US 3633244 A
A hinge construction for use, by way of example, in a fenestration construction for pivotally supporting a closure member along an edge of a window opening and allowing the closure member to be pivoted through 180 DEG without interference with adjacent structure. The hinge construction comprises two mating or interfitted extruded hinge members having a cross-sectional shape whereby the members may be assembled by relative longitudinal slidable engagement and thereafter cannot be disassembled throughout pivotal movement of one of the hinge members with respect to the other.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent 1 mama  Inventor Abraham Grossman 9339 Rhea Avenue, Northridge, Calif. 91324 [211 App]. No. 778,673  Filed Nov. 25, 1968  Patented Jan. 11, 1972  HINGE CONSTRUCTION 5 Claims, 10 Drawing Figs.
 US. Cl 16/178  Int. Cl E0511 l/04  Field of Search 16/178, I28, 179; 49/397  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,330,788 9/1943 Chiappinelli 16/178 2,145,920 2/1939 Gooder 3,348,259 10/1967 Wilhelmsenetal.
Primary Examiner-Bobby R. Gay Assistant Examiner- Doris L. Troutman Attorney-Miketta, Glenny, Poms and Smith ABSTRACT: A hinge construction for use, by way of example, in a fenestration construction for pivotally supporting a closure member along an edge of a window opening and allowing the closure member to be pivoted through [80 without interference with adjacent structure. The hinge construction comprises two mating or interfitted extruded hinge members having a cross-sectional shape whereby the members may be assembled by relative longitudinal slidable engagement and thereafter cannot be disassembled throughout pivotal movement of one of the hinge members with respect to the other.
PATENTEB JAM 1 1272 SHEET 1 BF 2 iftcul.
3% WW E o WWW J r. n 2 g I 3% M i w HINGE CONSTRUCTION Hinges of various types and designs are usable in innumerable applications. One type of hinge is desired to be of considerable longitudinal extent for connecting two long members. One use for such long hinges is to secure doors or windows in a fenestrated building construction, particularly metal mobile trailer-type homes or similar types of constructions. Other uses are many, such as pivotally securing doors on metal shower enclosures, bookcases, or the like. In the prior art, a most common and. well-known hinge used in the abovedescribed applications is the so-called piano hinge. As is well known, such hinge comprises a plurality of longitudinally spaced circular segments secured along one edge of a butt plate, two butt plates being joined by alternately disposing the circular segments and passing an elongated pivot pin through aligned openings of the segments. There are many disadvantages to piano hinges, one of these being the difficulty in assembly of such hinges, particularly after the butt plates are secured to the members to be pivoted, creating a problem in aligning the circular segments so that the elongated pivot pin may be passed therethrough. Piano hinges are also expensive to manufacture, because of the detailed forming operations which are required and because of the tolerances which must be held in the formation of the circular segments to enable the slidable receiving of the elongated pivot pin while allowing relatively easy pivoting movement of the circular segments with respect to the pivot pin. Piano hinges are also expensive to use because of the requirement of a plurality of manually placed screws with which the butt plates are secured to the members to be pivotally connected.
Other prior proposed long hinges have included a pair of interfitted longitudinal extruded hinge portions which permitted hinge movement through substantially less than 180, usually about 135. Such prior proposed hinges included several disadvantages, one of which was the relatively rough or irregular hinge movement of a closure panel equipped with such a hinge about its hinging axis. In addition, such prior proposed hinges were subject to damage and breakage when an attached closure panel was raised because of the tendency to lift the panel higher than or beyond 135 to facilitate access to the opening or compartment closed by the panel, such lifting at the opposite bottom rail of the panel imposing a large leverage force on the relatively thin material section of the hinge portions. A length of chain or a bar attached to the adjacent wall was required to limit raising of the panel to prevent damage.
Generally speaking, the present invention contemplates a novel hinge construction in which a pair of extruded mating hinge members are provided with nested longitudinal edge portions of arcuate cross sections, for example, having a common axis of rotation in one position, the common axis being spaced from the plane of a closure panel covering or closing an opening in a wall, the arcuate cross sections being so shaped that as the inner nested arcuate portion moves relative to the other arcuate portion, the axis thereof is displaced with respect to the location of the common axis so that the hinge members may be moved through an angle of at least 180' without disassembly of the hinge members. In fully open position, at least 180, the adjacent wall provided a convenient surface for a stop means so that undue stressing of hinge portions is obviated. The construction of hinge members are readily produced by extruding aluminum alloy or other metal alloy material in long lengths which may then be cut to selected length for a closure panel of specific size, readily assembled, and then easily attached to the closure panel and opening frame.
