respective warp yarn groups to complete the formation of fabric section F-6.

The fabric section F-7 illustrates how the pile yarns of one set may be looped back and forth across different respective ground warp yarn groups in the form of a single loop of a series of loops each extending over one or more groups of warp yarns than they were in the formation of other portions of the fabric such as in the fabric sections F-I, F-Z, F-3. Also, instead of the effect yarns A, I3 being looped over a common warp yarn group in the last two weftwise rows of loops in the upper portion of fabric section F-7, in FIG. 3, effect pile yarn A is looped back and forth across a separate warp yam group from that over which effect pile yarn B is looped.

Although a complementary pair of pile yarns A, B is provided for each warp yarn group in FIG. 3, a single pile yarn may be used for each warp yarn group and/or two or more ends of pile yarn of like or different. visual characteristics may be substituted for each pile yarn A, B, if desired. Also, each length, or each of certain selected lengths, of either of the pile yarns A, B may span from two to ten or more groups of warp yarns between adjacent pile forming weft shots.

FABRIC WITI-I VARIANT-HEIGHT FILE By utilizing plain or nonstepped pile formers of the type shown in FIG. It), all the pile loops of the fabric shown in FIGS. I and 3 may be of the same height with their upper bights raised a predetermined distance above base fabric till. By utilizing stepped pile formers in place of some or all of the pile formers 454, such as that type of pile former indicated at Ma in FIG. Ill, the pile loops in corresponding warpwise rows may be of varying heights. A portion of a typical warpwise row of varying height pile loops formed from the effect pile yarns A, B is shown in FIG. 6 corresponding to a particular group of warp yarns. The base fabric shown in FIG. 6 may be identical to that shown in FIG. 4 and will, therefore, bear the same reference characters.

It is apparent that, when the relatively low loop forming stage Add, occupies loop forming or operative position with respect to corresponding pile yarn guides 50,511 of FIG. 2, loops of intermediate height, such as loops I in FIG. 6, are formed thereover. When the relatively high loop forming stage Me of a pile former 44a occupies loop forming position, relatively long or high loops L are formed thereover. Of course, when the loop forming finger Ma is moved rearwardly and completely withdrawn from the pile forming zone, that is, to where the free rounded end of the lower stage of the corresponding pile former 44a is disposed rearwardly of the point at which the loops are formed, relatively low or short groundengaging loops S are formed against the base fabric. The loops may be formed in this manner because pile yarn guides 50, 51 move into and out of the warp shed and may be shogged weftwise, first in one direction and then in the other direction while in raised position so that the respective pile yarns are shogged over and across the warp yarns therebeneath, all of which is more fully explained in Moberg's said US. Pat. No. 2,860,699.

The pile fabric of FIGS. I and 3 also may include high loops L and low or ground-engaging loops S, with intermediateheight cut pile tufts I as in FIG.'7, by utilizing pile formers of the type indicated at 44c in FIG. 13. It will be noted that the cutting blade 44g will sever only the intermediate height loops I of FIG. 6 in forming the cut pile tufts I of FIG. 7.

Similarly, all of the relatively high and intermediate loops L, I of FIG. 6 may be severed to form the fabric shown in FIG. 8, wherein the relatively small or ground-engaging loops S are left uncut, but the relatively high and intermediate loops are severed to form the respective high and intermediate height cut pile tufts Is, I of FIG. 8. The fabric of FIG. 8 would be formed by utilizing pile wires of the type indicated at 44b in FIG. I2, and wherein the relatively high cutting blade 44f thereof will sever all loops formed over either stage 44d, 44c of the corresponding pile former 44b.

FIG. 9 is another view similar to FIG. 6, but wherein all the relatively high loops L have been severed, preferably by suitable shearing equipment, so that cut pile tufts L are formed therefrom whose upper surfaces are disposed on a level about the same as or slightly above that of the bights of intermediate height loops I.

MULTIPLE-SHOT WEAVES Referring to FIG. 16, views of fabrics similar to FIG. 6 are there shown, wherein FIG. to shows the fabric in the form of a two-shot weave and FIG. I7 shows the fabric in the form of a three-shot weave.

It is apparent that alternate weft shots 42 in FIG. 16 are pile forming weft shots and that there is, accordingly, an additional weft shot 42 extending beneath the upper bight of each weftwise row of pile loops. In other respects, the fabric shown in FIG. 16 may be the same as that shown in FIG. 6 and will bear the same reference characters where applicable.

In FIG. 117, it is apparent that every third weft shot 42 is a pile forming weft shot beneath which the lower bights of the corresponding weftwise row of pile loops extend, and between which two nonpile forming weft shots are provided. In other words, two weft shots extend beneath the upper bights of the loops in each weftwise row. In other respects, the fabric of FIG. I7 may be the same as that shown in FIG. 6 and the same reference characters will apply where applicable.

FABRIC WITH HIGH DENSITY AND LOW DENSITY CUT PILE AREAS FIG. I5 is a modified form of the fabric section F-Z of FIGS. 3 and M wherein, instead of the pile tufts formed of one set of pile yarns A appearing in alternate weftwise rows with respect to the pile tufts'formed from the other set of pile yarns B, substantial warpwise lengths or areas of the fabric are formed from each of the two sets of yarns and, additionally, such substantial warpwise lengths, as well as a subsequent length thereof formed from both sets of pile yarns, are both sheared or severed, although the severing of the tufts is not entirely necessary and the structure of FIG. I5 is considered novel with or without the shearing or severing of the pile tufts. Reading from left to right in FIG. 15, and assuming that of all the pile yarns of the respective sets A, B are red and blue, it will be observed that the last two weftwise rows of pile tufts in fabric section F-8 are in the form of loops made from both the red and the blue pile yarns A, B. Thereupon, a low density cut pile fabric section F-9 is formed in which the blue pile yarns B are each floated beneath the fabric as a plurality of successive pile forming weft shots are inserted with the formation of pile loops from the red pile yams A only, throughout the width of the fabric.

