US 3626552 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 14, 1971 3,626,552
PROCESS AND MEANS FOR TREATING TEXTILE FIBRES D. WALKER ETAL 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed NOV. 17,
/Nl//\/TO DONALD WALKER and MICHAEL JOHN WA KER By M i) f ATT E Dec. 14, 1971 WALKER T 3,626,552
PROCESS AND MEANS FOR TREATING TEXTILE FIBRES Filed Nov. 17, 1969 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 //vvE/\ OQ DONALD WALKER and MICHAEL JOHN W KE ATT Dec. 14, 1971 WALKER ETAL 3,626,552
PROCESS AND MEANS FOR TREATING TEXTILE FIBRES Filed Nov. 17, 1969 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Tw w /v l/LA/TOP D LD WALKER and MIC L JOHN ALKER AOEY United States Patent M 3,626,552 PROCESS AND MEANS FOR TREATING TEXTILE FIBRES Donald Walker, 58 Brarnley Lane, Lightclitfe, near Halifax, England, and Michael John Walker, 36 Florence Ave., Wilsden, near Bradford, England Continuation-impart of application Ser. No. 660,785, Aug. 15, 1967. This application Nov. 17, 1969, Ser. No. 877,198 Claims priority, application Great Britain, Aug. 22, 1966, 33,172/ 66 Int. Cl. Dg 19/06 US. Cl. 19129 3 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Apparatus for treating a random mass of wool or other textile fibres to convert them into a lap or sliver having the fibres in substantially parallel formation, wherein the random mass of fibres is supplied between a pair of pinned feed rollers whose pins co-operate to effect a restraining but non-positive grip on the material whilst it is drawn from the pins of the rollers by faller gills moving at a speed at least three times as fast as that at which the fibres are forwarded by said rollers to straighten the fibres in the space between the rollers and the nearest faller gills, which space is not greater than the mean fibre length of the material being treated, the fibres then being drawn off the faller gills by delivery rollers.
This invention relates to a gilling process and gilling apparatus for straightening a random mass of textile fibres to facilitate subsequent combing and constitutes a continuation-in-part, of our application Ser. No. 660,785 filed Aug. 15, 1967, now abandoned.
The invention is particularly suited to straightening a random mass of wool fibres whether in the scoured or in greasy condition, that is whether washed or unwashed, and will be more particularly described in this specification with reference to this material, but the term textile fibres used in this specification and in the appended claims is to be understood as including other textile fibres, whether natural or artificial (i.e. synthetic) and whether in their natural state or after coating treatment, which may be advantageously treated or further treated in accordance with the invention.
-It is usual in the textile industry to treat the randomly arranged fibrous materials at an early stage of the manufacturing process to a straightening treatment aimed at untangling the individual fibres and bringing them collectively into substantially mutual alignment so as to facilitate the subsequent combing treatment.
Methods for straightening fibres espectially wool fibres are known. The one most commonly used is that of carding followed by gilling where the carded slivers are fed by a pair of feed rollers in which they are positively gripped, to gill fallers provided with pins moving at substantially the same surface speed as that of the feed rollers but at a slower rate than the surface speed of the delivery rollers which draw the material from the faller pins. It is widely recognised that the carding process, due to the harsh action on the material by the various cylinders, causes excessive breakage of fibres and nep formation. Also, in the case of the final transfer of the material to the doifer cylinder, considerable hooking of fibres occurs. The gilling process described above acts merely as a further straightening process to the carded sliver and is only suitable for already partially straightened fibres, as any attempt to treat a random mass of partially entangled fibres by drawing it through faller pins at a higher surface speed than that of the fallers causes much fibre breakage.
Patented Dec. 14, 1971 "In another method which has been used the scoured material in either open or tangled condition is fed as a loose mat by a pair of feed rollers in which it is positively gripped to gill fallers provided with pins moving at a faster rate than the surface speed of the feed rollers but at a slower rate than the surface speed of the delivery rollers which draw the material from the faller pins. In this method the straightening action depends substantially on the treatment by the faller pins on the random mass of fibres held in the positive grip of the feed rollers. With any excessive entangement the faller pins will not be able to comb through the fibres but will break them, besides which undue strain will be placed upon the faller bars and their propelling mechanism.
