US 3626450 A
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United States Patent l 72] Inventors Frederick S. Browne Euclld; Hlralal V. Patel, Cleveland, both of Ohio [21 Appl. No. 849,425  Filed Aug. 12, 1969  Patented Dec. 7, .1971  Assignee The Weatherhead Company Cleveland, Ohio  PORTABLE SWAGlNG TOOL 6 Claims, 4 Drawing Figs.
 11.8. C1 72/402, 72/452, 72/410. 29/237 [51-] lnt.C1 521d 41/00  Field ol'Search 72/402, 399, 412, 415, 416, 459, 452, 460, 467, 470, 410; 29/237  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,379,717 5/1921 Parsons et a1 72/467 741,073 10/1903 Schrader 72/402 3,381,515 5/1968 Orloff 72/402 Primary ExaminerRichard .l. Herbst Assistant ExaminerMichael J. Keenan AltomeyMcNenny, Farrington, Pearne & Gordon ABSTRACT: In an apparatus for swagging a sleeve onto a tubular member inserted therein, the swagging die is split into three identical segments, each of which is provided with an internal swagging die portion and an externally coned outer surface. The externally coned surface of each die segment is keyed to an internally coned socket member, so that displacement of the die segments with respect to the socket member opens and closes a swagging die cavity defined by the three die portions to permit loading and removing the sleeve and tubu-' lar member. The die segments are displaced by an actuator which includes a pusher plate and a cam acting between the pusher plate and the socket member. The pusher plate is connected to the die segments by a connector that permits relative radial movement between each die segment and the pusher plate.
PORTABLE SWAGING TOOL BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates generally to a method and an apparatus for attaching sleeves to tubular members inserted therein, and more particularly to such a method and apparatus in which the attachment is effected by radial deformation of the sleeve. Still more particularly, the invention relates to a swagging method and a swagging apparatus in which the swagging die is radially separable to permit insertion and removal of the workpiece.
Swagging machines for attaching sleeves to tubular members inserted therein generally apply an axial force to one end of the sleeve to force the sleeve into a circular swagging die cavity of smaller diameter than the external surface of the sleeve to uniformly deform the sleeve radially inwardly to grip the tubular member. The axial swagging force may be applied either by moving a ram toward a stationary swagging die or by moving the swagging die toward a stationary ram.
In many instances, the sleeve and tubular member are short enough that they may be inserted and removed between the retracted ram and swagging die, and in such cases the radial opening of the swagging die need be only enough to allow easy removal of the workpiece. In many other instances, however, the sleeve and tubular members are too long to be inserted between the retracted ram and swagging die. In this latter case, it is necessary to load and remove the workpiece through the open end of the swagging die (that is, the end of the swagging die opposite the end which faces the ram). Because the sleeve may have an enlarged end portion such as a hose fitting or an electrical contact, or because the swagging die is tapered so that the workpiece cannot be forced completely through the die cavity, it is generally necessary to split the swagging die to permit convenient insertion and removal of the workpiece. v
Such split swagging dies are commonly split into two substantially semicircular matching die segments, each of which is secured in one arm of a two-arm fixture. The two arms are hinged together at one end so that they may be opened and closed to separate and bring together the matching segments along an arcuate path. A locking clamp device is generally also provided to maintain the fixture and dies in the closed position during the swagging operation.
Although such split and hinged swagging dies have received rather wise commercial usage, they are nevertheless subject to certain inherent disadvantages. It is difficult to hold such dies together in tightly abutting engagement during the swagging operation because the radially outward force imposed by the workpiece tends to open the dies. This problem is particularly important on high-production swagging machines, because the locking clamp is repeatedly opened and closed, which may cause wearing of the locking surfaces and result in an inadequate lock so that the dies may be slightly separated during the swagging operation. This, of course, may result in an improper swage. Furthermore, such split and hinged swagging dies generally require a rather cumbersome hinge-type fixture and locking device which may be awkward and time-consuming to operate on a high-production machine. Because the greatest portion of time consumed in such a swagging operation is generally consumed by the loading and removal of the workpiece, any timesaving opening and closing arrangement for the dies will appreciably increase the overall efficiency of the swagging machine.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION These and other difficulties and disadvantages of prior art machines and methods for attaching sleeves to tubular members by plastic deformation of the sleeve are overcome by the present invention, which provides a simple method and apparatus for loading and removing workpieces from such machines which are particularly adapted for high-production swagging machines. The invention provides such a method and apparatus in which the split swagging dies may be quickly opened and closed, and in which the die is positively and mechanically locked in its closed position during the swagging operation. Furthermore, the axially applied swagging force also acts to maintain the split die in its closed position.