The next succeeding fabric section F-10 is formed in a manner similar to, but is a reversal of, fabric section F-9 (FIG. with the exception that the pile yarns A being floated beneath the base of the fabric past a plurality of pile forming weft shots and pile loops being formed from the blue pile yarns B. Fabric section F-11 is formed with both sets of pile yarns A, B being formed into pile loops. After or during weaving of the fabric of FIG. 15, all of the pile loops in the sections F-9, F-lO, Fl1 are severed to from out pile tufts therefrom. By providing red pile yarns of all the pile yarns A alternating with blue pile yarns of all of the pile yarns B throughout the width of the fabric, fabric section F-9 would be a solid red color and fabric section F-l0 would be a solid blue color throughout the width of the fabric, and the fabric section F-Il would be a mixture of both red and blue colored tufts throughout the width of the fabric. It is apparent that both weftwise sections F-8, F11 would be of approximately twice the pile density of each of the sections F-9, F-10 in FIG. 15.

Referring again to the fabric shown in FIG. 15, in instances where the floats are formed from one pile yarn adjacent loops fonned from another pile yarn, if the floats are of substantial length as in fabric sections F-9, F-10, it may be desirable to cross that pile yarn of which loops are being formed beneath the adjacent floats so as to firmly bind at least medial portions of the floats t0 the base fabric, thereby preventing the floats from sagging away from the base of the fabric or becoming displaced, at least until a suitable sizing material is applied to the back of the fabric.

In this regard, FIG. 18 illustrates a portion of pile fabric broadly designated at 70, whose base may be formed of groups of ground warp yarns 71, interwoven with double-strand weft shots 72. Although only two chain warp yarns are shown in each group in FIG. 18, the base fabric may be woven in the same manner as any of the base fabrics described herein (see FIG. 4 in particular).

In the lowermost portion of FIG. 18, both sets of pile yarns A, B are formed into weftwise rows of pile loops extending over the respective groups of ground warp yarns. As the weaving progresses upwardly from the bottom of this view, the primary pile yarns A are floated and thereby formed into floats A extending beneath the base fabric as each secondary pile yarn B is shogged back and forth above and across a respective group of ground warps and respective pile formers. The pile fonners have been omitted in FIGS. 18 and 19 for purposes of clarity, but are shown in FIG. 20.

Following each shogging of each secondary pile yarn B in either weftwise direction, both sets of pile yarns A, B are dipped into the warp shed and a weft shot 72 is inserted in the shed over both sets of pile yarns A, B. As shown in the central portions of FIGS. 18, 19 and 20, following the formation of a plurality of loops of each pile yarn B, which loops define a portion of a warpwise row of loops, each secondary pile yarn B is again dipped into the warp shed beneath the path of weft inserting means, a weft shot is inserted into the shed over both sets of pile yarns and the pile yarn guides 50, 51 of FIG. 2 are withdrawn from the shed. However, in order to bind the floats A" against the bottom of the base fabric, each secondary pile yarn B is then shogged above and across a different pile former and corresponding warp yarn group from that over which it was shogged previously during the weaving of the lower portion ofthe fabric in FIG. 18.

As each secondary pile yarn B is stepped weftwise so as to form a loop thereof over a different pile former 44 from that over which loops were previously formed from each pile yarn B, the corresponding lower bight of each pile yarn B is positioned across and beneath the float of the respective pile yarn A, thus forming a binder strand portion B of each pile yarn B which extends beneath and binds a medial portion of the corresponding float A" against the bottom of the corresponding weft shot 72. Thereafter, a warpwise row of a plurality of loops is formed of each secondary pile yarn B over the aforementioned different pile former and group of warp yarns, as appears in the upper portion of FIG. 18, while each pile yarn A is being floated. Finally as shown in the uppermost portion of FIGS. 18 and 19, the formation of loops of primary pile yarns A is resumed to complete fonnation of the floats A".

By referring to FIG. 20, it will be seen why the binder strand B of each pile yarn B passes beneath the adjacent float A". As there shown, upon formation of the last pile loop of the pile yarn B over one of the pile formers (shown in solid lines in FIG. 20), the two complementary pile yarns A, B in this view are positioned on the same side of the latter pile former 44, and the corresponding complementary pile yarn guides 50, 51 are raised and withdrawn from the base fabric with both of them positioned in the vertical plane between a common adjacent pair of pile formers. Since the pile yarn guide 51 shown in FIG. 20 is positioned rearwardly of pile yarn guide 50, as the latter pile yarn guide 51 is shifted to the left above and across the other adjacent pile former 44 shown in broken lines in FIG. 20, the pile yarn B moves rearwardly of and past the pile yarn A. Thus, as the two guides 50, 51 of FIG. 20 subsequently dip into the warp shed and the corresponding weft shot is inserted into the warp shed over the two pile yarns A, B of FIGS. 19 and 20, the later pile yarn A then overlies and extends across the binder strand portion B" as shown in FIGS. 18, 19 and 20. It is apparent that, where the floats A" are of considerable length, pile yarn guide 51 may alternate in positioning the respective pile yarn B over two adjacent pile wires or pile formers so as to provide additional binder strand portions B" along the length of the float A, as desired.

