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Publication numberUS363037 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 17, 1887
Publication numberUS 363037 A, US 363037A, US-A-363037, US363037 A, US363037A
InventorsCharles Richard Edouard Wulff
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
US 363037 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

(No Model.) 2 Sheets-Sheet 1. O. R. E. WULFF.


No. 363,037 Patented Mayl7,1887.

FIGJ- 3 -.-t i% 1 l I &


(No Model.) 2 Sheets--Sheet 2.



No. 363,037 Patented Ma 1 1887.




' SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No, 363.037, dated May 17, 1887.

lwlicntion filed May 2 1886. Serial 110,203,078. (No model.) Patented in France April 2t, 1886, No. 175,662.

To all whom it may concern.-

Be it known that I. Ciruzuas RH'HARD EDOUARD \VULFF, of Paris, in the Republic of France, haveinventcd a new or Improved Means and Apparatus for Propellingand Guiding Balloons, (for which I have obtained Letters Pat-cut of France for fifteen years, dated April 21-, 1886, X0. 175,663) and Ido hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof, reference being made to the accompanying drawings.

All attempt-s heretofore made to guide or steer balloons have comprised mechanical,

.the propelling and guiding parts are only imperfectly suited to the medium in which they are placed and against which theyhave totake their bearing. y this present invention the mechanical motor and propelling and guiding arrangements are replaced bya living motor or motors taken from the flying classes of birdssuch as, for example, one or more eagles, vultures, condors, &'c. By means of suitable arrangements (clearly shown in the annexed drawings) all the qualities and powers given by nature to these most perfect kinds of birds may be completely utilized.

Theinvent-ion consists in details of construction and combinations of parts, as will be more fully hereinafter set forth.

In the drawings hereto annexed, Figure 1 is an elevation of an air-balloon with living propellers in accordance with this invention. Fig. 2 is a plan with the parachute removed. Fig. 3 is a transverse section of the same, and Fig. 4 a perspective view of the harness for connecting the birds to the balloon.

The balloon a may be of any suitable form and dimensions. It should be adapted to fuliill in the'bcst possible way all the conditions indicated by theory and experience for obtaining the maximum speed of translation and perfectly stable equilibrium. The gas-chambers are placed in front and behind.. Their sizes are determined by the number of persons to be carried, and by the specific gravity of the materials and accessories entering into the constitution of the balloon. A car, b, is suspended to the balloon by means of a net and a metallic frame, 0 c, which connects these two principal'parts rigidly tbgether. In the car b is placed the aeronaut, who has charge of the whole apparatus, and a reservoir of gas may also be placed therein to provide for leakages. At the upper part is placed a floor, d, which carries the overseer or person working the ap paratus. This floor, which is shown of circular form, has its center placed in the vertical plane, which contains the center of gravityof the whole apparatus. A mast, f, is securely fixed in the center of the floor. L

On the floor d r'ests,-:it any required height, a circular rail, 9, concentric with the mast. On

thisrail roll four flanged rollers, h, mountedloosely on gudgeons on the ends of two arms, k'k', forming a cross. The boss 1, toward which the arms is k converge, fits freely on' the mast f. A sleeve, j, connects this bossto the hand-wheel m, placed at a suitable height.

By moving the hand-wheel m in one direction or the other the cross 7: It is turned round to the right or to the left.

Besides the rollers It the ends of the cross k k carry supports or standards a, which use sufficiently high to be connected by hinges with the four corsets or metallic frames ll] which are. secured by bands and shoulderstraps p the birds .1", intended to draw anddirect the balloon.

The corsets or harnesses 12 have forms and dimensions appropriate to the bodies of the birds chosen, such as eagles, vultures, condors, &c. The straps or girts psecurethe blrds firmly, but leave thcirwings in perfect liberty.

These corsets are capable of pivoting forward or backward round the axis of the hinges I.

These pivotings are effected onall four corin any other direction he desires.

-- guiding the balloon.

floor d can easily cause the cross Ir k to turn by means of the hand-wheel m, and, with the cross, the birds x, so as to utilize their flight in the direction of the axis of the balloon, or

7 On the other hand, byfworking the rollers 1:1" he can direct the flight of the birds upward or downward.' The result of thesearrangemcnts is,

that the flight of the harnessed birds must to produce the motion and directionof the balloon desired by the conductor, whether for going forward or backward, in a right line, to the right or to the left, or for ascending or descending; It may be observed that the birds have only to fly, the direction of their flight being changed by the conductor quite independently of their own will. I I

The director or conductor in the car lfmay direct the person on the floor Z by means of a speaking-tube, f, or-other suitable means.

\Vhenthe apparatus stops, the birds rest on K the sta es a u arran ed behind them and moving with the crosslr h. A not or nets, '0,

is then lowered to prevent the birds from flyto ascend from the car I) to the floor 'd, or to descend from the door to the car. The mast f serves to support a parachnte, 1 which pro- 0 teets the birds and serves especially to regulate the descent of the balloon.

The balloon should always remain as much as possible in stable equilibrium, both when w on the ground and vheu floatingin the air.

5 No weight should be left to be supported by the harnessed birds, so that the whole of their flying power may be utilized foradvaneing or A store of ballast enables the conductor to obtainthis result con- 40 stantly.

A rope ladder, to, enables the aeronants \Vhen it is on the ground, the'balloon rests on tripodszz, connected to the't'ore and hinder parts of the balloon,and'iurnished at the feet with elastic deviees---such as springs, for example-to prevent or deaden shock. These tripods z'are connected to one another or to the carb. They form asolid and elastic whole,

capable of resisting obstacles encountered. The charging and recharging of theballoon with gas is effected by the piping T, and generally by any known means and processes.

Finally, I obscrvethatl can, without ehang ing the principle ofany invention or materially modifying the'means already described for carrying itinto execution, place the entire mechanical apparatus for supporting and directing the birds under the bottom of the car b. This arrangement will possess the advantages of increasing the stability and -of permitting a single aeronaut to raise the balloon.

-I do not claim a device for holding birds that are to carry, and hold suspended a car or, other aerial vehicle. Birds have not the power to do this for any reasonable length of time.

I claima 1. In a balloon, thc ombination of the door d, circular railway g, rollers h, cross-k k, boss i, steering-sleeve j m, standards n, and harv nesses p, snbstantiall y as herein shown and described.

2.. The net 1), combined with the' bird-harness 7) and stage a, substantially as herein shown and described."

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Witnesses: I I

Cooperative ClassificationB64B1/06