|Publication number||US3629877 A|
|Publication date||Dec 28, 1971|
|Filing date||Aug 7, 1969|
|Priority date||Aug 7, 1969|
|Publication number||US 3629877 A, US 3629877A, US-A-3629877, US3629877 A, US3629877A|
|Inventors||Boes Christian H, Schuster Siegfried A|
|Original Assignee||Boes Christian H, Schuster Siegfried A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (8), Referenced by (26), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
ilnite States Patent  Inventors Siegfried A. Schuster One Berlin 39; Marinesteig 39, Christian H. Boes, One Berlin 21, Bartningallee 7, both of Germany  Appl. No. 848,300  Filed Aug. 7,1969  Patented Dec. 28, 1971  METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WAVE FORMATION IN SWIM POOLS 23 Claims, 15 Drawing Figs.
 US. Cl 4/l72.16  E04h 3/18  Field of Search 4/172.15, 172.16,172.17,180
 ReferencesCited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,034,919 8/1912 Leuschner 4/180 1,505,756 8/1924 Wagner 4/l72.l7 2,002,043 5/1935 Price 4/172,l6
Primary Examinerl-lerbert F. Ross Assistant Examiner- Donald B. Massenberg Attorney-Woodling, Krost, Granger and Rust ABSTRACT: A swim pool is disclosed with a method and apparatus for forming waves for the enjoyment of the swimmers with the waves formed by an air pressure source directly acting on a plurality of separate portions of the water surface in wave-forming tanks to cause depression of the water and consequent formation of the waves without requiring any mechanical apparatus to be immersed in the water. The swim pool has a width equal to at least one wavelength of the waves in the water and a standing wave is caused to move along the length of the pool by applying force alternately on first and second parts of the water surface of the width of the pool.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR WAVE FORMATION IN SWIM POOLS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Normally waves are artificially created in swimming pools by the disturbance of the water surface in either a vertical, inclined, or horizontal direction by directly moving water with a moving pallet, swinging gate, or a movable immersed block. So far only mechanical wave-making machines have been used in wave-activated swim pools. In these cases the disturbance at the water surface has been caused by the immersed movable block, swinging gate or movable piston. These wave-making machines have been driven by an electric motor acting through connecting rod and crank and gear reduction mechanism. Since large quantities of water have to be moved, wear and tear on the mechanical parts is heavy and considerable corrosion is a serious problem in which the need for tight water sealing makes even worse. These known installations are large, heavy, and costly to purchase and operate because constant maintenance problems arise.
Another disadvantage of the mechanical wave-making machinery is the complicated and not always accurate formation of the desired waves. The creating of waves across the entire pool width and crossing waves is possible when using several machines which are not moved in synchronism. However, as a general rule the height of the waves tends to grow higher at the pool rim where one normally wishes a decrease in wave height for safety reasons.
Accordingly, an object of the invention is to avoid the above-mentioned disadvantages by using a pneumatic wavemaking machine.
Another object of the invention is to provide an air pressure source to contact one or more portions of the water surface so that mechanical wave-making apparatus need not be in contact with the water.
Another object of the invention is to provide a plurality of wave-forming tanks along one end of the swim pool with air pressure periodically applied to difierent ones of such waveforrning tanks to move the water in the tanks and in the swim pool.
Another object of the invention is to provide a swim pool with diverging sidewalls and a decreasing depth to a beach area where the waves created by the wave-making apparatus form into breakers on the beach area.
Another object of the invention is to provide a wave-activated swim pool with a diverging sidewall leading to a beach area to dissipate the force of the waves and thus create a safe wave and breaker action on the beach area for young children.
Another object of the invention is to provide an air pressure source alternately operating into two different wave-forming tanks to move the water in such tanks.
Another object of the invention is to provide a wave-activated swim pool with higher waves in the central area than around the rim of the pool.
Another object of the invention is to provide a swim pool having a width equal to at least one wavelength of the waves established in the water of the pool and equal to a multiple of a half-wavelength.
Another object of the invention is to provide force means applied alternately on two different parts of the width of a swim pool with one part having an effective width of onefourth the water wavelength in order to create a standing wave which travels along the length of the pool.