In some fabrics in which portions of one or the other or both sets of pile yarns extend warpwise between adjacent groups of warp yarns and past two or more pile forming weft shots without crossing over groups of warp yarns, as is the case with respect to the pile yarn floats shown in FIGS. 14 and 15, it may be desirable to have such portions of the pile yarns interwoven with the weft yarns past which they extend. For example, the floated portion of each pile yarn A, B in fabric sections F-9, F-10 may pass under alternate weft shots 42 and over intervening weft shots, if desired.

Such interweaving of warpwise portions of either set of pile yarns A, B may be effected by dipping the eyelets of the corresponding guides 50, 51 (FIG. 2) below the path of weft inserter 41 during alternate picks of the loom, and by maintaining the corresponding guides in raised position during intervening picks of the loom. To interweave the floated portions of yarns B in fabric section F-9 of FIG. 15, for example, the vertical motion of each row of guides 50, 51 (FIG. 2) may be independently controlled by any suitable means so that the guides 50 for pile yarns A dip below the path of weft inserter 41 prior to each successive weft shot being inserted in the warp shed, and the guides 50 are shogged over groups of warp yarns and form pile loops in the interim between the insertion of successive weft shots. Meanwhile, the guides 51 for pile yarns B would dip into the warp shed with guides 50 during alternate dipping movements thereof, but would not cross over any groups of warp yarns, and would remain in raised position during intervening dipping movements of guides 50.

THE FABRIC OF FIG. 17A

The fabric of FIG. 17A, broadly designated at 65, illustrates more clearly than other views, how the two sets of pile yarns A, B may be formed into various fonns of pile loops extending in different weftwise directions in successive warpwise sections of the fabric. The solid-line arrows to the left of the fabric 65 indicate the direction in which each pile yarn A extends in each weftwise row of pile loops, and the dotted-line arrows indicate the direction in which each pile yarn B extends in each weftwise row of pile loops.

Reading upwardly from the bottom of FIG. 17A, it can be seen that, in the first weftwise row of loops 1, each pile yarn of both sets A, B forms a loop extending from right to left over a respective group of warp yarns W and then passes beneath a weft shot 42. The loops in the second weftwise row 2 are formed in the same manner, but extend in the opposite weftwise direction from, and at a different angle than, the loops of weftwise row 1. The loops of each pile yarn in rows 1 and 2 extend over the same respective groups of warp yarns W.

In weftwise row of loops 3, pile yarns A form floats beneath the two adjacent weft shots, and pile yarns B form loops of the same form as in row 1. Thus, the pile yarns A are positioned to form loops in weftwise rows 4 and 5 which cross, or extend in the opposite weftwise direction from, loops formed from pile yarns B.

So that all the loops in weftwise row 7 may extend in the same weftwise direction, pile yarns A again form floats adjacent loops formed of pile yarns B in row 7. With the exception that each loop present in each weftwise row 7-10 extends over and across two groups of warp yarns W, and are thus longer than the loops of rows ll-6, it is apparent that the weftwise rows 7-9 are constructed in the same manner as the respective weftwise rows 1-4.

THE FABRICS OF FIGS. 21, 22 AND 23 FIGS. 21 22, and 23 are representative illustrations of other forms of pile fabrics which may be woven utilizing the principles of pile constructions described heretofore. The fabric of FIG. 21 is broadly designated at 80 and includes a woven base 81 of any one of the forms shown in FIGS. 4, 16 or 17 or of the form to be later described with reference to FIGS. 36A, 37A and 38A. Essentially, the pile surface of fabric 80 may be formed in the manner of fabric sections F-4, F-5 of the fabric 60 in FIGS. 1 and 3 utilizing stepped pile formers 440 (FIG. 11) for each of some of the warp yarn groups. One warpwise repeat of the loop pile pattern is indicated as such in FIG. 21, wherein it will be observed that two parallel warpwise rows of diamonds are provided, with each repeat in each row of diamonds including two diamonds 82, 83 defined by diagonal lines of contrasting loops which may be made from respective pairs of red and blue efiect pile yarns such as A, B in FIGS. 1 and 3.

Reading upwardly from the bottom of each repeat in FIG. 21, it is apparent that the diagonal lines of loops of red and blue pile yarns, respectively, are first formed by stepping the red pile yarns to the right and stepping the blue pile yarns to the left across and above respective pile formers for about five gauges and beneath five pile forming weft shots to form five weftwise rows of loops, it being understood that all the yarns in one set would correspond to the yarn of which the red loops are formed and all the yarns of another set would correspond to the yarns of which the blue loops are formed. The background loops all may be made from grey pile yarns as is the case with respect to the fabric of FIGS. II and 3. At the widest part of the lowermost or first diamond in the repeat, the loops of the two sets of yarn converge inwardly and then cross each other to form the lower portion of the second diamond 83 in the repeat. In this instance, in forming the second half of the first diamond 82 and the first half of the second diamond 83 pile yarns A are stepped to the left a distance of about 10 gauges while, at the same time, the pile yarns B are stepped to the right about l gauges as 10 successive pile forming weft shots are formed. The top or second half of each second diamond then is formed by stepping the pile yarns A to the right as the pile yarns B are stepped to the left forming successive pile loops with each successive one of five pile forming weft shots to complete the repeat.