A proposal has been made in the Grivel patents U.S. No. 1,494,833 and French No. 29,025 (1st Addition) to modify a gill intersecting double needle comb drawing machine for W001, flax, hemp and similar materials by inserting before the needle combs a plurality of needle cylinders of which the relative position can be adjusted. These needle cylinders take the place of some of the leading needle combs (faller bars) and the material is fed to them by the positive nip of a pair of feed rollers and drawn from them by a drawing cylinder (draw rollers). Whilst this disclosure makes no reference to the relative speeds of the feed rollers, needle cylinders, needle bars and drawing cylinder nor to the degree of longitudinal spacing apart of these four sets of elements, the modifications are stated to be related to the improvement of standard gill intersecting needle comb drawing machines by reducing the number of needle combs required.
It is apparent that in this disclosure, no increase of surface speed between the needle cylinders and the needle bars having been described, the needle cylinders are only intended to act as substitutes for a number of needle bars and so to assist the remaining needle bars in imposing a restraining and combing out action on the material being drawn through the pins by the draw cylinders. The Grivel specification described a plurality of needle cylinders with interchangeable needle number fittings whereby the first cylinder contains the rough (or coarse) pinning and the final one immediately before the needle combs the finest, it being clearly intended that the material should receive a gradually progressive retention by separate and individual action by each cylinder. If the intention had been to use any two cylinders, intersecting or non-intersecting, acting on the material at one and the same time, which would require these cylinders to be located in a substantially vertical plane, different needle number fittings would not be required.
By reference to the description and drawings of this disclosure it would be clear to one skilled in the art that the needle cylinder bodies are of relatively large diameter and the pins correspondingly short. Whilst this arrangement is suitable for treating fibres already partially straightened and converted into silver formation, material in random mass would only receive partial treatment as a proportion of the fibres would ride on top of the pins and so not be properly drafted, whilst the distance between the point of pin control of the respective cylinders and the point of pin control between the last cylinder and the first needle bar would be too great to maintain effective draft control.
It is further described that the position of the needle cylinders can be adjusted, this provision only being necessary when material is drawn on a single. needle comb set when presumably the material must be presented to the needle combs on a slightly lower plane. The needle cylinders are shown as occupying the three points of a triangle with a substantially horizontal base, the upper cylinder lying in a vertical plane between the other two, the cylinder nearest to the needle bars can be adjusted slightly when the upper needle comb set is not in use but without substantially altering the triangular formation. Any attempt to bring the cylinder nearest to the needle combs into a substantially vertical plane with the upper cylinder would result in the distance between a line drawn throug. the centre plane of these two cylinders and the first needle bar becoming so great that any control of fibres at this point would have only minimal straightening effect. If a machine as described and so constructed were applied to the straightening of a random mass of partially entangled fibres and same drawbacks as described with reference to the first known method referred to above would ensue.
Alternatively, if this prior construction could be regarded as suitable for treating a random mass of fibres in the manner of said second known method where the main straightening action occurs between the positive nip of the feed rollers and the fallers, the angle of pins on the substituted cylinders as described would result in a sliding and non-penetrating action through the mass of fibres without accomplishing any straightening action. Should it be presumed that the needle cylinders be made to revolve in an opposite rotary plane whereby the first cylinder combs through and takes off the material gripped in the feed roller nip at a greater surface speed and the second cylinder strips the first again at a greater surface speed and so throughout any plurality of cylinders to the needle bars also travelling at a still higher surface speed, exces sive fibre breakage would be created for the same reasons as described with reference to the second known method. On such a machine as described and illustrated the needle bars could not take off the material from the final needle cylinder, because the angle of the cylinder pins at this point would impose a retaining grip on the material.
Moreover, as described and illustrated in this disclosure the material is fed into the feed roller nip and thence to the first needle cylinder. Whilst this method would be suitable for conveying fibres already partially straightened and formed into a cohesive sliver, the means so described would not be applicable to a random mass of fibres as, due to the loose formation of this mass, some feed means additional to the roller nip would be required, besides which the mass could not support itself between the nip of the rollers and the first needle cylinder.