Other objects and a fuller understanding of the invention may be had by referring to the following description and claims, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The invention may be incorporated in the method of forrning waves in wave-activated swim pools characterized by the fact that at least part of the water surface is directly brought into contact with an air pressure source.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a plan view of line ll of FIG. 2 of a wave-activated swim pool according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal sectional view taken on the line 2-2 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a sectional view on line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a sectional view on line 4-4 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is an enlarged sectional view on line 55 of FIG. 6;
FIG. 6 is a sectional view on line 6-6 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 7 is a schematic diagram of a modified form of air pressure valve;
FIG. 8 is another modification of an air pressure valve;
FIGS. 9, I0, 11 are schematic diagrams of still another modification of air pressure valve; and
FIGS. l2-l5 are schematic diagrams of four different modifications of applying force to parts of the width of the swim pool.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT The drawing in primarily FIGS. 2, 3, and 4 shows a wave-activated swim pool 11 which has a deep end wall 12, sidewalls 13 and 14, diverging sidewall extensions 15 and 16 and a beach area 17. The side wall extensions 15 and 16 diverge to establish the beach area 17 where the water depth goes to zero. The bottom of the swim pool is horizontal at a bottom wall 19, slopes upwardly at a sloping wall 20 and has a more gradual upward slope in the beach area bottom wall 21. As an example the nominal water depth at the bottom wall 19 may be 8 to 5 inches and the water depth at the junction between the bottom wall 20 and 21 might be 3 feet 3 inches. The bottom wall 19 may have a length toward wall 20 of 30 feet. The sloping wall 20 may have a length of 50 feet and the beach area bottom wall 21 may have a length of feet. The width of the pool between side walls 13 and 14 may be seventy feet so that crosswise racing lanes may be used in this area.
The deep end wall 12 does not extend all the way to the bottom of the pool at bottom wall 19; instead it terminates at 24 to form a submerged water opening connecting with a plurality of wave-forming tanks, in this preferred embodiment shown as five in number 25-29 respectively. The two end wave forming tanks 25 and 29 have only one-half the width dimension, parallel to the width of the swim pool ll, of the other intermediate tanks 26, 27, and 28. As shown in FIG. 2 the individual tanks 25-29 are closed at the upper end to form an air chamber 30 therein above the nominal height of the water in such tank.
FIG. 1 illustrates that one wavelength A is one-half the width dimension of the swim pool 11 and also illustrates that the wave-forming tank 28 as well as tanks 26 and 27 have a width dimension parallel to the width of the pool one-half the wavelength. At the same time the end wave-forming tanks 25 and 29 have a width dimension parallel to the width dimension of one-fourth of a wavelength of the water wave.
A plurality of air pressure sources 31, 32, 33, and 34 are housed in a blower room 36, see FIGS. 5 and 6. Each of these air pressure sources includes a motor-driven air blower and each sits generally vertically above a dividing wall 37, 38, 39, and 40, respectively, which divide the width of the pool into the five different wave-forming tanks 25-29. Air may enter and exit into the blower room to the outside air through a sound absorber inlet room 41 and a sound absorber exit room 42. An equipment room 44 may be adjacent and to the rear of the blower room 36 to house pumps, filters, chlorine additive apparatus, and the like.
FIGS. 5 and 6 illustrate a clapper valve mechanism 47 generally mounted above each of the dividing walls and in FIG. 5 is illustrate as being above the dividing wall 39. This clapper valve mechanism 47 leads from the respective air pressure source, in this case air pressure source 33, alternately into two adjacent wave-forming tanks, in this case of FIG. 5 the wave-forming tanks 27 and 28. Each of the clapper valves 47 includes a conduit 49 pivoted at 50 and connected by a flexible boot 51 to the respective air pressure source, in this case source 33. A piston and cylinder 52 is connected at one side between the frame and the conduit 49 to swing this conduit alternately between the two adjacent wave-forming tanks 27 and 28. A gasket 53 fastened to the tank inlet openings 54 and 55 provides a good air seal with the lower end of the conduit 49 for alternately leading the air under pressure into the wave-forming tanks 27 and 28. The clapper valves for the other air pressure sources 31, 32, and 34 are constructed in a similar manner.