It will be noted that most of the loops of the pile surface are of substantially the same height, but spaced inwardly within each of the diamonds 82, 83 is a relatively smaller diamond 85 diagonal lines of loops and the perimeter of the respective relatively small diamond 85. It is apparent by referring to FIG. 1 II, that pile formers 44a corresponding to the warpwise rows of loops incident to the formation of the recessed or short loop areas 86 may be partially withdrawn to expose only their low pile forming stages 44d to the pile forming zone, in forming the recessed areas 86. The relatively high surfaces of the pile formers would remain in pile forming position in fonning those loop pile areas other than the recessed areas 86 of FIG. 21

In the fabric of FIG. 22, which is broadly designated at 90, diamonds 92 are formed by use of two different colored pile yarns each of which differs in color with respect to the remaining pile yarns employed in forming the pile face of the-fabric 90. It will be noted that this fabric includes five warpwise areas or series of rectangular blocklike pile formations 9397. The warpwise block pile series 93 may be formed by utilizing pile fonners of a type similar to that shown in FIG. 11, but having cutting blades projecting upwardly from the upper loop forming stages Me thereof. Such type of pile former is shown in FIG. 15 ofClark's US. Pat. No. 3,l40,592.

The warpwise block pile series 94 may be formed utilizing pile formers of the type shown in FIG. 13, and pile formers of the type shown in FIG. 11 may be provided to form each warpwise block pile series 95, 96. The warpwise block pile series 97 may be formed by utilizing pile formers of the type shown in FIG. 12.

It is apparent that the relatively short pile areas 93a, 93c, 94b, 94d, 950, 95c, 96b, 96d, 97a and 970 would be formed by looping the corresponding pile yarns over the relatively low loop forming stages of the corresponding pile formers and that the remaining block pile areas of the fabric 90 would be formed by looping the corresponding pile yams over the relatively high loop forming stages of the corresponding pile formers. Since cutters are provided on the high loop forming stages of the pile formers utilized in forming the first warpwise series of pile bocks 93, only the high loops will be severed so that blocks 93b, 93a will be formed of cut pile tufts of generally U-shaped configuration with their lower bights looped beneath corresponding pile forming weft shots.

Since the cutting blades 44f on the lower pile forming stages 44d of pile formers 44c (FIG. 13) will sever only the relatively short pile loops formed over such stages, the relatively low pile blocks 94b, 94d will be in the form of cut pile tufts and the blocks 94a, 94c will be in the form of relatively high pile loops. Since the pile formers 44b (FIG. 12) are provided with relatively high cutting blades 44f on the lower pile forming stages 44d thereof, it is apparent that both the low and high pile blocks 97a, 97b, 97c, 97d will be in the form of cut pile tufts. All the remaining areas of the portion of fabric 90 shown in FIG. 2 will thus be in the form of loop pile.

FIG. 23 illustrates a typical pile fabric having warpwise and weftwise areas of cut pile tufts, wherein certain areas are of relatively high density as compared to other areas, and also wherein pile yarns of different visual characteristics form the tufts in the various areas. The fabric of FIG. 23 is broadly designated at 100 and includes a base of interwoven ground warp groups and weft shots which may be woven in the manner of any of the base fabrics mentioned heretofore. As shown, fabric 100 includes four warpwise series of blocklike or square pile areas 1101-104 formed in substantially the manner described with respect to the areas F9, F10 and F-ll in FIG. 15 and by utilizing two sets of pile yarns A, B such as those described earlier with respect to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, for example. In the warpwise series of pile areas 101, the first pile area 101a may be formed in the manner of area F-9 in FIG. 15 so that the yarns B, all of which may be blue and which alternate with the pile yarns A, are in the form of floats in the base 100a. The yarns A, all of which may be red, thus are in the form of U-shaped tufts in the pile area 101a so that the entire pile area 101a is of a solid red color.

Areas 101b, 101d may be formed in the manner of area F-ll in FIG. 15 so that both red and blue colored tufts are substantially uniformly intermixed in these areas, and so that the areas 101b, 101d are of substantially twice the density of the areas 101b, 1010. Area 1010 is formed in the manner of F-l0 in FIG. 15, wherein the red pile yarn is in the form of floats in the base 100a, and the blue pile yarns B are in the form of U-shaped tufts. Thus the entire pile area 1010 is solid blue in color.

The pile yarns A, B forming the pile tufts in warpwise series of pile areas 102 may be of different colors or kinds than the pile yarns of which the tufts are formed in series 101, but for purposes of this description, it will be assumed that pile yarns A are red and alternate with blue pile yarns B throughout the width of the fabric 100. The series of pile areas 102, 103, 104 are similar to the series 101 but may be staggered so that areas 1020, 102c, 103b, 103d, 1040, 104c correspond to the areas 101b, 101d. The areas 102b, 103e, 104k may correspond to area 101a, and the areas 102d, 103a, 104a may correspond to area l0lc.

It will be noted that alternate areas of the fabric 100 in both warpwise and weftwise directions have tufts of relatively shorter height than the intervening areas. This sculptured or embossed effect may be produced by utilizing stepped pile formers of the type shown in FIG. 12.

THE FABRICS OF FIGS. 24-35 FIGS. 24-35 illustrate schematically various other novel pile patterns which may be embodied in pile fabrics either individually or in various combinations, according to this invention. To avoid confusion as to the paths traced by each of the pile yarns, only the effect pile yarns A, B are shown in FIGS. 24-35 as respective relatively heavy and light lines superimposed upon grids representing weft shots crossing groups of ground warp yarns. For descriptive purposes, it may be assumed that a pile former 44, or of any one of the types shown in FIGS. 11, 12 and 13, extends over each group of warp yarns and that each pile fabric is a one-shot weave. The background pile loops are omitted in FIGS. 24-35 for purposes of clarity.

