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Publication numberUS3631956 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 4, 1972
Filing dateFeb 27, 1969
Priority dateFeb 27, 1969
Publication numberUS 3631956 A, US 3631956A, US-A-3631956, US3631956 A, US3631956A
InventorsChoi Hyon Kyu
Original AssigneeChoi Hyon Kyu
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Multiple language typewriter with logogram capability
US 3631956 A
Abstract
A dual use typewriter suitable for use in the writing of Roman characters as required by Western European languages as well as logograms characteristic of Far Oriental languages. When the typewriter is arranged for use with Roman letters the carriage is advanced a uniform distance with the striking of each key. A double case shift provides for upper and lower case Roman characters while the Oriental character elements are provided by the third type bar position.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Unite States atent [72] Inventor llyon Kyu Choi 253-192, Shin Gill Dong, Seoul, South Korea [2]] App]. No. 802,883

[22] Filed Feb. 27, 1969 [45] Patented Jan. 4, 1972 [54] MULTIPLE LANGUAGE TYPEWRITER WITH LOGOGRAM CAPABILITY 26 Claims, 10 Drawing Figs.

[52] US. Cl 197/1 A, 197/72, 197/74, 197/82, 197/91 [51] Int. Cl B4lj [50] Field ofSearch l97/1, l A,

Primary Examiner-Emest T. Wright, Jr.

Att0rneysl(eith Misegades and George R. Douglas, Jr.

ABSTRACT: A dual use typewriter suitable for use in the writing of Roman characters as required by Western European languages as well as logograms characteristic of Far Oriental languages. When the typewriter is arranged for use with Roman letters the carriage is advanced a uniform distance with the striking of each key. A double case shift provides for upper and lower case Roman characters while the Oriental character elements are provided by the third type bar position.

In order to form logograms, the characters are arranged on groups of keys. Some groups are arranged to write on the line and others below. Some groups advance the carriage by the usual amount while other advance the carriage by a lesser amount or not at all. The carriage advance is accomplished for the Oriental characters by a selective linkage whereby all the members of a particular group act upon the escapement system to accomplish the carriage advance for the indicated key. A backspace key may be required to bring about proper positioning of some characters. In this manner logograms or letter groups are formed in uniform manner but neatly arranged without irregular gaps or crowding.

PATENTEDJAN 4m 3.631 956 SHEET 1 or 3 .QLEJ,

820 d i I I! L if I WRITING LINE --e 3 L 2 SCALE H AL SP ACI NG u m Ts i l HYON KYU CHOI PATENTEUJMI 4872 3.631.956

SHEET 3 [IF 3 HYON KYU CHOI BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention is especially adapted for use in writing the Korean language. Prior to about 1945 the Korean language was written in vertical columns.

Since that time the characters are written from left to right in Western style. It is obvious that the teachings of the prel945 art are unprofitable. It is old in the art to provide, especially in Oriental typewriters, dead keys that strike a character without advancing the carriage and it is old in the art of Roman character machines to provide proportional spacing. However, these expedients have not been combined to produce a machine for producing neatly arranged logograms of unifonn typewriter quality.

Further, the typewriter of this invention has the added ability to operate with Roman letters also. This is of great advantage in diplomatic and commercial applications.

NATURE OF THE PROBLEM One feature of this invention relates to a typewriter for writing syllable clusters. The Korean language is an example of a language using this writing form. Each Korean syllable cluster contains one or two vowels, selected from a total of 12.

The vowel is preceded by either a single or doubled consonant. There are nine letters which can only be used as single consonants which letters may be subsequently referred to as the A group of letters. Additionally, there are five letters that may be used singly or doubled as first consonants. These may be referred to as the A group. These are shown on the first line of FIG. 1, the members of the A group being set out with wavy underlines.

The syllable cluster may or may not conclude with another consonant. There are 14 of these; although these are identical with the first two groups of consonants, it is convenient to duplicate them on the keyboard as the manner in which the type bar strikes the platen is different as between the primary and terminal consonants. The terminal consonants are written in a lower position than the initial ones.

The vowels may be conveniently divided into two groups. Nine of these are characterized as falling in a position below the initial consonant. Actually, there are five of these written without a final consonant; additionally, there are four of these five arranged to be struck at a different vertical level when they are used with the tenninal consonant. The horizontally written vowels are shown on the third line of FIG. 1. The terminal consonants are shown on the fourth line of FIG. 1. Subsequently, these together with the 14 terminal consonants may be referred to as group B. The remaining seven vowels are normally written to the immediate right of the initial consonant and these may be designated as group C. These are shown on the second line of FIG. 1.

Thus, the total number of characters is 44, the number of characters commonly found on the keyboards of Westemstyle typewriters.

In order to obtain a symmetrical arrangement of the characters in a cluster arrangement, it has been pointed out that it is expedient to arrange the consonants to be struck at two different vertical levels by duplicating the consonant keys. Also, four of the vowels are duplicated to provide two vertical levels.

The characters within a cluster should be written closer together than the space between clusters. The space between doubled first consonants has been determined as being desirably one-fourth or one-third of a full space. The space between a first consonant and a group C vowel has been determined as desirably one-half or two-thirds of a full space. Consequently, certain of the keys are grouped so that the carriage will be advanced proportionately to the character being struck.

Likewise, since some other characters are arranged to be written one above the other, it is desirable that the carriage not advance at all following the striking of certain other groups of keys.

Thus, utilizing 44 keys, with the keys selectively arranged to selectively cause advance of the carriage a predetermined amount, the Korean language may be written on the typewriter in a neat and appealing style.