A fluid compressor such as an air compressor 59 operates through a valve 60 to alternately direct air under pressure or zero air pressure into a conduit 61. This conduit interconnects all four of the piston and cylinder assemblies 52 so that air pressure is applied simultaneously to each of these assemblies 52. When no air pressure is applied, then a spring force as by spring 62 returns the conduits 49 to the solid line position of FIG. 5. By this means, air pressure is delivered alternately to the wave-forming tanks 2529 in the particular manner that air is delivered to wave-forming tanks 26 and 28 when no air pressure is applied through the valve 60 and alternately is applied to the wave-forming tanks 25, 27, 29 when air pressure is applied to the valve 60 and the piston and cylinder assemblies 52 have moved the conduits 49 to the dotted line positions. It will be noted that the wave-forming tanks 26, 27, and 28 each have two air inlets similar to air inlets 54 and 55 shown in FIG. 5. When air is being supplied to the wave-fonning tanks 26 26 and 28 it is then being supplied at the two sides of each tank 26 and 28 by the four air pressure sources 31-34. In the alternate position of the clapper valve mechanism 47, the two intermediate, middle or inner air pressure sources 32 and 33 are delivering air under pressure into the central wave-forming tank 27. Air pressure source 31 is delivering air to the wave-forming tank 25 and air pressure source 34 is delivering air to the wave-forming tank 29.
As an example, for one particular air pressure source, air may be supplied in a periodic cycle with air only to tank 28 for 0.65 seconds, then a transition period for 0.70 seconds as the clapper valve conduit 49 moves completely to the other side, 0.65 seconds of supplying air only to the tank 27 and then a final transition period of 0.70 seconds while the conduit 49 is moving back toward tank 28. During these transition periods air is being supplied to two of the tanks and the proportion of air being supplied to each of the two is constantly changing as the clapper valve conduit changes its position.
OPERATlON The motors driving the air pressure sources 3l34 will be large enough for example, 60-75 horsepower each, to supply a large volume of air against a small head of water, for example, 1.5 feet head of water. This would be an example of the amount of water variation below nominal water level inside each of the wave-forming tanks 2529. In the size of the pool given as an illustration, this will form wave heights about 3 feet high in the center of the deep end of the pool and breakers of about 3 feet high gradually diminishing at the sidewall extensions 1S and 16 to the beach area 17. The fact that there are a plurality of wave-forming tanks 25-29 across the width of the deep end of the pool and the fact that there are an uneven number of these tanks plus the fact that these tanks are energized with air pressure alternately, establishes the synchronism of wave formation caused by water being forced out through the openings in the lower edge of these tanks and establishes the greater height of waves in the center of the deep end of the pool and lower waves along the pool rim. The dimensions given above for the preferred embodiment will establish that the width of each of the main compartments 26, 27, and 28 is a whole multiple of a quarter of wavelength and thus this will establish a superimposed standing wave in the cross direction of the waves. This standing wave is across the width'of' the pool and the direction that the waves travel is generally parallel to the length dimension of the pool. FIG. 1 illustrates the crests of the waves by the shaded portion 65 and these crests of the wave are illustrated in FIGS. 3 and 4 with the higher crests of the waves in the center of the pool compared to the height around the edges.
The alternate pressurization of two and then three of the wave-forming tanks 25-29 establishes that the waves formed are not a single wave emanating from the deep end of the pool and at right angles to the length of the pool. instead, a number of individual waves emanate from the tanks 25, 27, and 29 during one-half of the cycle and then waves emanate from the tanks 26 and 28 during the other half of the cycle. This has the advantage of requiring only about half the amount of power as would be required for a continuous wave in a parallel wave front perpendicular to the length of the pool.
The fact that lower waves are created around the rim of the swim pool than in the center is safety feature since swimmers naturally would move toward the sidewalls of the pool when trying to get away from the artificial waves or alternatively would go toward the shallow end or beach area 17. The height of the breakers diminishes as one approaches the beach area because of the diverging sidewall extensions 15 and 16. This is a distinct advantage over the known swimming pools with mechanical wave-making devices which tend to have the highest waves around the edge of the swimming pool. Also for safety a protective screen 23 is used to close the openings at the lower portion of the wave forming tanks 25-29.