It must be concluded therefore that this prior machine was never intended to and could not possibly treat a random mass of partially entangled fibres where the primary object is that of rendering these into a substantially parallel formation without causing undue breakage of fibres.
It is important that in the straightening of a random mass of fibres the treatment applied should allow the fibres or, in the case of greasy wool, the staples to be drawn apart from each other without imposing the restraining action of a positive grip at any given point.
It is clear that any one of the methods earlier described is not suitable for treating such a random mass where the aim is to achieve substantial alignment without causing undue fibre breakage.
One object of this invention is therefore to provide an improved gilling process and gilling apparatus for treating a random mass of any suitable textile fibres whereby the fibres can be straightened out to a great degree without causing an excessive amount of breakage of fibres.
Another object is to provide such a gilling process and gilling apparatus whereby the fibres can be sufficiently straightened and aligned in a mat of the material to enable the usual carding or like process to be dispensed with.
A still further object is to provide such a gilling appa ratus which can readily be adjusted to suit materials of different character and particularly according to the mean fibre length of the material to be treated.
A still further object is to provide such a gilling process and gilling apparatus which will be particularly suitable 4 for treating greasy wool in lock form or scoured wool in lock form for straightening the locks and/or the fibres without causing excessive fibre breakage.
The gilling process according to the invention comprises the steps of supplying the random mass of fibres between a pair of rotatably driven pinned feed rollers which exert a restraining but non-positive grip on the fibres, drawing said fibres off the pins of said rollers by engaging the fibres by faller gills moving at a speed at least three times the speed at which the fibres are forwarded by said feed rollers to straighten the fibres of said material in the space between said feed rollers and the nearest of said faller gills, the longitudinal dimension of said space being not greater than the mean fibre length of the material being treated, and drawing said fibres off said faller gills at a speed greater than that at which the faller gills move.
The gilling apparatus according to the invention comprises a pair of rotatably driven feed rollers located with their axes of rotation in a common substantially vertical plane; means for supplying the random mass of fibrous material to be treated between said feed rollers; pins provided on each one of said feed rollers which are arranged on one of said feed rollers to co-operate with the pins on the other one of said feed rollers when said rollers are driven in Opposite angular directions to one another whereby the two sets of pins on the two feed rollers penetrate substantially the full thickness of the mass of fibrous material and effect a restraining but non-positive grip on the fibrous material passing between said feed rollers; a pair of rotatably driven deliver rollers for effecting a positive draw-off of the material; and faller gills located in a path between said feed rollers and said delivery rollers, whereby said faller gills are arranged to move along said path at a speed at least three times the surface speed at which the tips of said pins move to straighten the fibres of said material in the space between said feed rollers and the nearest of said faller gills, the distance between said common plane through the axes of said feed rollers and the nearest of said faller gills being not greater than the mean fibre length of the material being treated.
With the above stated objects in view the invention will now be described with reference to the accompanying diagrammatic drawings, which illustrate by Way of example one embodiment of the invention particularly suitable for handling greasy wool before scouring. In these drawings:
FIG. 1 represents in side elevation the essential parts of the apparatus, the gill box being represented only by its faller bars and arrows indicating the direction of movement of the parts;
FIG. 2 represents a fragmentary plan view of the pinned rollers shown in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 represents in side elevation two clearer devices co-operating with the pinned rollers;
FIG. 4 represents a fragmentary end elevation of the clearer comb shown in FIG. 3;
FIG. 5 represents in side elevation a clearer device cooperating with the faller pins near the front (i.e. delivery end) of the apparatus;
FIG. 6 represents a detail of the mounting means for the upper one of said pinned rollers;
FIGS. 7 and 8 represent respectively a plan and a side elevation of the pinned rollers and faller bars and illustrate how these elements deal with the random mass of material in accordance with this invention;
FIGS. 9 and 10 correspond respectively to FIGS. 7 and 8 but illustrate what would happen to the fibres if the pinned rollers are not correctly spaced from the nearest faller bars.