Since the conventional Westem-style typewriters are usually furnished with 44 keys and a single shift, permitting the writing of 88 characters, it is feasible to combine the writing of both cluster-type words and Roman-style typing so that the selective carriage advance is made operative with specific shifts.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows the letters of the Korean language in relation to the writing line, indicated by the dot-dash line;

FIG. 2 is a perspective view of the space control mechanism;

FIG. 3 is a side view of the fractional backspace mechanism;

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the multiple shift mechanism;

FIG. 5 is a side view of the multiple shift mechanism, with some parts omitted for clarity;

FIG. 6 is a front view of the shift mechanism with some parts omitted;

FIG. 7 is similar to FIG. 6 with the parts in upwardly latched position;

FIG. 8 is similar to FIG. 6 with the parts in downwardly latched position; I

FIG. 9 shows the arrangement of the Korean characters on a keyboard for use with my invention; and

FIG. 10 shows a short Korean sentence as written with a typewriter of my invention, the characters being somewhat enlarged to better illustrate the spacing between the letters of the logogram.

Referring to the drawing, it has been pointed out in the background above, that the initial consonants of the Korean language, shown on the first line of FIG. 1, fall on the writing line. Of these, five, identified by the wavy underline, may be doubled (see the fourth word in FIG. 10). This involves a partial advance spacing.

When it is desired to write one character after another, the carriage should be partially advanced, about one-half space. Half-spaces are indicated by the horizontal scale appearing beneath the word in FIG. 10. In any event, this right-hand character will be a vowel, selected from one of the seven vowels indicated on line two of FIG. I, and clearly shown again as the right-hand character of the fifth word in FIG. 10.

Movement of the carriage from the previous character typed is controlled by the character next to be struck.

On the other hand, when it is desired to write one character beneath another, after the first character or consonant, is struck, or after the second character, or vowel from line two of FIG. 1 is struck, then the carriage should not be moved. An example of this is shown in the third word of FIG. 10. The interrnediate character is a vowel from line three of FIG. 1, and the lowermost character is a consonant from line four of FIG. 1. In each of these cases, striking of a lower vowel key or a lower consonant key causes no carriage movement.

Finally, if the word includes a double terminal consonant, as in the case of the fourth word of FIG. 10, then a partial backspace mechanism is required prior to typing of the final consonant. The lower left-hand character of the fourth word in FIG. 10 is the final consonant of the double terminal consonant of this word example. The partial backspace mechanism, which will be explained in detail below, is necessary because striking of the keys for the characters of lines three and four of FIG. I causes no automatic caniage movement. Thus, in the typing of a complex Korean word, such as the fourth word of FIG. 10, typing proceeds in a reverse C fashion, from left to right, then down and finally to the left for the final consonant.

It is therefore desired that, when the Korean characters are being written, the amount of advance of the carriage taking place shall be governed by the character next to be written. Therefore, by using similar characters on different keys, disparate carriage advance will occur. For example, typing the characters of line one of FIG. 1 causes carriage advance, while typing the characters of line four of FIG. 1 causes no carriage advance. On the other hand, unifonn carriage advance is required when typing Roman characters; the arrangement for accomplishing this result will be described later.

In FIG. 2, the keys 100, 200 and 300 are shown as single keys for striking the first, second, and third and fourth lines of characters, respectively, of FIG. 1. In the fully equipped typewriter, there are 14 keys such as 100, one for each of the characters in line one of FIG. 1, seven keys such as 200, one for each of the characters of line two of FIG. 1, and 23 keys such as 300, one for each of the characters of line three of FIG. 1. FIG. 9 depicts the grouping of keys on the typewriter keyboard 10. The 14 keys 100 are grouped in area T, generally to the left of keyboard 10; the seven keys 200 are grouped in area W, scattered about the keyboard 10, one in the lowermost left corner, one in the upper center, and the remaining five grouped to the right center; and the remaining 23 keys 300 are grouped in area Z. including the top row and the right of keyboard 10. This arrangement of keys 100, 200, 300 in keyboard 10 is consistent with current Korean practice. For purpose of clear illustration, the location of Roman characters on the key faces of FIG. 9 is not shown. However, it will be noted that the total number of keys is 44, the same number of keys as commonly found on the keyboards of Westem-style typewriters which type Roman characters.

For simplicity of reference, parts related to keys 100, 200 and 300 will bear similar terminal digits. As shown by FIG. 2, each key 100 is carried by a key bar 102 which is mounted for vertical movement by a pair of pivot links 104, 106, secured to pivot shafts 12 and 14, respectively. A return spring 16 retains key 100 in a normal, rest position, Depression of key 100 causes a downward motion of key bar 102 and a subsequent striking of projection 108 of a bellcrank 110. In turn, a link 112 is moved by the rotation of bellcrank 110. There is but a single link 112 for all of the keys 100; movement of link 112 is assured by means of a bail 114, secured to each of the bellcranks 110 of the keys 100. A bore 116 in key bar 102 is used to connect each key 100 to its appropriate type bar (not shown). Similarly, each key 200 and 300 includes key bars 202 and 302; pivot links 204, 206 and 304, 306; bellcranks 210 and 310 with projections 208 and 308; links 212 and 312, bails 214 and 314; and bores 216 and 316, respectively.

The unique spacing mechanism for each word group is illustrated by the left-hand portion of FIG. 2, and is controlled by movement of links 112, 212 or 312, depending upon the striking of one of the keys 100, 200, or 300, as previously outlined. Each link 112, 212, 312 is secured to a corresponding control disc 118, 218 and 318. All three discs 118, 218, 318 are mounted for rotation about a common axle 18. Disc 118 includes a release earn 120, pivotally mounted at 122, the limit of pivotal movement being determined by a stop 124, and a return spring 126, normally urging cam 120 to a position with its base leg against stop 124. A ratchet-pawl 128 is pivotally mounted at the upper portion of disc 118, and is urged by return spring 130 against a stop 132. Finally, a control groove 134 is defined along the outer edge of disc 118, and extends about 90 thereabout.