It will be noted that in each of the tanks 25-29 there is a portion of the water surface on which the air under pressure acts and such tank has one side; namely, the lower side connected with the water and has another side; namely, the upper side connected with at least one air pressure source.
A reason for the lower height of waves near the edge as compared to the center of the deep end of the pool is because the two wavemaking tanks 25 and 29 at the two ends of the series of tanks are only one-half the width of the intermediate tanks 26, 27, and 28. This means that the waves emanating from these end tanks 25 and 29, and traveling generally along the length of the pool toward the beach area, will establish waves of lesser amplitude. This is the opposite of prior art wave-forming devices which tended to produce waves of higher amplitude along the walls and this was a dangerous condition for those unfortunate people who got in water over their depth and ability and began to struggle and move toward the sidewalls only to find waves of higher amplitude than at the middle of the swim pool. At the shallower end of the pool at the sloping bottom wall 21 the above explanation also ap plies, but in addition the fact that the sidewalls 15 and 16 diverge causes a rapid dissipation of the wave energy. Accordingly, the waves are lower in amplitude adjacent these diverging sidewalls 15 and 16 compared with their amplitude in the central area of this sloping bottom wall 21.
One distinct advantage of using the air pressure sources directly acting on the water surface is that no part of the machinery is immersed in the water. This has been a serious drawback on mechanical wave-making devices which have had problems with large movable parts which must have some form of sliding seal and also some form of rotary seal. The corrosion problems are severe where both water and air are present and also the chlorine used in the water still further adds to the corrosion and maintenance problems. All this is eliminated with the present design of using only air pressure to contact the water surface to create the waves.
FIG. 7 illustrates a modified valve mechanism 67 which may be used as an alternate to the clapper valve mechanism 47. This valve mechanism 67 is a turning or rotating valve mechanism operated by a motor 68. An air pressure source 33 may be the same air pressure source as in the preferred embodiment and directs air into a Y-conduit 69. A first valve 71 is open at the time that a second valve 72 is closed so that air valve 73 is closed and a fourth valve 74 is opened all as controlled by the motor 68. Valve 73 closes an exit from tank 27 so that the air pressure directed by valve 71 from source 33 will pressurize this wave-forming tank 27. Simultaneously the fourth valve 74 is open to provide an exit for air to escape from the wave-forming tank 28. This permits ready entrance of water into the bottom of this tank in accordance with the wave formation. The valves 71-74 turn or pivot to an alternate position 90 degrees from that shown in a periodic sequence so that the alternate wave-forming tank 28 may be pressurized.
FIG. 8 shows another modification of a valve mechanism 77 wherein a flexible tube or conduit 78 interconnects the air pressure source 33 and the tank openings 54 and 55. This flexible tube may be moved by a piston and cylinder 52 as in FIG. 5 to alternately apply air under pressure to the two tanks 27 and 28.
FIGS. 9, 10, and 11 show still another modification of a valve mechanism 81 which may be used as an alternative to any of the valve mechanisms 47, 67, and 77. This valve mechanism 81 is a turning or rotating valve having segmented plates 82 and 83 turned sequentially to alternate positions 90 apart by a motor 84. This valve mechanism 81 is shown in cooperation with the wave-forming tanks 27 and 28 again as an example of its use and air under pressure applied from a source such as source 33 as shown in FIG. 11. This air under pressure is directed by the segmented plates 82 and 83 into tank 28, as shown in FIGS. 9 and 11 and at the same time air is permitted to escape from the alternate tank 27 as shown in FIGS. 9 and 10. When the plates 82 and 83 are rotated 90 then the opposite condition will prevail and air under pressure will be applied to tank 27 and exhausted from tank 28.