Accordingly, it is one object of the present invention to pro vide a hinge construction which overcomes the abovedescribed disadvantages of prior art hinge constructions.
An object of the present invention is to provide a hinge construction wherein extruded longitudinally extending hinge members may be interfitted, mated or interengaged so as to provide a hinge construction of two members without the use of a separate pivot pin.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a hinge construction comprising two longitudinally extending hinge members which are rotatable with respect to one another through an angle of 180 but cannot be disengaged after assembly. I
A further object of the present invention is to provide a hinge construction of the above described type in which the two hinge members may be easily assembled by longitudinally sliding one of the members within the other and can be easily disassembled by reversing the above step and in which the plates of the hinge members may be easily secured to closure and frame members to be pivotally interconnected.
A further object of the invention is to disclose a novel hinge construction wherein nested hinge sections are so constructed and arranged as to provide a smooth uniform swinging movement of the closure panel about its hinge axis and wherein progressive changing location of the hinge axis is accomplished in a smooth manner.
It is still a further object of the present invention to provide a hinge construction of the above-described type which is adapted for fenestrated constructions for pivotally supporting a closure member for a wall opening or the like.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will be readily apparent from the following description of the drawings in which an exemplary embodiment of the invention is shown.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a fragmentary front elevational view of a window opening provided with a closure panel having a hinge construction embodying the present invention.
FIG. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary vertical sectional view taken in the plane indicated by line ll-II of FIG. 1.
FIG. 3 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view of a corner of the closure panel and window frame opening, partly in section, to illustrate the connection of the hinge construction to the closure panel and frame.
FIGS. 4a, b, c, d are fragmentary sectional views taken in a plane similar to FIG. 2 and progressively illustrating the relationship of the hinge members as the closure panel is swung through lto an open position.
FIG. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken in the same plane as FIG. 2.
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary sectional view taken in the plane indicated by line VIVI of FIG. 3.
FIG. 7 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view taken in the same plane as FIG. 2.
Referring first to FIG. 1 of the drawings a hinge construction embodying the present invention is generally indicated at 10. The hinge construction 10 provides a pivotal mounting for a closure panel 11 which closes or covers an opening 12 defined by a window frame structure 14 installed in a wall 15 in suitable well-known manner. In this exemplary embodiment of hinge construction 10 it will be understood that the hinge construction is designed particularly for use with metal wall framing and construction of a mobile home such as a vehicle trailer and that the novel features of the hinge construction have utility in numerous hinge applications where a continuous hinge is desirable.
Hinge construction 10 (FIG. 2) may comprise an upper hinge member 20 and a lower mating or companion hinge member 21. Both hinge members 20 and 21 may be made of suitable metal, such as aluminum alloy, and extruded through dies of selected configuration depending upon the manner of attachment or installation to the frame member and closure panel for which the hinge construction is intended. Extruded lengths of each hinge member may be cut to a preselected length suitable for the closure panel on which the hinge construction is to be used. The hinge members 20 and 21 preferably include longitudinal hinge plate portions 22 and 23, respectively, provided with front faces 24 and 25, respectively, lying in approximately the same plane when in assembly and in fully nested closed position as more fully described hereafter.
Plate portion 22 may be of selected width and has integrally formed therewith along its top edge 26 an internal recess 27 of generally part-circular cross-sectional configuration for attachment of hinge member 20 to a vertical window frame member 28 as by a metal screw 29 in well-known manner. Plate portion 22 may include a longitudinally extending back rib 30 for positioning the hinge member 20 in parallel relation to the exterior surface of wall 15.
Plate 22 may be integrally formed with a rearwardly horizontally and longitudinally extending portion 32 providing a top horizontal surface 33 for seating against the bottom edge of wall to further facilitate positioning of the hinge member with respect to the framed opening. The rearwardly extending horizontal portion 32 also includes a depending longitudinally section 34 provided with a part-circular attachment recess 35 and a forwardly facing generally T-shaped recess 36 for reception of a gasket or a sealing means.