The fabric of FIG. 24 is similar to the fabric sections F-l, F-3 of FIG. 3, but differs therefrom in that pile yarns A, B are looped back and forth in succession above and across separate pile formers and warp yam groups in the upper portion of FIG. 24. Both pile yarns A, B are shogged the same distance in the same direction between any given adjacent pair of weft shots. In the central portion of FIG. 24 pile yarn B is looped to the left so that, in the lower portion of FIG. 24, both pile yarns A, B are looped in relatively opposite directions back and forth across a common ground warp yam group.

The fabric of FIG. 25 is similar to the fabric of FIG. 24 in that both pile yarns A, B are looped in the same manner in the upper portion of FIG. 25, and they are looped in relatively opposite directions in the lower portion of FIG. 25. However, in the upper portion of FIG. 25, both pile yarns A, B are looped across a common warp yarn group, and in the lower portion of FIG. 25, pile yarns A, B are looped above and across separate ground warp yarn groups. Throughout the patterns of FIGS. 24 and 25, the pile yarn A is looped over only a single pile former.

The fabric of FIG. 26 illustrates how each pile yarn of both sets may extend the same weftwise distance, i.e., over the same number of groups of warp yarns, but wherein longer loops may be formed from one set of pile yarns than those loops which are fonned from the other set of pile yarns. As shown in the space between the first two pile forming weft shots in the upper portion of FIG. 26, pile yarn A is looped from right to left over two groups of warp yarns, and pile yarn B is looped in the same direction over a single group of warp yarns. However, in the space between the second and third pile forming weft shots, pile yarn A is looped from left to right over the same two groups of warp yarns, but pile yarn B is again looped from right to left over a single group of warp yarns. This results in a long loop of pile yam A extending over two groups of warp yarns and disposed warpwise of and adjacent a series of two successive short loops of yarn B each extending over a single warp yarn group, but collectively extending over the same two groups of warp yarns as the long loops formed from pile yarn A.

This concept is further illustrated in the central portion of FIG. 26, wherein pile yarn A is looped from left to right over two groups of warp yarns, then passes beneath a weft shot, and is again looped from left to right over two additional groups of warp yarns before being again looped beneath a succeeding weft shot to form a series of two successive relatively long loops thereof spanning four groups of warp yarns with each loop extending over only two of the four groups of warp yarns. In this instance, the pile yarn A then returns from right to left in succession over the same two pairs of groups of warp yarns. In the same warpwise plane in which the latter relatively long loops are formed from pile yarn A, a series of successive relatively short loops are formed from pile yarn B as it is successively looped from left to right over one group of warp yarns at a time and then passes beneath a succeeding pile forming weft shot. However, in the central portion of FIG. 26, the pile yarn B is looped successively back over the same four groups of warp yarns as those over which the adjacent long loops are formed from the pile yarn A so that, here again, long loops are formed from one set of pile yarns and short loops are formed from the other set of pile yarns, but loops of both sets of pile yarns span the same number of groups of warp yarns.

Although all the longer loops in FIG. 26 are shown being formed from pile yarn A only, it is apparent that portions of the fabric may have the pile arrangement reversed, in which at least some of the longer loops may be formed from the pile yarn B adjacent relatively shorter loops formed from pile yarn A.

The fabric of FIG. 27 illustrates the looping of both pile yarns A, B over a common pile former and a ground warp yarn group in the upper and lower portions of FIG. 27. In the central portion of FIG. 27, pile yarn B is floated beneath corresponding weft yarns (beneath five weft shots in this instance) thus resulting in loops of only one of the yarns; namely, pile yarn A, being present in the central portion of FIG. 27. If both pile yams A, B are of the same size, the central portion of the fabric of FIG. 27 would be about one-half as dense as the upper and lower portions of FIG. 27.

In the fabric of FIG. 28, pile yarns A, B are looped in relatively opposite directions over a common ground warp yarn group in warpwise spaced areas. In one of the intervening areas between the spaced areas, pile yarn A is floated beneath corresponding weft yarns and loops are formed from pile yarn B only. In another of the intervening areas of FIG. 28, pile yarn B is floated beneath corresponding weft yarns where loops are formed from pile yarn A only.

The fabric of FIG. 29 is quite similar to that of FIG. 28 with the exception that pile yarns A, B are looped over separate warp yarn groups in each instance.

FIG. 30 illustrates pile yarns A, B looped in opposite weftwise directions with respect to each other in each pick, and wherein each pile yarn is looped over a plurality of pile formers and respective groups of warp yarns in succession during a plurality of pile forming picks of the loom. In other words, pile yarn A in FIG. 30 is formed into a series of successive loops extending in one weftwise direction a distance of two gauges; Le, a distance at least about equal to the center-tocenter distance between three adjacent pile warp yarn groups, and a series of two successive loops, formed from the other pile yarn B, extends in the opposite weftwise direction for a distance of two gauges.

In the upper portion of FIG. 31, pile yarns A, B are shown as being looped back and forth together in the same direction and for the same distance across and above separate respective ground warp yarn groups. However, in the lower portion of FIG. 31, pile yarns A, B are looped in relatively opposite directions over several warp yarn groups. As shown, pile yarn A forms a series of three loops over three groups of warp yarns in succession, and pile yarn B forms a series of two loops over two groups of warp yarns in succession.