Control disc 218 includes a ratchet-pawl 228 with a return spring 230 and a stop 232, but is not provided with a pivoting cam or a control groove. Control disc 318 includes none of these parts. On the other hand, all discs 118, 218, 318 include return springs 136, 236 and 336 which maintain the discs 118, 218, 318 in a normal, rest position.

The discs 118, 218, 318 are employed to move an escapement rocker plate 20, mounted for rotational movement about an axis drawn through stub shafts 22, 22, which are inserted into mounts internally of the typewriter (not shown). Plate 20 includes a spacebar dog 24 which operates the spacing mechanism of the typewriter through spacebar link 26, a pair of depending, forwardly curved rocker arms 28 and 30, adjacent ratchet-pawls 128 and 228, respectively, an inversely curved rocker arm 32, and an escapement dog assembly 34, adjacent escapement wheel 36 and its shaft 38. The escapement wheel 36 and shaft 38 are operatively connected to the carriage of the typewriter through a spur gear 40.

The escapement dog assembly 34 includes an upper control lever 42 having a rear, upper dog 44 and a forward, lower dog 46. The movement of control lever 42 is limited by a stop 48 and a spring 50 urging the lever 42 against stop 48. A lower control lever 52 includes a single dog 54 and a spring 56 urging lever 52 against a stop 58.

A locking lever assembly 60 is disposed beneath the extreme left portion of plate 20 and comprises a mounting axle 61 having a primary lock lever 62 and a secondary lock lever 64. Lever 62 includes a rear bar 66, adjacent projection 68 of spacebar link 26, and a forward bar 70, adjacent cam 120 of disc 118. The forward portion of lever 62 is notched at 72 and 74 to selectively receive rocker arm 32, as will be explained below. The secondary lock lever 64 has a traverse bar 76 at its distal end, which extends across discs 118, 218 and 318. Discs 218 and 318 have a notch 238, 338, respectively formed therein to receive bar 76 when the keys 100, 200, 300 are in a normal, rest position. Finally, lever 64 is provided with a spring 78 urging lever 64 in a clockwise direction, and lever 62 has a spring 80 urging lever 62 in a counterclockwise direction, both with respect to the mounting axle 61, in the sense of FIG. 2.

Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 10, the operation of the automatic spacing mechanism will be explained, from simple to complex Korean logograms. Conveniently, the Korean phrase for life is short, freely translated, provides a good sample of simple, compound, and complex Korean logograms. This Korean phrase is illustrated by FIG. 10. Korean logograms are composed of at least a preconsonant and a vowel, as indicated by the terminal logogram of FIG. 10. Occasionally, there is a subvowel instead of a right-vowel, as in the third logogram from the left in FIG. 10. This same logogram indicates a Korean logogram having a preconsonant, subvowel, and subconsonant. More commonly, the Korean logogram may have a preconsonant, right-vowel and subconsonant, as in the case of either of the first two logograms of FIG. 10. Some Korean logograms will include a double preconsonant, a right-vowel, a subconsonant, and a terminal presubconsonant, as illustrated in the fourth logogram from the left in FIG. 10.

In FIG. 10, a scale appears below the phrase; each of the gradations thereon represents a one-half space on the typewriter. It is evident that the normal spacing, horizontally, between a preconsonant and a right-vowel is one-half space.

Spacing between logograms is ordinarily one and one-half I spaces. In Korean, the phrase life is short" is represented by two word groupings, each two and one-half spaces apart. This is shown between the third and fourth logograms of FIG. 10. An extra half-space will be noted in the example illustrated. This is because the third logogram has no right-vowel. The instant invention thus accomplishes neat and uniform spacing between Korean logograms, as well as between characters within a single logogram.

As stated at the beginning, spacing between individual characters and logograms is determined in advance by the subsequent character to be typed, according to the instant invention. Immediately prior to typing of the preconsonant of any particular logogram, the automatic spacing assembly is disposed in one of three attitudes, dependent upon the last character typed in a preceding logogram. If the spacing assembly is in the attitude depicted in FIG. 2, with rocker am 32 disengaged from notches 72 or 74, then lower control lever dog 54 of escapement dog assembly 34 is engaged with a tooth of escapement wheel 36. This means that no previous logogram was typed. If rocker arm 32 is engaged with notch 72, then escapement rocker plate 20 is disposed so that lower dog 46 of upper control lever 42 of escapement dog assembly 34 is engaged with a tooth of escapement wheel 36. In this attitude,

the previous logogram typed included a preconsonant, but did not include a right-vowel; it was similar to the third logogram in FIG. 10. Finally, if plate is disposed so that rocker arm 32 is engaged in notch 74, then upper dog 44 of upper control lever 42 of escapement dog assembly 34 is engaged with a tooth of escapement wheel 36, which means that the preceding logogram did include a right-vowel, similar to the first, second, fourth, and fifth logograms of FIG. 10.