Extending forwardly from plate portion 22 and in the same plane as rearwardly extending horizontal portion 32 may be a longitudinally horizontally extending flange portion 38 terminating and integrally merging with a downwardly and rearwardly curved part cylindrical or arcuate in cross section edge section 39 forming part of the hinge means as more fully described hereafter.
Hinge member 21 includes, in addition to said plate portion 23, a rearwardly extending generally vertically oriented T-section portion 41 defining with the lower portion of the plate portion 23 a downwardly facing channel 42 within which may be received the edge portion 43 of a closure panel 44 of suitable closure material. In this example, panel 44 is sealed and retained by a resilient longitudinally extending resilient gasket member 45 of suitable configuration and construction whereby resiliency of gasket member 45 snugly and tightly maintains the panel 44 in assembly. It will be understood that the panel 11 includes panel side frame members 1 1s and a bottom frame member 11b provided with a suitable handle, the frame members being of suitable configuration and interconnected in suitable well-known manner.
Plate portion 21 also includes a rearwardly extending horizontal portion 47 provided with depending spaced reinforcing ribs 48 and 49. The rearwardly extending portion 47 extends along horizontal portion 32 of the upper plate portion 22.
Extending forwardly from the plate portion 23 and in the same plane as rearwardly extending portion 47 is a longitudinally horizontally extending flange portion 51 terminating and merging in a longitudinal edge section 52 of arcuate configuration nested within arcuate section 39 as particularly described hereafter.
Hinge construction 10 is primarily concerned with the hingin g arrangement of the surfaces of longitudinal flange portions 38 and 51 and their nested arcuate edge sections 39 and 52 together with their relation to front surface of the lower hinge member 21. It will be understood, of course, that the remaining configuration of the plate portions 22, 23 and rearwardly extending portions may be modified and may be of different configuration depending upon the type of installation for the hinge construction.
The forwardly or outwardly extending hinging means of the hinge construction 10, in detail, includes the arcuate section 39 having an outer longitudinally extending part-cylindrical surface 54 having a radius R,, and which subtends an angle of approximately 210 as measured from point of tangency with the outer surface of flange portion 38. At approximately 210 outer surface 54 merges smoothly with a curved surface 55 on edge extremity 56 of arcuate section 39, the curved surface 55 having a radius R, having its center on the radian of 210 and within the sectional configuration of the inner arcuate section 52. Edge extremity 56 subtends an angle of approximately 240. Edge extremity 56 defines with inner or bottom surface 57 of flange portion 38 a longitudinally extending space or opening 58.
The lower hinge member 21 is assembled with the upper hinge member 20 by aligning inner arcuate section 52 with outer arcuate section 39 and then longitudinally sliding arcuate section 52 into nested arrangement with arcuate section 39 for the entire length of the hinge members. The flange portion 51 with its upper or outer surface 59 and arcuate section 52 with its outer arcuate surface 60 slidably fits within inner arcuate surface 61 of arcuate section 39. Arcuate section 52 subtends an angle of slightly less than 270 as measured from the flange portion 51 and, as best seen in FIG. 2, edge extremity 62 of arcuate section 52 extends upwardly above the edge extremity 56 of outer arcuate section 39 and is spaced a selected distance from inner surface 63 of the flange portion 51.
The relationship of arcuate sections 52, 39, flange portions 51, 38, and plate portion 23 maintains the hinge members 20, 21 in assembly during opening and closing of the closure panel 1 l. The radius R, of outer arcuate surface 54 is approximately equal to the distance between the rearwardmost surface of the inner arcuate section edge extremity 62 and the front surface 25 of plate portion 23 of the swingable hinge member 21. This relationship permits the hinge member 21 to be swung through an angle of at least 180 without disengagement of the nested arcuate sections 39, 52 as now described in detail.
As best seen in FIG. 2 in normal closed relationship of hinge members 20 and 21 and therefore of closure panel 11, the arcuate hinge sections 39 and 52 are in fully nested relationship and the axis of each arcuate section and hinge or pivotal axis is coincident or common. When the closure panel is being swung to open position, inner arcuate section 52 rotates about this common axis through an angle of approximately 45 (FIG. 4a) at which position the bottom surface 63 of the horizontal flange portion 51 moves into proximity with and may bear against the edge extremity 56 of outer arcuate section 39. Mating arcuate surfaces 60 and 61 control this initial swinging movement of hinge member 21.