According to the principles of the invention, the swagging die is split into a plurality of swagging die segments, each of which includes an internal swagging die portion and an externally'coned outer surface. The externally coned surface of each swagging die segment acts as a wedge and is keyed to a matching internally coned socket so that the die segments cooperatively define a swagging die cavity which is opened and closed upon movement of the segments relative to the socket. The invention further provides an actuator for moving the segments which includes a pusher plate and a connector for securing the pusher plate to each of the die sections. The connector maintains axially abutting engagement between the pusher plate and the die segments but allows radial displacement of the segments relative to the pusher plate. In this manner, the invention provides a method and apparatus for opening and closing the die cavity by unidirectional movement of a single pusher plate, which may be caused by a cam actuator. This permits the die cavity to be opened and closed rapidly for maximum efiiciency in loading and removing the workpiece. Once the workpiece has been loaded and the die cavity closed, the invention also assures that the die cavity will not be opened because the cam provides a positive mechanical lock to lock the segments in their closed positions.
In a specific embodiment of the invention, each die segment is individually keyed to the matching coned socket so that the die segments move along a path determined by the contour of their external surfaces. The pusher .plate is an annular ring having slotted holes extending outwardly from and circumferentially spaced about a central opening. These slotted holes each receive a threaded stud having an enlarged diameter head portion, such as a cap screw or the like, to threadably secure each die segment to the pusher plate. Because the holes are slotted, relative radial movement of the sections with respect to the pusher plate is freely permitted.
The actuator in the preferred embodiment includes a yoke which is pivotally connected to the pusher plate at its central portion and which is pivotally connected to the socket at one of its ends. The other end of the yoke is provided with a cam which acts between the yoke and the socket to displace the pusher plate toward and away from the socket. This permits actuation of a single cam to open and close the die cavity for insertion and removal of the workpiece.
These and other objects and advantages of the invention will become more readily apparent to those skilled in the art upon a full understanding of the preferred embodiment of the invention described in detail hereinafter.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a top plan view, reduced in size, of a swagging machine incorporating the present invention, with the swagging die cavity opened;
FIG. 2 is a side elevational view in cross section, taken along line 2-2 in FIG. I, but with the die cavity in its closed position and with a sleeve and tubular member positioned within the machine;
FIG. 3 is an end elevational view taken along reference view line 3-3 in FIG. 1, partly in cross section and with portions broken away for clarity; and
FIG. 4 is an end elevational view of the split swagging die when in the same direction as in FIG. 3.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring now to the drawings in greater detail, FIG. 1 shows a portable swagging machine 10 which is rigidly mounted on the top surface of a tool room type table 11. The swagging machine 10 includes a ram 12, which may be pneumatically operated in the specific embodiment shown in the drawings. Air to actuate the ram 12 is supplied to an actuating iston within the base or frame 13 through an air filter 14 and an air lubricator 15. The actuating piston is slidably disposed within a cylinder along an axis that is substantially perpendicular to and that intersects the longitudinal axis of the ram 12. Axial displacement of the actuating piston displaces a cam to advance and retract the ram 12, the right end of which is provided with a cam follower which is spring biased against the cam. These structural details of the means for operating the ram 12 are not specifically shown in the drawings because the ram could be operated by any suitable means such as a hydraulic or mechanical means such as are well known to the art.
The swagging machine is also provided with a suitable control circuit that is arranged so that actuation of a start button l8 advances the ram 12 from its retracted position shown in FIG. 1 to a fully advanced position and then returns it to is retracted position. An emergency reversing valve 19 is provided to reverse the direction of travel of the ram 12 under emergency conditions at any time during the swaggingcycle. Again, the pneumatic circuit has not been shown in detail in the drawings because it is well known to the prior art and because apart from the functions described hereinafter it forms no part of the present invention.