It will be recalled that each of the preconsonant keys 100 of group T of FIG. 9 is connected by means of its key bar to bail 114 so that when any one preconsonant key 100 is struck, link 112 will be moved (FIG. 2), by depression of key bar 102 and consequent rotation of bellcrank 110. Movement of link I12 initially causes rotation of control disc 118 in a counterclockwise direction, in the sense of FIG. 2. Immediately, release cam 120 will strike forward bar 70 of primary lock lever 62. If rocker arm 32 is in the first position described above, with rocker arm 32 disengaged from notch 72 or 74, nothing happens. If rocker arm 32 is in the second position, engaged with notch 72, depression of bar 70 by cam 120 causes rocker arm 32 to be released from notch 72, and plate 20 will rotate slightly counterclockwise to the position illustrated in FIG. 2. (Plate 20 is unbalanced with respect to a horizontal axis drawn through stub shafts 22, 22, when rocker arm 32 is engaged in either notch 72 or 74.) In turn, dog 46 is released from a tooth of escapement wheel 36, and the wheel 36 rotates so that this same tooth is engaged with dog 54, as illustrated in FIG. 2. It should be noted that dog 46 is displaced about three-fourths of a space from dog 54, along a horizontal line drawn parallel with an axis through stub shafts 22, 22 of plate 20. If rocker arm 32 is in the third position, engaged with notch 74, depression of bar 70 releasing arm 32 from notch 74 causes plate 20 to rotate counterclockwise, in the sense of FIG. 2, so that a tooth of wheel 36 engaged with dog 44 will be released therefrom, and move into engagement with dog 54. Note here that dog 44 is displaced about one-half space from dog 54, along a horizontal line parallel to the axis defined by stub shafts 22, 22 of plate 20. Thus, the horizontal spacing between dogs 46 and 44 is about one-fourth space.

Immediately following the action just described, disc 118 continues to rotate, moving ratchet-pawl 128 against rocker arm 28. At this point, escapement rocker plate 20 rotates clockwise, in the sense of FIG. 2, thereby disengaging dog 54 from a tooth on escapement wheel 36, and lowering dog 46 into engagement with a succeeding tooth on wheel 36. Disc I18 continues to rotate until the operative foot of ratchetpawl 128 passes rocker arm 28; thereafter, rocker plate 20 is free to rotate counterclockwise, in the sense of FIG. 2, to a normal, horizontal position illustrated by the same FIG. 2. While this occurs, earn 120 continues to be depressed against primary lock lever 62 so that rocker arm 32 cannot engage with notches 72 or 74, thus interfering with the rotation of plate 20.

The rotation of plate 20, counterclockwise to a normal position, allows the successive tooth of wheel 36, just described, to disengage from dog 46 and rotate to abut against dog 54. Of course, the spacing between successive teeth on escapement wheel 36 is one space. Thus the clockwise rotation of rocker plate 20 causes the wheel 36 to rotate one-quarter space, as a tooth is disengaged from dog 54 and a successive tooth engages with dog 46, and the subsequent counterclockwise rotation of plate 20 causes this successive tooth to move from dog 46 to dog 54, or three-fourths of a space, the separation between dogs 46 and 54 explained above. Thus, the carriage moves one space. At this point, the character on the type bar strikes the paper (not shown).

, At this point, disc 118 has rotated a sufficient distance so that traverse bar 76 is depressed into control groove 134, by reason of control spring 78 attached to the onboard, free end of secondary lock lever 64. Notches 238 and 338 of discs 218 and 318, respectively, pennit depression of traverse bar 76 into groove 134 of disc 118. At the moment of typing of the character, the right-hand, lateral edge of escapement rocker plate 20 is further actuated thereby again rotating plate 20 clockwise so that the tooth of escapement wheel 36 engaged with dog 54 is released therefrom, and the escapement wheel 36 rotates one-fourth space until dog 46 engages yet another successive tooth. Since the distance from dog 54 to dog 46 is three-fourths of a space, the distance from dog 46 to a successive tooth on wheel 36 is one-fourth space, as the teeth of wheel 36 are each one space apart.

As this occurs, rocker arm 32 moves to a position just above notch 72. When disc 118 rotated to engage traverse bar 76 in groove I34, cam I20 passed bar 70, so that now primary lock lever 62 is free to rotate upwardly, by the action of spring 80, to engage rocker arm 32 in notch 72. Thus, plate 20 is locked into an unbalanced position so that the tooth of wheel 36 engaged with dog 46 remains in position as pressure is relieved from typing key 100.

At the completion of the typing of the preconsonant, the

carriage will be positioned midway between a preconsonant and a right vowel, or centered with respect to dash line 82 of FIG. 10, for example, in the fourth logogram illustrated. Thus,

if the logogram is to include a double preconsonant, as in this example, the carriage is properly positioned for such. The suc-.

cessive striking of a key 100 to accomplish typing of the second preconsonant causes no carriage movement, because traverse bar 76, being depressed into groove 134, prevents movement of disc 118, and escapement rocker plate 20 is locked by reason of the rocker arm 32 being engaged in notch 72.

Now the typewriter is ready for typing of a right-vowel, if any, or one of the characters from the second line of FIG. 1. Each of the keys 200 for these characters is connected by bail 214 so that upon striking of any key 200, bellcrank 210 will be rotated by the action of key bar 202 against projection 208 of bellcrank 210, thus moving link 212, to rotate control disc 218. This forces traverse bar 76 out of notch 238 thereby allowing disc 118 to return to the normal position illustrated in FIG. 2, by action of return spring 136. Thereafter, ratchetpawl 228 of disc 218 strikes rocker arm 30 of plate 20, thereby rotating plate 20 clockwise with respect to FIG. 2, which causes the tooth of wheel 36 engaged with dog 46 to pass to dog 44, or a distance of one-fourth space. After this, the type strikes the paper, and, simultaneously, rocker arm 32 becomes engaged with notch 74 of primary lock lever 62, having been rotated to a position thereabove by the action of ratchet-pawl 228 against rocker arm 30. Secure locking is assured by control spring of lock lever 62. Now the carriage is aligned with line 84 of FIG. 10, by way of example.

