US 3630612 A
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United State  Inventor  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,466,766 9/1923 Stewien........................
Kurt Lehovec l1 Woodlawn Drive, Wllliamstnwn, Mass. 01267 21] AppLNo. 74,704
 Filed Sept. 23,1970 3,183,815 5/1965 Kapany et a1.
45 Patented Dec. 28, 1971 FOREIGN PATENTS 1,048,025 12/1953 France Primary Examiner-Samuel S. Matthews Assistant Examiner-Richard M. Sheer  OPTICAL AID FOR BOOK REPRODUCTION 10 Claims, 7 Drawing Figs.
ABSTRACT: A curved open book page is fitted with a shaped solid body containing fiber optics to transfer optical information from book page onto a surface better suited for undistorted reproduction.
PATENTED UEC28|97I SHEET 1 BF 2 OPTICAL AID FOR BOOK REPRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The page of an open book is generally not flat, but curved toward the binding edge of the book. This leads to distortions when reproducing the page by such means as photography or using a Xerox copier. In severe cases, e.g., thick volumes, the innermost regions of the reproduced page are often so severely distorted as to be hardly readable.
The purpose of this invention is an aid to suppress or eliminate distortions in the reproduction of curved book pages.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION Briefly, the invention consists in fitting the curved page with a shaped optical body containing fiber optics to transfer optically the information from the curved book page to an opposing surface shaped to enable undistorted reproduction. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES FIG. I shows in a perspective view of an optical aid according to this invention in contact with an open book page for photographic reproduction.
FIG. 2a and 2b show cross sections of optical aids according to this invention.
FIG. 3 shows in cross section an optical aid according to this invention inserted between an open book and a copying machine having a curved access window.
FIG. 4 shows a pneumatic means to force the page to be reproduced against the optical aid.
FIG. 5 shows a means to force the page to be reproduced against the optical aid by sandwiching said page between the optical aid and a conforming substrate.
FIG. 6 illustrates in cross section a substrate containing suction ducts.
PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to FIG. I, there is shown book 1 opened to display page 2 which is to be reproduced photographically by camera 3. The curvature 4 of page 2 near binding edge 17 would lead to large distortions of reproduction. These distortions are reduced if not eliminated by overlaying page 2 with the shaped body 5, whose lower surface 6 fits the shape 4 of curved page 2.
Body 5 contains curved fiber optics 14, 14', etc., which transfers optically curved page 2 to flat upper surface 15 of body 5 from where it can be reproduced without distortion. For the sake of clarity of presentation, diameter and spacing of fibers have been exaggerated in FIG. 1. Also, fibers have been shown only in limited section of body 5, while they may well be incorporated through the entire body 5.
However, it is not always necessary to insert fiber optics in the entire body 5, since the substantially flat portion near the outer rim of 2 can be reproduced without significant distortion through transparent body 5 without fiber optics. Fiber optics image transfer is essential near the binding edge of page 2.
FIGS. 2a and 2b show in cross section several forms for optical insert 5 according to this invention. FIG. 2a shows an insert 5 solely for regions near the center of the book 1. FIG. 2b shows the insert 5 of FIG. 2aconnected to a flat glass plate extending over the entire page 2.
FIG. 3 shows the body 5 shaped to fit open book I as well as the curved access window 30 of a Xerox copier 2400 This is achieved by giving surface 15 of 5 at which fiber optics terminates a substantially cylindrical shape conforming to that of 30.
Body 5 is prepared as follows: Fibers about I mil in diameter are bundled and bent into the appropriate shape. The fibers are then molded in a medium such as lucite and cut under appropriate angles to shape surfaces 15 and 6 of body 5 in FIG. I. The cut surfaces are then optically polished. It is well known that optical fibers have a coating of lower refractive index to induce total reflection of the transferred light on the fiber walls.
For successful reproduction by the here-described aid, a close fit between curved page 2 and curved surface 6 of body 5 is essential. There are a variety of means by which this fit can be accomplished. In the case of exposed surface 15 of body 5, visual inspection of optical transfer of information from page 2 is readily possible to check on the fit achieved.
The means to assure fit between page 2 to be reproduced and surface 6 of body 5 comprises a force exerted between 2 and body 5. This force can be generated mechanically, pneumatically, electrically or magnetically.
An example of mechanical force is shown in FIG. I. Pressure is exerted against cover of book 1 using supports 7, 8 and 9 connected to back plate 10, which, in turn, is fastened to body 5 by spring-loaded connections I1, I1, 12 and 12' Support 9 is separably spring loaded by piston 16 moving in sleeve 13.