According to the illustrated embodiment of the inven tion wool fibres W in the form of greasy locks, i.e. as sheared from the sheep. are fed by any conventional hopper means (not shown) to an endless conveyor 1 provided with a feed assisting roller 2 thus lightly condensing, but not positively gripping the locks of wool which as indicated at 3 are forwarded by the conveyor 1 and roller 2 to a gilling operation. The locks lie in random order as they are forwarded towards the gill and they are passed between upper and lower pinned feed rollers 4 and 5 whose axes of rotation lie in a common substantially vertical plane. These rollers are driven at the same speed but in opposite directions as indicated by the arrows in FIGS. 1 and 3. Each roller has a cylindrical body portion 6 set with pins 7 which are backwardly inclined against the direction of rotation of that roller and which cover the whole working length of the roller.
As indicated in FIG. 6 the lower pinned roller 5 is mounted in bearings 23 in a support 24 which fix the axis of rotation of this roller when the machine is operating. The upper pinned roller 4- is mounted in bearings 25 in an arm 26 pivoted at 27 for yielding movement upwardly against the pressure of spring 28 so that variations in the thickness of the mat of fibres fed through will tend to lift roller 4 or allow it to descend according to the thickness of the fibre mat and thus ensure that the pins of the respective rollers penetrate the mat of material so as to restrain and straighten the material as later described. An adjustable stop 29 determines the degree of intersection of the pins 7.
The gill box also includes conventional intersecting fallers 8 and delivery rollers 9, the fallers 8 having pins 30 which engage the fibrous material fed to them by the pinned rollers 4, 5 and which move at a forward speed preferably at least three times the surface speed at which the tips of the pins 7 move. The zone through which the material passes between leaving the point of maximum restraining action of the pins 7 and being engaged by the gill pins 30 will have a longitudinal dimension or ratch R (see FIG. 1) which will be adjusted before starting the machine to suit the mean fibre length of the fibres in the material to be treated, because it is essential that at least the majority of the individual fibres should still have their rear ends under control of the pinned rollers when their forward ends come under control of the nearest gill pins.
This ratch can be accurately controlled by reason of the mounting of the pinned feed rollers substantially vertically one above the other, which enables a very close estimate to be made of the point at which the fibres pass out of the control of the pins 7.
The choice of a suitable dimension for this ratch thus ensures that as the gill pins 30 engage the fibres they first exert a straightening action whilst such fibres are restrained by the pins 7, but as the gill pins 30 gain control over such fibres and begin to draw them out of the pinned rollers, the fibres are drawn through the pins 7 and thus subjected to a further straightening action. Since there is no positive grip on the fibre locks at the pinned feed rollers the locks are drawn through the pins 7 and thus aligned without too much disturbance of the fibres within the locks, which fibres are already by nature substantially in parallel formation within each lock. The fact that there is no positive grip on the fibre locks by the pinned feed rollers will prevent excessive fibre breakage which Would occur in conventional gills having positive-nip feed rollers when processing such materials.
The pins 7 of the pinned rollers also have the effect of taking fibre locks which may be lying substantially laterally of the direction of feed and restraining them when the gill pins 80 engage them, thereby causing these locks to be substantially aligned into the direction of feed.
It will be clear from the above explanation that the distance between the aforesaid plane through the axes of the pinned rollers and the nearest of said faller gills must necessarily be not greater than (and preferably less than) the mean fibre length of the material being treated at any particular time. For example, if the mean fibre length is of the order of 4 cms. this distance must be not more than 4 cms.
This essential requisite for the successful results achieved by the invention is illustrated in FIGS, 7 and 8, where the ratch R and the mean fibre length L are indicated, R being slightly less than L. The fibres W entering between the pinned rollers in random orientation have their front ends taken by the gill pins 30 before their rear ends have escaped from the roller pins 7 so that, due to the greater surface speed of the gill pins, the fibres are straightened and drafted. FIGS. 9 and 10 illustrate the lack of fibre control which would occur if the ratch R were greater than the length L, the fibres passing from the pins 7 to the pins 30 still in their random orientations because there is no pull exerted on the individual fibres in their direction of travel to straighten them, only a movement in that direction of the mat of fibres as a whole.