The base portion 13 includes two longitudinally projecting arms 21 and 22 which terminate in threaded stud portions 23 and 24, respectively. which cooperate to secure a swagging die holder 30 to the arms 21 and 22.
The die holder 30 is provided with a passage which extends axially therethrough and which has an internally coned or inclined surface 31 to provide a socket for receiving a swagging die assembly 32. The die 32 is cut or split into a plurality of substantially identical cooperating die segments 33, each of which is provided with an externally coned or wedgeshaped outer surface 34 and an internal swagging die portion 35. The die portions 35 of the segments 33 cooperatively define a swagging die cavity 36. The die 32 may be split into any desired number of segments, and in the preferred embodiment it is split into three segments. The externally coned surface of each die segment 35 is provided with a slotted dovetail keyway 37 which is adapted to accept a dovetail shaped key.
The internally coned surface 31 of the die holder 30 is provided with three circumferentially spaced dovetail keys 40, which are secured to the surface 31 by means of screws 41. The keys 40 are received by the keyways 37 to insure that the die sections 33 follow the contour of the internally coned surface 31 to open and close the die cavity 36 when the die sections are axially displaced relative to the die holder 30.
To axially displace the die sections 33, the invention provides an actuator device which includes an annular pusher plate 50. The pusher plate 50 includes a passage 51 for receiving the projecting end portion of a workpiece, and the passage 51 is slightly larger in diameter than the diameter of the opened die cavity 36. The die segments 33 are connected to the pusher plate 50 by a connector means that permits relative radial movement therebetween so that the die segments may be radially displaced relative to the pusher plate 50. In the preferred embodiment, this connector means includes a series of circumferentially spaced slotted holes 53 extending outwardly from the passage 51. Each slotted hole 53 slidably receives a bolt 54 which is threadably received by a threaded hole 55 in one radial end face of the swagging die 32. By this arrangement, the individual die sections 33 are free to be radially displaced with respect to the pusher plate 50 at the same time as they are axially displaced by the pusher plate 50. A pusher plate yoke 59 is pivotally connected at one end to the die holder 30 by means of a pivot pin 60 and the yoke support 61. The central portion of the yoke 59 is pivotally connected to the swagging die assembly 32 by pivot pins 63 and 64.
The actuator device further includes a cam 65 which is pivotally connected to the other end of the yoke 59 by a pivot pin 66. A control handle 67 is provided to manually operate the cam 65 between the end of the yoke 59 and a surface of the die holder 30. By this arrangement. the die sections 33 will be pulled to the left as viewed in FIG. 2 to close the die cavity 36 when the cam 65 is rotated so that its cam lobe 68 forces the yoke 59 toward the left away from the die holder 30. In this manner, the cam 65 closes the die cavity and provides a positive mechanical lock to maintain the die cavity in its closed position. Rotation of the handle 67 to its vertical position as shown in FIG. 3 unlocks the pusher plate 50 to permit the plate 50 to move toward the right and displace the die sections 33 to open the die cavity 36. As the handle 67 is rotated to its vertical position, the flat 70 on the handle contacts the surface 71 of the yoke 59 so that any further clockwise moment (as viewed in FIG. 2) exerted on the handle 67 will force the pusher plate 50 to the right to open the die cavity 36.
To operate the swagging machine 10, the handle 67 is first placed in its vertical position to open the die cavity 36. This permits a length of tubing 75 and a sleeve 76 that is to be swaged onto the tubing 75, to be inserted from the left through the opened die cavity and onto a suitable mandrel 77 as viewed in FIG. 2. In the particular example shown in the drawings, the sleeve 76 is shown as being a weldable tube fitting of the type disclosed in US. Pat. No. 3,439,94l granted Apr. 22, 1969. The mandrel 77 includes a reduced diameter projecting end portion 78 which projects into the tubing 75 to prevent collapse of the tubing during the swagging operation. A loose fit is maintained between the tubing 75 and the portion 78 to permit easy removal of the tubing after swagging and if desired a small amount of suitable die lubricant may be applied to the end portion 78 to prevent sticking. A second reduced diameter end portion 79 is adapted for mounting on the ram 15 and to maintain proper alignment of the tubing and sleeve with respect to the ram and the swagging die 32.