Mechanical force can also be exerted along page 2 by pushing laterally from outside toward the binding edge which generates a shearing force on page 2 against surface 6 of body 5. Or else, body 5 in FIG. 2b may consist of a resilient materia1, e.g., silicone rubber into which curved fibers l4, 14', etc., have been molded. The upper surface of body 5 is glued by an optical cement to glass plate 20. By exerting force between glass plate 20 and book 2, the resilient body 5 is deformed so that its lower surface 6 conforms to page 2 over the region essential for reproduction.
A pneumatic means for fitting body 5 to page 2 is shown in FIG. 4. In FIG. 4, body 5 has been turned upside down with respect to FIG. 1 to enable a better view of the pneumatic means.
In FIG. 4, body 5 is made preferably of a rigid material and contains a duct system 40 terminating in openings 41-52 on its curved surface 6. Inlet 53 to 'duct system 40 is connected to suction pump 54. Placing a page near surface 6 and applying moderate suction, the page is sucked onto surface 6 and held there firmly. The openings 45-52 must conform to the margin of the page to be reproduced, while the fibers terminate on the printed position of said page. The shaded area 55 of surface 6 signifies the area on which fibers terminate. Reproduction is made of lower surface 15 of body 5.
Separation of page 2 from body 5 after reproduction is facilitated by reversing suction, i.e., exerting overpressure through ducts 40. It is obvious that size of openings 4l-52 must be chosen in relation to underpressure (suction) and strength of page 2.
Another class of means to generate a close fit between the page 2 to be reproduced and the curved surface 6 of body 5 is illustrated in FIG. 5. This class utilizes a substrate 60 inserted beyond page 2 so that page 2 is sandwiched between substrate 60 and body 5.
In one preferred embodiment of this class, the substrate 60 is fairly rigid and shaped to conform to lower surface 6. Substrate 60 can be loose, or else hinged along its outer edge 61 to face 62 of body 5. In another embodiment, substrate 60 is pressed against body 5 by electrical or magnetic forces. Electrical means have been indicated by the dotted line electrical connections 63, 64 leading from 60 and 5, respectively, to electrical voltage source 65. In this case, substrate 60 and body 5 must be made from electrically conducting materials, e.g., by molding the fibers of body 5 in a silver-loaded conducting epoxy. Since the force used is of electrostatic nature, and paper is a fairly good insulator, only low conductivity of 5 and 60 is required.
In another embodiment of FIG. 5, the substrate is made from a ferromagnetic material such as nichrome sheet and the molding material of body 5 contains ferromagnetic particles as a filler. At least one of the two ferromagnetic materials has been permanently magnetized such that magnetic field lines extend in direction from 60 to 5. Magnetic force pushes substrate 60 toward surface 6 of body 5. The force can be enhanced by placing a permanent magnet 70 temporarily on top of surface I5 of body 5 to attract substrate 60. In such a case, magnetic filler of 5 is not necessary, though it is helpful to maintain close contact between 60 and 5 after magnet 70 is removed.
Instead of applying suction through ducts in body 5 as shown in FIG. 4, one may apply suction through ducts in substrate 60, as illustrated in FIG. 6. The ducts 7l terminate in openings 72 to 76 on the convex side of 60, which faces the page 2 to be reproduced as shown in FIG. 5. Applying suction thus shapes page 2 into the form of 60, which is also the form of surface 6 of body 5 and thus leads to a good fit between page 2 and surface 6 of body 5.
Since there are many widely different embodiments of my invention, it should be understood that this invention is not limited by the examples shown, but encompasses all structures defined by the following.
1. An aid for distortion-free reproduction of a curved page of an opened book, said aid comprising a body having a first surface shaped to fit the curved page of the opened book and a second opposite surface which has substantially the shape of a cylinder section, fiber optics connecting points of said first surface to points of said second surface, said first surface being fitted to said curved page and said second surface being exposed to apparatus for reproduction of said curved page.
2. The aid of claim 1 whereby said second surface of substantially cylindrical shape has an infinite radius, thereby being plane.
3. The aid of claim 1 whereby said second surface of substantially cylindrical shape has the same curvature as an access window of a photocopier of be used for reproduction of said page.
4. The aid of claim 1 including means to press said page against said first surface.
5. The aid of claim 4 whereby said means consists in suction applied to said page through ducts incorporated in said body and terminating on said first surface.
6. The aid of claim 4 whereby said means comprise a substrate inserted into said book so that said page is sandwiched between said substrate and said first surface of said body.
7. The aid of claim 6 whereby said substrate is shaped to conform substantially to the shape of said first surface of said body.
8. The aid of claim 6 including means to charge said substrate electrically against said body.
9. The aid ofclaim 6 whereby said substrate is made ofa ferromagnetic material.
10. The aid of claim 7 whereby said substrate contains suction ducts.
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