These FIGS. 7 to 10 also serve to illustrate the necessity for the faller pins 30 to travel appreciably faster than the roller pins 7 as already explained so as to exert a drafting action on the mat of fibres which will be sufficient to straighten the non-aligned fibres. Without this increase in speed then even where the ratch was of the correct dimension relative to the mean fibre length, the material taken up by the faller pins would have its fibres still lying in their random state as illustrated in FIG. 9.
The pins 7 may be set in rollers 4 and 5 at any suitable distances apart in rows across the rollers either in parallel, helical or random formation, but preferably as clearly indicated in FIGS. 1 and 3 those on one roller intersect those on the other roller at the point of contact with the material being fed. As shown in FIG. 2 the pins 7 are set in a series of circles which are spaced apart equidistantly along the roller body 6, but the circles on one roller are staggered relative to those on the other roller so that the pins on one roller pass between those on the other roller. This is shown in FIG. 2 where pinned roller 4 is shown in full lines and the pins of roller 5 are indicated by broken lines. The angles of the pins, which may be of the order of 35 to a radial line, facilitates stripping of fibres from them by the gilling action and thus avoids blocking of the pinned rollers by accumulated fibres.
The pins 7 are preferably, as illustrated, of a similar form to those generally used in the gill fallers. For treating greasy wool passing between the rollers 4, 5 in a mat approximately 4 cms. thick, the pins may project beyond the roller bodies 6 for approximately 2 /2 cms., and those on one roller may intersect those on the other roller by approximately 1 cm. This intersection of the two sets of pins ensures a complete penetration of the mat of material. However, whilst a pronounced intersecting of the pins 7 is preferred to give a greater restraining action On the whole of the fibres, the degree of intersection may be reduced to a very small amount and in some cases, for example for treating very long fibres having a mean length of the order of 13 cms. upwards, the tips of the pins may travel in circles which have a common tangent, provided substantially the whole of the fibres are subjected to the restraining action of the pins.
The density (i.e. the closeness of spacing) of the roller pins 7 and the gill pins 30 can be varied to take into consideration variations in different types or grades of fibrous material to be treated. For example, in the treatment of greasy wool having short length and fine quality characteristics where the staple formation is narrow, closer spacing of the pins in the rollers and faller bars would be required than that used for material of a coarser quality, longer length and broader staple formation.
The thickness of the random mass of fibre fed into the machine is such that, after the fibres have been straightened by the drafting action, the lap of fibres delivered from the delivery rollers is of sufficient density to allow of its subsequent manipulation as mentioned below. For example, in the case of wool in the unwashed state in which it is excessively heavy with grease and solid impurities, a greater thickness (i.e. weight per unit length) would have to be fed into the machine, in order to attain after scouring the density of lap required for subsequent manipulation and processing than would be the case when dealing with a material of a lower grease and solid impurity content.
It is to be understand that, as already mentioned earlier in this specification, a change in the density of the mat of fibres occurs between the pinned rollers and the faller bars. This change in density is, of course, governed by the diference in speed between these two units. For example, if the faller bars are made to move forward at a surface speed three times as great as that of the rollers, the density of the mat will be reduced to one third of the weight of the mat entering between the pinned rollers. Similarly, if the relative speeds are increased to the ratio of five to one, the the reduction in density will be to one fifth. This principle of drafting fibrous materials in the from of laps or slivers is well known in the textile industry, but it is applied in a particularly advantageous and accurately controlled manner in carrying out the process of this invention specifically to achieve a high degree of alignment of the fibres in the mat of material which is suppled to the pined rollers, with the fibres in random or tangled disposition.
The difference in surface speed between delivery rollers 9, and gill fallers 8 is small, the rollers preferably moving at a speed only a little higher than the speed of the fallers, but not more than four times that speed.