In FIG. 32, pile yarns A, B are shown looped in relatively opposite directions between each adjacent pair of pile forming weft shots. In the upper portion of FIG. 32, each of the pile yarns A, B forms a warpwise row of loops extending loop back and forth in succession over a single but separate group of warp yarn. In the lower portion of FIG. 32, however, each pile yarn A, B forms a series of successive loops over and across a plurality of warp yarn groups.

The fabrics of FIGS. 33 and 34 are shown to illustrate loop pile patterns similar to the respective FIGS. 31 and 32 with the exception that, in FIG. 33, pile yarn B forms series of successive loops spanning a greater number of warp yarn groups than series of successive loops of pile yarn A. In FIG. 34, pile yarn A spans a greater number of ground warp yarn groups than pile yarn 1B.

The fabric of FIG. 35, as is the case with respect to FIG. 26, illustrates that either pile yarn A or B may form long or wide loops each extending over a plurality of warp yarn groups between a single adjacent pair of pile forming weft shots.

FIG. 35 differs from FIG. 26 primarily in that yarn B is looped weftwise a greater distance than pile A in the over all fabric. In the uppermost portion of FIG. 35, loops of pile yarn A extend back and forth over a single warp yarn group, but pile yarn B is looped over two warp yarn groups between the uppermost first and second, and second and third pile forming weft shots. This is also true with respect to the lowermost portion of FIG. 35. In one of the spaces between adjacent pile forming weft shots in the central portion of FIG. 35, loops of pile yarn A is looped over two warp yarn groups, but pile yarn 1B is looped over only a single warp yarn group in the same space between groups of weft yarns.

ONE-SHOT PILE FABRIC WITI-I UPPER AND LOWER WEFI' STRANDS In order to provide a one-shot base fabric having the weight, body and resiliency of a multiple-shot pile fabric, any of the fabrics heretofore described may be woven to include two sets of double weft yarns in each weft shot, as shown in FIGS. 36A, 37A and 38A, and wherein each weft shot has two lower strands of weft yarn 42a and two upper strands of weft yarn 42b. Also, the lower bights of the pile tufts may extend entirely beneath or between the two sets of double weft yarns as shown in the respective FIGS. 36A and 33A, or the lower bights of loops of one set of pile yarns may extend entirely beneath the two double weft yarns of each weft shot with the lower bights of the loops of the other set of pile yarns extending between the two sets of double weft yarns of each weft shot. To this end, the two rows of pile yarn guides 50, 51 may be adjusted relative to their respective supporting bars 52, 53 (FIG. 2) to occupy any one of the three positions shown in FIGS. 36, 37 and 38. The means facilitating such adjustment of the pile yarn guides 50, SI is fully disclosed saidcopending application and, therefore, only a brief description thereof will be given.

As shown in FIGS. 2 and 36, both rows of pile yarn guides 50, SI occupy their lowermost positions with respect to their support bars 52, 53. Thus, each time the pile yarn guides are dipped into the warp shed, this positions all the pile yarns A, B below the paths of both of a pair of lower and upper weft inserters llla, 411k which function in the same manner as weft inserter 411 of FIG. 2. With each reciprocation of weft inserters 41a, Mb of FIG. 36 into and out of the warp shed, they insert a pair of respective lower and upper hairpin type double weft yarns 42a, 42b over the corresponding pile yarns extending rearwardly from the fell of the fabric being woven and in the open shed formed of the ground warp yarns a, b, c, d. In weaving the form of base fabric shown in FIGS. 36A, 37A and 38A suitable relatively highly tensioned stuffer warp yarns S may be provided in the base fabric which extend rearwardly from the fell of the fabric during the weaving operation and I- between the paths of the weft inserters 41a, 41b. Since each four-strand weft shot formed by the insertion and withdrawal of the weft inserters 41a 41b also serves as a pile forming weft shot, it is apparent that one-shot fabric is formed as shown in FIG. 36A, with the lower bights of all the pile loops formed from pile yarns A, 18 extending entirely beneath the two sets of double weft yarns.

Referring now to FIG. 37, the rear row of pile yarn guides SI occupies an upper position with respect to support bar 53, and the front pile yarn guides 50 occupy a lowered position with respect to support bar 52. Thus, each time pile yarn guides 50, SI are dipped into the warp shed pile yarns A, B are lowered beneath the path of lower weft inserter 41a and pile yarns B are lowered between the paths of both weft inserters lla, 'Illlb. Consequently, the fabric structure shown in FIG.

37A is produced, wherein all the pile yarns A are looped between the lower and upper sets of double weft yarns 42a, 42b in each weft shot, and all the pile yarns B are looped entirely beneath both sets of double weft yarns in each weft shot.

Referring now to FIG. 38 wherein both rows of pile yarn guides 50, SI occupy a relatively high position with respect to support bars 52, 53, all of the pile yarns A, B are lowered between the paths of weft inserters 41a, 41b when the pile yarn guides are dipped into the warp shed, thus resulting in the form of base fabric structure shown in FIG. 38A, and wherein the lower bights of all of the loops formed of pile yarns A, B extend between the lower end upper sets of double weft yarns 42a, 42b in each respective weft shot.

It may be desirable to have all the pile yarns A, B looped beneath the lower weft yarns 42a, as in FIG. 36A, to enhance the appearance of the back of the pile fabric, especially when such fabric is to be used in the manufacture of carpet materials which may be moved from place to place such as throw rugs. To reduce the cost of the pile fabric, it is apparent that, by looping pile yarns A, B between the lower and upper double weft yarns 42a, 42b, as in FIGS. 37 and 37A, the length of pile yarn forming each tuft a given height above the base may be less than that required to loop the pile yarns beneath the lower double weft yarns 42a, as in FIGS. 36 and 36A.