FIG. 12 is a schematic diagram of a vertical section through the width of a swim pool having one-half the width of those shown in FIGS. 1 and 4. This FIG. 12 is taken along a vertical section line similar to section line 3-3 on FIG. 1 although looking in the opposite direction to schematically show the wave forming tanks, in this case illustrated as tanks 85, 86, 87, and 88. Clapper valve mechanisms 47 are schematically illustrated at the top of the tanks to direct air into these tanks although it will be understood that any one of the valve mechanisms 67, 77, and 81 may be substituted. The dimension of the tanks 85-88 parallel to the width dimension of the swim pool is illustrated in FIG. 12 with each tank having a width equal to one-fourth wavelength. Accordingly one wavelength of the wave in the water is illustrated by a curve 90 and onehalf cycle later an alternate wave 91 will be formed. This is shown dotted in FIG. 12 and the valve mechanism 47 is shown in a dotted-line position as well. With this construction each of the waveforming tanks 85-88 and the air pressure sources may be constructed as an individual caisson for ease and economy of manufacture and installation into a swim pool. The lower end of each caisson may be fabricated to have a flared skirt, if necessary, to accommodate slightly greater widths of the wavelength to be established in the swim pool 11. The width dimension of the swim pool 80 may be considered divided into first, second, and third parts of the water surface. The wave-forming tank 85 applies air under pressure as a force on the first part of the water surface. Altemately in time the wave-forming tanks 86 and 87 apply air under pressure as a force on a second or intermediate part of the water surface. The wave-forming tank 88 applies air under pressure as a force on a third part of the water surface simultaneously with the force on the first part of the water surface. With this understanding it will be understood that the dividing wall 92 between the tanks 86 and 87 may be eliminated as far as the operation of the wave-forming mechanism is concerned because these two tanks 86 and 87 act in unison on the water surface therein.
FIG. 13 is another modification and a view similar to that of FIG. 12. In this modification of FIG. 13 the swim pool 80A has only two caissons instead of four for simplification of the mechanism. In this swim pool 80A only wave-forming tanks 85 and 88 are used together with the valve mechanism 47 to direct air under pressure as a force periodically on the first and third parts of the water surface, each of one-fourth wavelength. The second or intermediate part of the water surface does not have air under pressure applied thereto, however, air under pressure is applied to the first and second parts of the water surface at periodic intervals at times when no force is applied to the second or intermediate part. This will still create a wave in the water having one wavelength across the width of such swim pool 88.
FIG. 14 shows a still further modification of a swim pool 808 wherein again only two caissons are used in this case, the wave-forming tanks 86 and 87. The valve mechanism 47 applies air under pressure periodically to the half wavelength second part of the water surface in these tanks 86 and 87 in unison to again form a water wave having a wavelength approximately equal to the width of the swim pool B.
FIG. 15 shows a still further simplification of a wave-forming mechanism in a swim pool 80C. In this case only a single caisson or wave-forming tank is used together with its valve mechanism 47. This may be in the form of a single caisson in one deep end comer of the swim pool to act periodically on a first part of the water surface. This first part is established by the wave-forming tank 85 having a dimension parallel to the width of the swim pool approximately one-fourth of the wavelength of the wave 90. Because this force is applied periodically and intermittently, the wave 90 will be established as a standing wave traveling parallel to the length dimension of the swim pool 80C.
The FIGS. 12-15 illustrate a more basic concept of the invention than that in FIGS. 1-4. The width dimension of the pool is established according to the formula:
where W is the width of the swim pool, A is the wavelength of the water wave, and K is any positive integer. In previous attempts at wave-making machinery in swim pools, swinging gates have been attempted, for example, swinging alternately and applying force on the water; first on one-half of the width of the pool and then on the other half of the width of the pool. This has the undesirable feature from the safety standpoint of creating greater water movement and hence greater water height along the edges of the pool and also establishes that the waves if formed as distinct waves have a wavelength only about one-half the width of the pool. In the present design the swim pool has a width at least one wavelength long, or alternatively 1%, 2, 2 1%, etc. of a wavelength depending upon the number of wave-forming tanks across the width of the pool.
The present disclosure includes that contained in the appended claims, as well as that of the foregoing description. Although this invention has been described in its preferred form with a certain degree of particularity, it is understood that the present disclosure of the preferred form has been made only by way of example and that numerous changes in the details of construction and the combination and arrangement of parts may be resorted to without departing from the spirit and the scope of the invention as hereinafter claimed.