Key 300 is representative of the keys for subvowels arid subconsonants, represented by the characters of lines three and four of FIG. 1, and group 2 of FIG. 9. these keys 300 are secured together by bail 314 (FIG. 2). As in the case of the other keys, 100, 200, striking of a key 300 will move link 312 and rotate disc 318, but no spacing occurs, since disc 318 is not provided with a ratchet-pawl for rotating escapement rocker plate 20, and plate 20 is locked by reason of the engagement of rocker arm 32 in notch 74. In the event the logo gram does not include a right-vowel, a key 200 would not be struck. Thus striking of a key 300 would cause release of traverse bar 76 from groove 134 by rotating of disc 318, forcing bar 76 out of notch 338, but no carriage movement would occur; only disc 118 would return to a normal position. Keys and 300 only would be used to type a logogram similar to the third logogram in FIG. 10, which includes a preconsonant, subvowel and subconsonant.

A complex Korean logogram will include a terminal presubconsonant, as in the fourth logogram of FIG. 10. For this, a back half-space key 88 is required. FIG. 3 illustrates a normal backspace key 86 having a back half-space key 88 pivotally mounted thereon at 90. Projections 92, 92 define the pivot limits of key 88 from an operative position, shown in dash lines, to an inoperative position, shown in full line. A spring 94 retains key 88 in a normal, inoperative position. An adjustable screw 96, adapted to abut foot 98 of key 88, determines the half-space back movement when the key 88 is employed. Prior to striking the terminal presubconsonant, by actuation of one of the keys 300, key 88 is rotated to a vertical, operative position and depressed until foot 98 rests on the head of screw 96. The character is then typed. When key 88 is released, it will rotate to an inoperative position by reason of spring 94, and the carriage will return to a position prior to actuation of the back half-space key 88, since a full backspace, changing the condition of the typewriters escapement wheel 36, was not effectuated. Thus, after the terminal presubconsonant is typed, the carriage is still centered, for example, beneath line 84 (FIG. 10). Ordinarily, the terminal presubconsonant will be struck first, once the back half-space key 88 is actuated. Thereafter, the carriage is in proper position for typing of the right-hand subconsonant. At any rate, the order of typing subvowels and subconsonants is not critical, in that each of these characters is controlled by a key 300, whereby the carriage is not distributed during typing of the character.

Spacing between words, as for example between logograms three and four of FIG. 10, is accomplished by spacebar link 26, which is operatively connected (both shown) to the normal spacebar 400 of the typewriter (FIG. 9). Depression of spacebar 400 causes link 26 to first strike rear bar 66 of primary lock lever 62, thereby rotating lever 62 clockwise, in the sense of FIG. 2, and effecting a three-fourths space move ment, if rocker arm 32 is engaged in notch 72, one-half space movement, if rocker arm 32 is engaged in notch 74, or no movement at all in the carriage, if arm 32 is not engaged in one of the notches 72, 74, all as previously outlined. Thereafter, the upper leg of link 26 strikes spacebar dog 24 of rocker plate 20, causing the tooth of wheel 36 engaged with dog 54 to be released therefrom and dog 46 to engage a successive tooth on wheel 36. As the spacebar 400 is released, link 26 withdraws from spacebar dog 24, allowing plate to rotate to release the tooth of wheel 36 from dog 46 to engage dog 54. Thus, one-fourth plus three-fourths space, or one full space movement results.

It will be noted that three full spaces appear between logograms three and four of FIG. 10. It will be remembered that when the preconsonant of the third logogram was struck, as by a key 100, the carriage then came to rest one-fourth space beyond the line 82a, drawn through the preconsonant. The subvowel and subconsonant of this logogram were struck by one of the keys 300; therefor, no further carriage movement occurred. Thus, at the completion of the logogram, rocker arm 32 was engaged in notch 72. Now, the space bar 400 is struck, causing an additional one and three-fourths space movement, as just outlined. When the preconsonant for the fourth logogram is typed, the carriage will move only one additional space, since rocker arm 32 is not engaged in either notch 72 or 74, by reason of the previous actuation of spacebar 400. Total movement, then, is one-fourth plus one and three-fourths plus one or three full spaces. Additionally, whether the logogram includes a right-vowel or not, spacing between preconsonants will always be a uniform two spaces, as between logograms one and two, two and three, and four and five of FIG. 10. On the other hand, the spacing between the preconsonant of the terminal logograrn of one word group and the preconsonant of the initial logogram of the succeeding word group will always be three full spaces, as between logograms three and four of FIG. 10, provided space bar 400 is depressed once between word groups. Thus, the instant invention accomplishes neat, attractive, and precise spacing and grouping of logograms and word groups in the Korean language, irrespective of whether the logograms are simple, compound, or complex.

Deactivation of the automatic spacing system just discussed is quite simple. Stub shafts 22, 22, for escapement rocker plate 20 are mounted in the frame of the typewriter, but shaft or axle 18, for discs 118, 218, and 318, and axle 61, for primary lock lever 62 and secondary lock lever 64, are mounted in the usual, mobile type bar bracket, at the lower portion thereof (not shown). Thus, shifting of the type bar bracket, by means to be explained infra, or by the ordinary shift means of the typewriter, will cause both axles 18 and 61 to depress, thereby disengaging rocker arm 32 from primary lock lever 62, and effectively preventing engagement of either ratchet pawl 128 or 228 with rocker arms 28 and 30, respectively. Therefor, striking of the keys 100, 200 or 300 will cause no action in the automatic spacing assembly when the typewriter is shifted to the standard lower case for typing of Roman characters.

Japanese characters include a basic primary symbol with a second mark placed to the right of the symbol. Therefore, keyboard 10 groups T and W may include the primary and right-hand marks of the Japanese language, respectively. An upper double-shift system, explained infra, permits ready alternate typing of Korean or Japanese. Additionally, when typing in German, an umlaut may be included on one of the keys 300 in group Z of keyboard 10, since this character will be typed when the plate 410 is stationary.