The arrangement of the pile yarn guides 50, 51 shown in FIG. 38 and the resulting fabric of FIG. 38A may be particu- Iarly desirable in the event of the pile yarns of one set being of different size from the pile yarns of the other set, since in the fabrics of FIGS. 36A and 37A, relatively large pile yarns might be gripped more firmly between adjacent weft shots than would adjacent relatively small pile yarns. Thus, the tufts of the relatively small pile yarns might be easily pulled out of the base fabric unintentionally, at least until the usual backsizing material has been applied to the lower surface of the base fabric. Accordingly, in FIG. 37A, the pile yarns A are looped beneath the lower strands of weft yarn 42a, and the pile yarns 1B are looped beneath the upper strands of weft yarn 42b and between the lower and upper weft yarns 42a, 42b. Assuming that primary pile yarns A are larger than secondary pile yarns B and that all the pile yarns A, B are larger than the ground warp yarns, it can be seen that the lower bights of the smaller pile yarns are firmly gripped between each respective pair of lower and upper double weft yarns 42a, 42b, and the legs of all the larger pile yarns will be gripped firmly between successive adjacent weft shots of lower and upper double weft yarns 42a, 42b.

lBy constructing the fabric as shown in any of FIGS. 36A, 37A and 38A, a one-shot pile fabric is produced having the weight per unit length of a conventional two-shot pile fabric woven of yarns of similar weight. Also, each of the fabrics of FIGS. 36A, 37A, 38A may be woven at the same speed as a conventional one-shot fabric, but the base fabric may be nearly twice as heavy per unit length as a conventional oneshot pile fabric woven of yarns of similar weights, as is desirable.

As indicated earlier herein, many variations of the loop pile designs shown in the drawings may be produced by varying the height of some loops relative to other loops, utilizing many variations of colors, kinds or weights of pile yarns, varying the number of pile yarn ends being fed by each of certain pile yarn feed guides relative to other pile yarn feed guides, feeding at least one pile yarn end through the pile yarn guides of each row to each of the pile formers, feeding only a few pile yarns to one row of guides as compared to the other row of guides, feeding pile yarn ends through one row of guides to alternate or certain spaced pile formers while feeding other pile yarn ends through the other row of guides to intervening pile formers only, cutting or shearing some or all of the pile loops, combining two or more of the designs of FIGS. 1, 3 and 21-35 in a single fabric, weaving the fabric as a multiple-shot fabric, varying the gauge or pitch; i.e., the number of pile yarn guides and/or pile yarns per a given width of a particular fabric relative to another fabric, varying the number of weftwise rows of pile tufts per given length of a particular fabric relative to another fabric, etc. Many other variations in pile patterns will be apparent to anyone familiar with the art.

In the drawings and specification there have been set forth preferred embodiments of the invention and although specific terms are employed, they are used in a generic and descriptive sense only, and not for purposes of limitation.

I claim:

1. A pile fabric formed from weft yarns, groups of warp yarns, and at least two sets of pile yarns in the fomi of loops extending over and across groups of warp yarns, the loops of each pile yarn of one set being arranged in the form of a series of successive loops extending in a common weftwise direction oppositely from and weftwise of at least certain of the loops formed from the pile yarns of the other set in at least one section of the fabric, and wherein each loop in said series extends over and across at least one of said groups of warp yarns.

2. A pile fabn'c according to claim 1, wherein at least one of the loops in said series extends over and across a plurality of said groups of warp yarns.

3. A pile fabric according to claim 1, wherein at least some of said certain of the loops formed from the pile yarns of the other set are in the form of another series of successive loops formed from each pile yarn of said other set.

4. A pile fabric according to claim 1, including at least one other fabric section warpwise of said first-named fabric section, and wherein at least one of said sets of pile yarns is disposed out of crossing relation with respect to, and extends warpwise between, adjacent groups of warp yarns and past at least two adjacent shots of weft yarn.

5. A pile fabric according to claim I, wherein said weft yarns are arranged as weft shots each comprising a pair of lower strands of weft yarn and a pair of upper strands of weft yarn, and wherein the lower bights of each of the pile loops of at least one set of the pile yarns extend beneath both pairs of strands of each weft shot.

6. A pile fabric according to claim I, wherein said weft yarns are arranged as weft shots each comprising a pair of lower strands of weft yarn and a pair of upper strands of weft yarn, and wherein the lower bights of the pile loops formed from at least one of the sets of pile yarns extend between the lower and upper pairs of strands of each weft shot.

7. A pile fabric according to claim 1, wherein said weft yarns are arranged in the form of weft shots each comprising a pair of lower strands of weft yarn and a pair of upper strands of weft yarn, wherein the lower bights of the pile loops of one set of pile yarns extend between the lower and upper pairs of strands of each weft shot, and wherein the lower bights of the pile loops of the other set of pile yarns extend beneath both pairs of strands of each weft shot.

8. A pile fabric according to claim 1, wherein said pile yarns pass beneath all of a plurality of said weft yarns in said fabric section, with both legs of each loop in each weftwise row extending between an immediately adjacent pair of said weft yarns in a one-shot weave.

9. A pile fabric according to claim 1, in which said weft yarns are arranged as weft shots in a multiple-shot weave, each weft shot including at least two strands of weft yarn, and

wherein the upper bight of each loop in each weftwise row formed therefrom extends over at least one of said weft shots.