What is claimed is:
1. The method of forming waves in a body of water having a water surface and contained in a wave-activated swimming pool having sidewalls, end walls and a bottom wall characterized by the fact that at least part of the water surface is directly brought into contact at one end of said pool with air from an air pressure source, and air from said air pressure source is consecutively and with periodical timing forced directly down upon laterally adjoining portions of the water surface of water contained in laterally adjacent wave forming tanks to thus cause wave formation.
2. The method as set forth in claim 1 characterized by the fact that frequencies of application of air pressure and dephasing on different portions of the water surface are harmonized in a way that the maximum height of the wave lies in the mid dle of the swimming pool.
3. The method as set forth in claim 1, including bringing air from the air pressure source to bear upon at least one portion of the water surface and then alternately upon two other portions of the water surface.
4. The method as set forth in claim 1, including brining the air pressure source to act against two different portions of the water surface and then alternately on three other portions of the water surface.
5. Apparatus for forming waves in the surface of water contained in a wave-activated swimming pool having a width and length, comprising in combination,
means dividing the width of the pool into at least first and second parts of the water surface,
means applying a force periodically on one of said parts approximately half the time period to establish a wave traveling generally parallel to the length dimension of the swimming pool,
the width of the pool being at least one wavelength,
and said first part having a dimension parallel to said width of approximately one-fourth said wavelength.
6. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5, wherein the width of the swim pool is equal to a multiple of a half wavelength.
7. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5, wherein said force means is an air pressure source having a motor-driven air blower.
8. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5, including at least first and second wave-forming tanks as said first and second parts and including a movable valve between an air pressure source as said force means and said wave-forming tanks to periodically apply air pressure into said wave-forming tanks.
9. Apparatus as set forth in claim 8, including an uneven plurality of tanks.
10. Apparatus as set forth in claim 9 including means to connect said air pressure source alternately with at least two different wave-forming tanks.
11. Apparatus as set forth in claim 8, wherein said air pressure source works directly inside said wave-forming tanks.
12. Apparatus as set forth in claim 8, in which the width of each wave-forming tank is a whole multiple of a quarter of a wavelength to thus superimpose a standing wave in the cross direction of the waves.
13. Apparatus as set forth in claim 8, including a waveforming tank adjacent a sidewall having a lesser width than a wave-forming tank spaced from the two sidewalls of the swimming pool.
14. Apparatus as set forth in claim 13, wherein the width of the wave forming tank adjacent a sidewall is substantially half the width of a wave-forming tank spaced from the two sidewalls of the swim pool.
15. Apparatus as set forth in claim 8, including a waveforming tank adjacent one sidewall and another wave-forming tank adjacent another side wall with these two wave-forming tanks each having a width substantially one-half that of the intermediate wave-forming tank or tanks spaced from said sidewalls.
16. The method of forming waves in the surface of water contained in a wave-activated swimming pool having a width and length characterized by the fact that said pool contains means dividing the width of said pool into at least first and second parts applying force means periodically directly on the surface of the water in one of said parts approximately one-half the time period to establish a wave traveling generally parallel to the length of said pool,
the width of the pool being at least one wavelength,
said first part having a dimension parallel to said pool width approximately one-fourth said wavelength,
and another of said parts having a dimension parallel to said pool width approximately one-half said wavelength.
1']. The method as set forth in claim 16, including applying force means periodically on a part other than said one of said parts approximately half the time.
18. The method as set forth in claim l7, wherein said force means are applied alternately on said one of said parts and said other part.
19. The method as set forth in claim 16, wherein the force means is applied to said first part at a time when no force means is applied to said another part.
20. The method as set forth in claim 16, wherein said width includes a third part with said second part being intermediate said first and third parts, and said second part having a dimension parallel to said width dimension approximately one-half the waveiength.
21. The method as set forth in claim 16, wherein said width dimension Wof the pool is established according to the formula W=(A/2)(K+l where A is the wavelength of a water wave, and K is any positive integer.
22. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5, including said second parts having a dimension parallel to said pool width approximately one-half the wavelength.
23. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5, wherein said force is an air pressure force acting on the surface of the water in said one part.
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