The multistage shifting assembly of the instant invention is illustrated in FIGS. 4 through 8 inclusive. FIG. 5 indicates the standard type-bar-bracket system 402 of the usual typewriter. Extending rearwardly of the typewriter is a bracket segment 404 which is controlled by the novel shifting assembly to establish either three or four stage vertical shifting in the system 402. In the three-stage system, the characters typed will include Korean characters at 406a, and English characters at 406b, 406b, on representative type bar 408, shown in a striking position against platen 410. Other standard parts of the existing typewriter include shifting assembly 412 including shift keys 414, 416 and the usual stationary shift stop bracket 418, fixed in the frame of the typewriter (not shown) for limiting the vertical movement of type bar assembly 402.

The novel shift assembly comprises means for multistage shifting in three or four stages, as desired. A shift stop lever 420 is pivotally mounted to the frame of the typewriter (not shown) at 422. The free distal end 424 thereof is curved in bracket fashion about the right-hand leg of shift stop bracket 418 (FIGS. 4 and 6-8). Lever 420 may be formed as a metal stamping and includes upper and lower projecting steps 426 and 428, which serve to limit vertical movement of lever 420 in combination with upper stop 430 and lower stop 432 in fixed bracket 418, respectively. An adjusting screw 434 may be provided in step 428 to precisely adjust the limits of travel of segment 404 between steps 426 and 428, while a second adjustment screw 436, threaded through upper, rearward projection 438 of fixed bracket 418, serves to adjustably define the upper limit of travel of shift stop lever 420.

A latch 440 serves to lock lever 420 either in an upward mode (FIG. 7) or downward mode (FIG. 8). Latch 440 is pivoted to bracket 418 at 442, includes a return spring 444, and is operated through a primary latchcontrol rod 446. A pivoting triple arm bellcrank 448 secures the free end of primary latch rod 446, latch key link 450, and secondary latch control rod 452. A second bellcrank 454 is provided for the other end of rod 452 and for secondary latch key link 456. Pivots 458 and 460, mounted in the frame of the typewriter (not shown), serve as mounts for standard shift keys 414 and 416 as well as for latch key levers 462 and 464, attached to the terminal ends of latch key links 456, and 450, respectively. Thus, depression of either latch key lever 462 or 464 causes movement of latch 440 to the left (FIGS. 47 and 8) so that shift lever 420 may be moved upwardly or downwardly. Each latch key lever 462, 464 also includes an inward pin 466, disposed over corresponding shift keys 414, 416, so that upon depression of a latch key lever, the shift key lever is also depressed. Thus, when a latch key lever 462 or 464 is depressed, type bar assembly 402, and hence, bracket segment 404 is depressed until it touches screw 434 of step 428.

Simultaneously, latch 440 is pivoted to the left (FIG. 7). Downward motion of shift stop lever 420 continues until lower step 428 contacts lower stop 432 of stationary bracket 418. As key lever 462 or key lever 464 is released, latch 440 moves to the right (FIG. 8), retaining shift stop lever 420 in a down position by contact with the upper side of step 426. Once the shift mechanism is in the mode indicated in FIG. 8, Roman characters 406b, 40% may be typed, in that shift key 414 or 416 may be actuated for upper and lower case letters, because type assembly bracket segment 404 remains free to travel between steps 426 and 428 of lever 420.

Thus, the typewriter is adapted for a primary shift attitude, with lever 420 in the mode illustrated in FIG. 7, with two vertical shift positions defined therein, one when segment 404 contacts step 426, and a second when segment 404 contacts lower step 428. Shifting from this first attitude to the second occurs by depressing key shift 416 or 414 alone. The shift mechanism may be locked in this position by also depressing a pivoting shift lock key 468, retained by spring 470 in a normal, inoperative position, which is equipped with a pair of notches 472, 474, arranged to selectively engage projection 476, mounted in the frame of the typewriter (not shown). Another projection 473 on shift lock key 468 limits pivotal movement of shift lock key 463 to a vertical position, when it is actuated. When lever 420 is in the mode shown by FIG. 7, projection 476 engages lower notch 474 to retain the type bar assembly 402 in the second attitude discussed supra, with segment 404 against step 428. Of course, the shift system may be returned to the first attitude described merely by depressing and releasing key 468, and projection 476 from notch 474, so that segment 404 returns to a position against step 426 of shift stop lever 420. Spring 470 will urge shift lock key 468 to an inoperative position, at the same time.

On the other hand, when lever 420 is in the downward mode illustrated by FIG. 8, a third position is defined with segment 404 against step 426, and a fourth shift position is defined with segment 404 depressed against step 428. Again, the shift mechanism may be locked in the fourth position by a method similar to that defining the second position; shift lock key 468 is depressed, but in this instance, projection 476 will engage notch 472, since lever 420 is in a downward attitude. Again, the shift mechanism may be returned to the third position by depressing key 468 to release projection 476 from notch 472 so that segment 404 returns to a position against step 426 of lever 420.

The novel shift assembly may be configured for a threestage shift system instead of a four-stage system merely by varying the vertical dimension of the operative portion of latch 440. The dimension is indicated by the lower case letter I: in FIGS. 7 and 8. In the example of FIGS. 7 and 8, the shift assembly is configured for a three-stage shift system, because whether the system is configured for the second shift mode, with the lever 420 in the position illustrated in FIG. 7, and with segment 404 depressed against step 428, by key 416 and shift lock key 468, or whether the system is configured for the third shift mode, with the lever 420 in the position indicated in FIG. 8, with segment 404 against upper step 426, the distance his such that the type bar assembly 402 will be in the same attitude, vertically with respect to the platen 410, in either event. This may be more clearly seen by drawing a horizontal line from just above step 428 in FIG. 7 to just beneath step 426 in FIG. 8. It is obvious that segment 404 is in exactly the same vertical position in either case. On the other hand, afour-stage shift system may be created merely by lengthening the dimension h so that lever 420 is depressed further when in the mode illustrated by FIG. 8.