The pressure on the delivery or drawing-off rollers may be lighter than that normally required on conventional gills in order to further redlce the tendency to fibre damage, and preferably the top and bottom rollers are each positively driven to facilitate delivery without increasing the pressure.
An apron made of thickly woven cotton faced with a grease resistant synthetic fabric may be used in conven tional manner around one of the drawing-off rollers instead of the usual apron 11 made from leather to avoid the tendency of greasy fibres to adhere to the apron.
On leaving the delivery rollers the material in the form of a lap of aligned locks may be wound on to a bobbin at a balling head or may be delivered in continuous lap form to the next operation.
Thus, by the use of apparatus according to this invention, the need for a carding operation is obviated, the fibres being in a sufficiently straightened or parallel condi tion to be passed to the combing or equivalent treatment.
Whilst the use of two sets of intersecting fallers operating along a flat bed has been described above by way of example, we may use a single set operating along a fiat bed or otherwise. For instance the upper set of fallers 8 shown in FIG. 1 might be dispensed with.
Although the inclination of the pins 7 help to allow the fibres thereon to be pulled away by the action of the faller pins 30, we prefer to provide means for assisting the clearing of the pinned rollers. One form of such a clearer device is shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, being in the the form of a comb or forked plate 12 having teeth 13 of such a size and lateral spacing (see FIG. 4) as to pass freely between the pins 7. This comb extends the length of the pinned roller and is mounted on a frame 14 is pivotally supported at 15 and arranged to be rocked in an are about such pivot by a link 16 actuated by a suitably driven eccentric device 17. The extent of movement of this clearer is indicated in FIG. 3, the teeth 13 also acting upon the upper surface of the fibrous material to assist the feed thereof, and also to assist to some extent the straightening of the fibres at this stage. Any grease from the fibres which may tend to adhere to the pins 7 will be removed therefrom with the removal of the fibres.
An identical clearer device co-operates with the lower pinned roller and the lower surface of the material, being inverted and conveniently operated from the same means which operates the upper clearer device.
Due to the build-up of extraneous matter of either vegetable or mineral origin in the pins of the fallers during the processing of unwashed material it has been found desirable to incorprate some means of assisting the draw- 8 ing-off rollers in the clearing of these pins during operation. One method of achieving this object is as follows.
In the known mechanism of a gill box the passage of the faller bars from the working screw to the return screw is controlled by two conductor guides 18, i.e. as the fallers extract themselves from the fibrous material. A clearer blade 19 is therefore fixed by its ends to each conductor guide by means of a ball joint 20 so as not to restrict the normal spring-opposed yielding movement of the conductors about their pivots 22 in any way. The blade 19 is additionally controlled in its movement by its lower end being located between two fixed slide rails 21, which allow up and down movement of the blade but act as a pivot only for back and forward movement.
The cleaner blade 19 being actuated in such a manner will always be kept in close proximity to the pins of the faller bars 8 as they retract from the material, thereby transferring any material (which would otherwise be left in the pins) to the smooth clearer blade 19 and so greatly assisting the drawing-off rollers 9, 10 in their function. Here again, any grease from the fibres which may tend to adhere to the faller pins 30 will be removed therefrom with the removal of the fibres.
The apparatus as outlined above will not allow the pins of the fallers to come in direct Contact with the clearer blade and thereby avoids damage to either or both of the said roller pins or clearer blade.
It will be understood that a similar oscillating clearer blade co-operates with the upper set of faller bars and that the angular oscillation may be replaced by a linear reciprocation.
Although the specific embodiment described above relates to the process of treating greasy locks of wool, it should be understood that apparatus according to the invention may also be used for processing wool or any other suitable fibres whether in their natural or treated state including man-made fibre such as rayon or synthetic fibres such as nylon.