Once the tubing and sleeve have been positioned on the mandrel as shown in FIG. 2, the die cavity is closed and locked by counterclockwise rotation of the handle 67 to form a smooth and substantially continuous swagging die surface. The start button is actuated to operate the machine to advance the ram 15 to the left as shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 to force the sleeve 76 to a predetermined distance into the matching swagging portion 80 of the die cavity 36. This distance is controlled by internal stops or other controls in the swagging machine 10 although it may also be controlled by engagement of the surface 81 of the mandrel 77 with the radial end face 82 of the swagging die 32. Because the cam 65 locks the swagging die segments 33 in the closed position, and because of the axial force exerted by the ram 15, the die segments 33 cannot open during the swagging operation.
Once the sleeve 76 has been swaged onto the tubing 75 in this manner, the ram 15 is retracted to the position shown in FIG. 1 and the cam 65 is rotated by the handle 67 to unlock the die sections 33 and to open the die cavity 36. This permits removal of the tubing 75 with its attached sleeve 76 from the swagging machine 10 and prepares the machine for receiving the next workpiece.
Although a preferred embodiment of the invention has been shown and described in detail, it is to be understood that various modifications and rearrangements may be resorted to without departing from the scope of the invention.
What is claimed is:
1. An actuator for operating each of a plurality of cooperating die segments between an opened position and a closed position along a path determined by the contour of the outside surface of each of said die segments, comprising a pusher plate, connector means to positively connect each of said die segments to said pusher plate, said connector means permitting relative movement between said pusher plate and each of said die segments, cam means operable to axially displace said pusher plate to operate said die segments along said paths, said cam means locking said die segments in said closed positions, a support member having one end pivotally connected to a stationary member and a central portion pivotally connected to said pusher plate, said cam means operating between the other end of said pusher plate and a stationary member.
2. An actuator as set forth in claim 1 wherein said connector means includes a slotted aperture extending through said pusher plate, and a threaded stud passing through said slotted hole and threadably engaging one of said die segments 3. A die assembly comprising a socket member defining a central opening therein, said opening having a wall flaring conically outwardly toward one 'side of said socket member, a plurality of die segments having inner surface defining a die cavity, said die segments having outer surfaces in camming engagement with said opening wall, guide means interconnecting said die segments and said socket member for axial and radial movement with the outer surfaces of said die segments in engaging contact with the walls of said opening, a pusher plate on the other side of said socket member, means interconnecting each of said die segments to said pusher plate, said interconnecting means preventing relative axial movement between said die segments and said pusher plate while permitting radial movement between said die segments and said pusher plate, a yoke on the other side of said socket member having one end pivotally connected to said socket member,
means intermediate the ends of said yoke pivotally connecting said yoke about said first pivot point moves said pusher plate and said die segments axially in said opening to change the radial dimensions of said die cavity, and an actuating means at the other end of said yoke operable to move said other end of said yoke axially with respect to said socket member.
4. A die assembly as set forth in claim 3 wherein said guide means comprises dovetail slots on the outer surface of said die segments and dovetail keys on the flaring conical wall of said socket member.
5. A swagging die assembly as set forth in claim 3 wherein said actuating means comprises a lever pivotally connected to said other end of said yoke and cam means carried by said lever adapted to engage said other side of said socket member.
6. A swagging die assembly as set forth in claim 5 including stop means limiting rotation of said lever with respect to said yoke whereby movement of said lever in one direction engages said stop means to permit said lever in said yoke to move as a unit in said one direction.
Patent No. '3 Q25 n 4&0 De'cec'i December 7' 1971 "invent Frcederiek 5,, Brewne and Va Patel It is certified that error appears in the above-ifientified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrcected as shown "below:
Cali-mm 6 line 2;, delete about said pivei: point insert 520 said pusher plate whereby aretetienel movement 0;: said yeke about said first 'pive'i: pointn "time Abstract: lines lfl change swagging to -'-swag'ing Column 4 lines 23 13 6 73 ELLSS EY GSflE ehange a W. I W Column 3, lines l3,l9,26 .5l,34,36 mgw chan e swegghng t0 -swaginr 1 w a a, .v: 1 Seeurm 6 11119.3 ini is cuem e ewegging LG swagirzg FORM PQ-i050 (10-69) SCOMNF'DC 60376-P69 US. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1969 0-36G-334