When configured for the three-stage shift system, Korean characters will be typed when the shift system is in the first mode, and English when the shift system is in the second or third mode and fourth modes. If Japanese is to be included, it will be typed when the shift system is in the second mode, and the system is configured for a four-stage shift system. Obviously, the configuration may be reversed or rearranged to suit taste.

The specific embodiments hereinbefore described and illustrated are capable of broader application, as will be noted by the scope of the appended claims.

I claim:

ill

1. In a typewriter including a frame, a keyboard including a spacebar, a shiftable type bar assembly, a horizontally movable carriage, and a toothed, escapement wheel assembly for the carriage, means for shifting the carriage thereof in a horizontal direction, interconnected with individual keys of the keyboard and the escapement wheel assembly so that spacing between characters is determined by the character next to be struck, comprising:

a. a rockable escapement plate having a plurality of spaced dogs thereon for predetennined spacing, arranged to selectively engage a tooth of said escapement wheel assembly, the teeth of the escapement wheel assembly being separated by a distance equal to one typing space;

b. a primary spacing assembly interconnected with a first group of keys whereupon striking of any one of the keys of the first group causes activation of the primary spacing assembly comprising:

1. first predetermined means for moving the rockable escapement plate to move the carriage a predetermined space, including means rendering the first predetermined means inoperable; and

2. secondary spacing assembly means for moving the rockable escapement plate to move the carriage an additional predetermined space, including means rendering the secondary spacing assembly means inoperative; and

c. a tertiary terminal nonspacing assembly interconnected with a terminal group of keys whereupon striking of any one of the keys of the terminal group renders the primary spacing assembly operative, when, immediately prior to striking of a key of the terminal group, the primary spacing assembly is in an inoperative attitude.

2. The invention as recited in claim 1 wherein the means for shifting the carriage of the typewriter further includes:

a. the secondary spacing assembly means interconnected with a second group of keys whereupon striking of any one of the keys of the second group causes activation of the secondary spacing assembly means, comprising:

1. tertiary means for moving the rockable escapement plate to move the carriage an additional predetermined space; and

2. means rendering the primary spacing assembly operative.

3. The invention as recited in claim 2 wherein the typewriter includes a backspace key, and means thereon for partial backspace carriage movement.

4. The invention as recited in claim 3 wherein the means for backspace movement comprises:

a. a pivotable key, mounted on the backspace key;

b. spring means urging said pivotable key to an inoperative position; and

c. stop means mounted on the frame of the typewriter, beneath the pivotable key, limiting downward movement of the backspace key to a partial space.

5. The invention as recited in claim 1 wherein the plurality of dogs of the rockable escapement plate are three in number and comprise:

a. a lower dog, beneath the rockable escapement plate;

b. a first upper dog, above the rockable escapement plate, spaced a predetermined space forwardly of the lower dog; and

c. a second upper dog, above the first upper dog, spaced a lesser predetermined space forwardly of the first upper dog;

whereupon rocking of the escapement plate so that an escapement wheel tooth moves from the first upper dog to the second upper dog causes carriage movement of a lesser predetermined space; rocking of the escapement plate so that said tooth moves from said second upper dog to the lower dog causes carriage movement of a larger predetermined space; rocking of the escapement plate so that said tooth moves from the first upper dog to the lower dog causes carriage movement of a further predetennined space; and rocking of the escapement plate so that an escapement wheel tooth disengages from the lower dog and a successive tooth engages the first upper dog causes carriage movement of another predetermined space.

6. The invention as recited in claim 1 wherein said primary spacing assembly comprises:

a. a primary link arm connected to one of the keys of said first group of keys, the individual keys of the first group being interconnected by a bail; and

b. a primary rotatable control disc, mounted on a disc shaft and operatively connected for rotational movement to the distal end of the primary link arm; said first predetermined means and said secondary spacing assembly means being operatively connected to the primary rotatable control disc.

7. The invention as recited in claim 6 wherein the first predetermined means for moving the rockable escapement plate comprise:

a. a primary rocker arm, depending from the rockable escapement plate; and

b. a primary lock lever, pivotally mounted on a lever shaft beneath the primary rocker arm and including means defining a plurality of notches thereon for selectively engaging said primary rocker arm;

said means rendering the first predetermined means inoperative comprising a cam, mounted on the primary rotatable control disc, arranged to depress the primary lock lever upon striking of any one of said first group of keys, thereby releasing the primary rocker arm from engagement with one of the plurality of notches.

8. The invention as recited in claim 7 wherein said notches comprise two in number, arranged so that when the primary rocker arm engages one of said notches, release of the primary arm by the cam causes the carriage to advance about one-half space.

9. The invention as recited in claim 7 wherein the secondary spacing assembly means for moving the rockable escapement plate comprise:

a. a secondary rocker arm, depending from the rockable escapement plate; and

b. a primary ratchet-pawl, mounted on the primary rotatable control disc, arranged to depress the secondary rocker arm to rock the escapement plate and move the carriage a predetermined space after said cam has rendered the first predetermined means inoperative.

10. The invention as recited in claim 9 wherein said means for rendering the secondary spacing assembly means inoperative comprise:

a. a secondary lock lever, pivotally mounted on the lever shaft adjacent the secondary rocker arm;

b. an elongate traverse bar, extending across the edge of the primary rotatable control disc; and

c. means defining a groove in the primary rotatable control disc adjacent the traverse bar, whereupon after movement of the secondary rocker arm by the primary ratchetpawl, the traverse bar engages said primary rotatable control disc groove, thereby preventing further rotation of the primary rotatable control disc in any direction.