1. A gilling apparatus for treating a random mass of wool or other textile fibres, comprising a pair of rotatably driven feed rollers located with their axes of rotation in a common substantially vertical plane, means for supplying the random mass of material to be treated between said feed rollers, a set of pins provided on each of said feed rollers, said pins being backwardly inclined relative to the direction of rotation of said rollers, said feed rollers being located relative to one another and being rotated in opposite angular directions to one another whereby the paths of travel of the pins of one set intersect the paths of travel of the pins of the other set to penetrate substantially the full thickness of the material and effect a restraining but non-positive grip on the material passing between said rollers, a pair of rotatably driven delivery rollers for effecting a positive draw-off of the material, and faller gills located in a path between said feed rollers and said delivery rollers whereby said faller gills are arranged to move along said path at a speed at least three times the surface speed at which the tips of said pins move to straighten the fibres of said mate rial in the space between said feed rollers and the nearest of said faller gills, said apparatus including at least one clearer device in the form of a comb having its teeth arranged to be moved to and fro between the pins on one of said feed rollers and to be moved towards the fibrous material and partly forward in the direction of travel of the material so as to assist in the withdrawal of fibres off said pins by said faller gills and to assist the straightening of the fibres.
2. A gilling apparatus for treating a random mass of wool or other textile fibres comprising a pair of rotatably driven feed rollers located with their axes of rotation in a common substantially vertical plane; means for supplying the random mass of material to be treated between said feed rollers; a set of pins provided on each of said feed rollers, said pins being backwardly inclined relative to the direction of rotation of said rollers, said feed rollers being located relative to one another and being rotated in opposite angular directions to one another whereby the paths of travel of the pins of one set intersect the paths of travel of the pins of the other set to penetrate substantially the'full thickness of the material and effect a restraining but non-positive grip on the material passing be tween said rollers; a pair of rotatably driven delivery rollers for effecting a positive draw-off of the material; faller gills located in a path between said feed rollers and said delivery rollers, whereby said faller gills are arranged to move along said path at a speed at least three times the surface speed at which the tips of said pins move to straighten the fibres of said material in the space between said feed rollers and the nearest of said faller gills; said apparatus including yieldable conductor guides for guiding taller bars carrying said faller gills at the end of their working stroke, and a clearer device in the form of a blade mounted on said guides and extending laterally therebetween'so as to co-operate with said faller gills without touching them as the latter retract from the fibrous material and thereby assist the drawing of the fibres off said faller gills by said delivery rollers.
3. A gilling apparatus for treating a mass of loose, tangled, randomly orientated wool or other textile fibres, comprising: a pair of rotatably driven feed rollers comprising upper and lower rollers located with their axes of rotation in a substantially vertical plane; a feed assistant device including conveyor means to deliver a lightly condensed mass of predetermined thickness between said feed rollers; a pair of rotatably driven delivery rollers for effecting a positive draw-off of the mass of the material; faller gills located in a path between said feed roller and said delivery rollers; a set of pins provided on each of said feed rollers, said pins being backwardly inclined relative to the direction of rotation of said rollers; said feed rollers being arranged for rotation in opposite angular directions to one another and spaced apart so that the tips of the pins move in circles to cause the pins to cooperate with one another to eifect a combined penetration of the full thickness of the mass of fibrous material and effect a restraining but non-positive grip on the fibres of the mass drawn past said pins by said faller gills; mounting means permitting one of said pinned feed rollers to move up and down under the influence of the thickness of the material between said feed rollers; loading means acting on said vertically movable roller for yieldingly opposing said movement away from said material; and adjustable stop means to determine the limit of said movement towards said material, thereby ensuring a controlled penetration of the material by said two sets of pins; said two sets of pins defining a path of travel for the fibres between said feed rollers, which path is substantially at right angles to said plane, and said faller gills and delivery rollers being arranged to draw the mass of fibres along an extension of said path whereby the distance between said point of touching or the maximum intersection of the pins and the point of entry of the nearest gill into the mass of fibres can be determined with accuracy.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 874,715 12/1907 Westcott et a1 19129 1,494,833 5/1924 Grivel 19-129 2,086,308 7/ 1937 Hille et al 19-1.27 XR 2,607,083 8/1952 Bird 19--251 2,761,179 9/1956 LePoutre 19-258 FOREIGN PATENTS Ad. 29,025 1/1925 France 19-128 DORSEY NEWTON, Primary Examiner