1!). A pile fabric according to claim 1, wherein at least one pile yarn of said one set is of contrasting appearance with respect to at least one pile yarn of said other set.

11. A pile fabric according to claim 1, wherein said pile loops are of variant heights.

12. A pile fabric according to claim 11, wherein the upper bights of some of said pile loops engage those groups of warp yarns over which they extend to form ground-engaging loops.

13. A pile fabric formed from warp yarns, weft yarns and at least two sets of warpwise extending pile yarns forming pile loops extending weftwise over warp yarns, and wherein at least a section of said fabric has each of the loops formed from one set of pile yarns extending over a greater number of warp yarns than each of the loops formed from the other set of pile yarns.

14. A woven pile fabric formed from weft shots, groups of warp yarns, and at least two sets of pile yarns in the form of pile loops extending over and across groups of warp yarns, and wherein, in at least one section of the fabric, at least one pile loop formed from each pile yarn of one set extends weftwise over and across a plurality of groups of warp yarns, and at least certain of the loops formed from each pile yarn of the other set extend weftwise over and across a lesser number of groups of warp yarns.

15. A woven pile fabric formed from weft yarn interwoven with groups of warp yarns, and at least two sets of pile yarns passing below weft yarns and extending over and across groups of warp yarns in the form of pile loops, and wherein, in at least a section of the fabric, the weftwise extent of the loops formed from each pile yarn of one set is greater than the weftwise extent of the loops formed from each pile yarn of the other set.

16. A pile fabric according to claim 15, wherein each pile yarn of said one set in said fabric section is looped under at least one weft yam, over and across at least two groups of warp yarns and then under at least one succeeding weft yarn to form pile loops whose upper bights each extend over at least two groups of warp yarns.

17. A pile fabric according to claim 15, wherein each pile yarn of said one set in said fabric section is looped under at least one weft yarn, across and above at least one group of warp yarns, under at least one succeeding weft yarn, across and above at least one other group of warp yarns, and then under at least one other succeeding weft yarn to form successive pile loops thereof which extend across different respective groups of ground warps.

18. A pile fabric according to claim 15, having at least one other fabric section warpwise of said first-named fabric section wherein at least one set of pile yarns is disposed out of crossing relation with respect to, and extends warpwise between, groups of warp yarns and past at least two adjacent weft shots formed from said weft yarns.

19. A woven pile fabric formed from weft shots interwoven with groups of warp yarns, and at least two sets of pile yarns passing beneath weft shots, with each pile yarn of both sets forming a pile loop extending in the same weftwise direction over and across at least one group of warp yarns in at least a first section of the fabric, at least one other section of said fabric having the pile loops formed from one set of pile yarns extending in the opposite weftwise direction from that in which they extend in said first section of the fabric and also extending in the opposite weftwise direction from pile loops of the other set of pile yarns.

20. A woven pile fabric having first and second pile loop fabric sections formed from weft shots, groups of warp yarns, and at least two sets of warpwise extending pile yarns forming weftwise extending pile loops, with the weftwise extent of the pile loops formed from each pile yarn of one set being greater in said first section than in said second section, and wherein, in at least one of said sections, the loops formed from the pile yarns of one set extend in the opposite weftwise direction from the loops fomied from the pile yarns of the other set.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2655951 *Mar 6, 1948Oct 20, 1953Marshall Field & CompanyLoop pile fabric
US2715918 *Feb 20, 1952Aug 23, 1955Lees & Sons Co JamesModified axminster loom and method
US2860669 *Oct 4, 1956Nov 18, 1958John H BaileHigh and low pile fabric and method of making same
US2974690 *Jun 26, 1957Mar 14, 1961Magee Carpet CompanyLoop pile fabric
US3349812 *Jan 12, 1966Oct 31, 1967Fieldcrest Mills IncShaggy cut pile fabric
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4403633 *Jun 11, 1981Sep 13, 1983Fieldcrest Mills, Inc.Woven pile fabric
US4406309 *Oct 5, 1981Sep 27, 1983Fieldcrest Mills, Inc.Method and apparatus for forming a woven pile fabric
US6457490 *Feb 15, 2001Oct 1, 2002N.V. Michel Van De WieleLoop pile fabric and method for weaving it
US7520303 *Jun 23, 2006Apr 21, 2009N.V. Michel Van De WieleMethod for weaving a fabric, fabric woven by means of such a method and weaving machine for weaving such a fabric
US20040129333 *Jan 7, 2003Jul 8, 2004Hiram SamelMethod for weaving floor coverings
US20070006932 *Jun 23, 2006Jan 11, 2007N.V. Michel Van De WieleMethod for weaving a fabric, fabric woven by means of such a method and weaving machine for weaving such a fabric
Classifications
U.S. Classification139/402
International ClassificationD03D39/00
Cooperative ClassificationD03D39/00, D03D2700/54
European ClassificationD03D39/00
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Oct 20, 1986ASAssignment
Owner name: FIELD CREST CANNON, INC.,
Free format text: MERGER;ASSIGNORS:CANNON MILLS COMPANY, A NC CORP. (INTO);FIELDCREST MILLS, INC., A DE. CORP.;REEL/FRAME:004616/0487
Effective date: 19860306
May 22, 1986ASAssignment
Owner name: FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF BOSTON THE
Free format text: SECURITY INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:FIELDCREST MILLS, INC., A CORP OF DE.;REEL/FRAME:004558/0052
Effective date: 19860130