1 l. The invention as recited in claim 2 wherein the secondary spacing assembly means comprises:

a. a secondary link arm connected to one of the keys of said second group of keys, the individual keys of the second group being interconnected by a bail; and

b. a secondary rotatable control disc, mounted on a disc shaft adjacent the primary spacing assembly, and operatively connected for rotational movement to the free distal end of the secondary link arm;

said tertiary means being operatively connected to the secondary rotatable control disc.

12. The invention as recited in claim 11 wherein the tertiary means for moving the rockable escapement plate comprise:

a. a tertiary rocker arm, depending from the rockable escapement plate; and

b. a secondary ratchet-pawl, mounted on the secondary rotatable control disc, arranged to depress the tertiary rocker arm to rock the escapement plate and move the carriage a predetermined distance upon striking of any one of the keys of the second group of keys;

whereby upon rotation of the secondary rotatable control disc, said tertiary means rendering the primary spacing assembly operative is activated.

13. The invention as recited in claim 1 wherein the terminal nonspacing assembly comprises:

a. a tertiary link arrn connected to one of the keys of said terminal group of keys, the individual keys of the terminal group being interconnected by a bail; and

b. a tertiary rotatable control disc, mounted on a disc shaft, and operatively connected for rotational movement to the free distal end of the tertiary link arm;

whereby upon rotation of the tertiary control disc, said primary spacing assembly is rendered operative.

14. The invention as recited in claim 1 wherein the means for shifting the carriage in a horizontal direction include additional spacing means connected to the spacebar of the keyboard of the typewriter, for rocking the escapement plate upon depression of the spacebar.

15. In the invention as recited in claim 1, wherein the typewriter includes a standard lowercase and uppercase shift assembly including a stationary shift stop bracket, and a vertically movable type bar assembly movable by the shift assembly, means for rendering the means for shifting the carriage in a horizontal direction inoperative, comprising a plurality of shafts mounted in the type bar assembly, upon which portions of the primary spacing assembly the secondary spacing assembly means and the tertiary terminal nonspacing assembly are mounted, and means for moving the shift assembly vertically along the shift stop bracket.

16. The invention as recited in claim 15 wherein the means for moving the shift assembly vertically along the shift stop bracket comprise:

a. a lever, pivotally mounted in the frame of the typewriter, having its free end slidable vertically along one side of the stationary shift stop bracket, and including a pair of horizontal steps, defining limits of movement for the shift assembly between the upper and lower case; and

b. means for rotating the lever, and thus moving the steps between two vertical limits formed as an upper and lower stop within the shift stop bracket, comprising:

1. a control latch, arranged to selectively retain the steps in the upper and lower positions; and

2. key means on the keyboard, to operate the control latch.

17. The invention as recited in claim 16 wherein the key means for the control latch is operatively connected to the pivotally mounted shift lever of the typewriter to effect a double shift of the type bar assembly when the control latch is operated.

18. The invention as recited in claim 16 wherein the key means for operating the control latch is provided with lock means to retain the standard lowercase and uppercase shift assembly in the upper case position when the steps of the lever are in either vertical position, against one of the upper or lower stops.

19. In a typewriter including a frame, a keyboard, a horizontally movable carriage, a standard lowercase and uppercase shift assembly including a stationary shift stop bracket and a pivotally mounted shift key lever, and a vertically movable type bar assembly movable by the shift assembly, means for moving the shifl assembly vertically along the shift stop bracket comprising:

a. a lever, pivotally mounted in the frame of the typewriter, having its free end slidable vertically along one side of the stationary shift stop bracket, and including a pair of horizontal steps, defining limits of movement for the shift assembly between the upper and lower case; and

b. means for rotating the lever, and thus moving the steps between two vertical limits formed as upper and lower stops, respectively, within the shift stop bracket, comprismg:

l. a control latch, arranged to selectively retain the steps in the upper and lower positions; and

2. key means on the keyboard, to operate the control latch.

20. The invention as recited in claim 19 wherein the typewriter includes a backspace key, and means thereon for partial backspace carriage movement.

21. The invention as recited in claim 20 wherein the means for partial backspace carriage movement comprises:

a. a partial backspace key pivotally, mounted for movement to an operative and inoperative position; and

b. stop means, located beneath the partial backspace key when in an operative position, limiting movement of the backspace key to a partial backspace movement.

22. The invention as recited in claim 21 wherein the partial backspace key includes spring means urging said partial backspace key to an inoperative position.

23. The invention as recited in claim 21 wherein the stop means beneath the partial backspace key comprises a screw, threadably mounted in the frame of the typewriter, and vertically adjustable therein.

24. The invention as recited in claim 19 wherein the key means for the control latch is operatively connected to the pivotally mounted shift key lever of the typewriter to effect a double shift of the type bar assembly when the control latch is operated.

25. The invention as recited in claim 19 wherein the pivotally mounted shift key lever is provided with lock means to retain the shift assembly in the uppercase position when the steps of the pivotally mounted lever are in either vertical position, against one of the stops.

26. The invention as recited in claim 25 wherein the lock means comprises a pivotable latch, arranged to engage one of the steps of said pivotally mounted lever when said steps are in either vertical position, against one of the stops, and key means, on the keyboard, for operating said pivotable latch.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification400/111, 400/306.2, 400/325, 400/484, 400/255, 400/110
International ClassificationB41J3/01, B41J3/00
Cooperative ClassificationB41J3/01
European ClassificationB41J3/01