As hinge member 21 continues to turn, axis A,,, of moving arcuate section 52 is displaced out of its common or coincidence relationship with axis A, of fixed arcuate section 39 and edge extremity 62 of arcuate section 52 may bear against and move along the inner surface 61 of arcuate section 39 and such contact becomes hinge axis H. This relationship is shown in FIG. 4b wherein at a position it appears that the slightly tapered edge extremity 56 of outer arcuate section 39 has been introduced slightly into the opening defined by edge extremity 62 and flange portion 51. Horizontal movement between hinge members is thus restricted and disassembly is not permitted.
It should also be noted that at a 90 position of hinge member 21, arcuate sections 52 and 39 cannot become disengaged because the distance between the outer surface of edge extremity 62 and a point 62a on surface 57 substantially vertically opposite thereto is approximately equal to the diameter of outer arcuate surface 60 and is greater than the space between the edge extremity 56 and flange portion 38 as indicated by 58.
Further rotation of hinge member 21 is indicated in FIG. 4c, this position being approximately from original fully nested position. As indicated, edge extremity 62 of the inner arcuate section 52 has been moved toward the edge extremity 56 of outer arcuate section 39 and a major portion of arcuate section 52 has passed through space 58. However, disengagement is prevented because at this position front face 25 of plate portion 23 has moved into vertical sliding engagement with outer surface 54 of outer arcuate section 39 as indicated at 65. Since radius R,, is approximately equal to the space between the extremity 62 and front face 25, it will be apparent that such sliding contact engagement as at 65 between front face 25 and outer arcuate surface 54 will limit movement of the inner arcuate section 52 rearwardly or further through space 58 so that the hinge member 21 cannot become disengaged.
In FIG. 4d is shown hinge member turned approximately 180 and wherein the line of sliding contact between front face 25 and outer arcuate surface 54 has been moved to a position indicated at 65. In addition, the line of contact between edge extremity 62 and inner arcuate section 52 has now been lost and a line of contact between edge extremity 56 and inner surface 66 of the inner arcuate section 52 is at 67. In the 180 position it should be noted that plate portion 24 lies forwardly of and parallel to plate portion 22.
In the explanation of the turning movement of the hinge member 21 about the several axes involved which shift because of contact of certain surfaces, in brief summary it may be noted that in fully closed nested position of the flange portions and arcuate sections as shown in FIG. 2 the axes A,, A,,, and hinge axis H (that is the axis about which actual turning occurs) coincide. As hinge member 21 moves through approximately 45 (FIG. 4a), the member is still turning about the common axis as determined by A,, a and H, and controlled by the arcuate surfaces 60, 61. However, as the hinge member continues to turn as indicated in FIG. 4b, it will be noted that the moving axis A has been displaced rearwardly, axes A, and A,,, no longer serve as a turning axis and instead the turning axis occurs at II which is a line of contact made by edge extremity 62 against the inner surface 61 of outer arcuate section 39. As hinge member 21 continues to turn into the position shown in FIG. 40 the hinge axis now indicated at H moves rearwardly and upwardly on inner surface 61 of the edge extremity 56. In FIG. 4d it will be apparent that the hinge axis H has further shifted and now is provided by the linear contact of the surface of edge extremity 56 against inner arcuate surface 66 of the inner arcuate section 52. It will thus be apparent that between 135 and 180 there is a transfer of the linear contact forming the hinging axis H from the interior arcuate surface 61 of the outer arcuate section 39 to the inner arcuate surface 66 of inner arcuate section 52. During such transfer it will be apparent that disengagement of the hinge members 20, 21 cannot occur because of the limiting contact of the surface 57 of flange portion 38 and front face 25 of plate portion 23. It will also be apparent that hinge member 21 is capable of turning beyond 180 if desired until edge extremity 62 interlocks with the edge extremity 56.
The hinge members 20 and 21 are readily assembled by longitudinal insertion of the inner arcuate section 52 into the outer arcuate section 39 until the two hinge members are moved relatively longitudinally into a selected position. To facilitate mounting the hinge members relative to the adjacent ends of the panel side frame members such as 11:, inner arcuate section 52 may be cut to a shorter length than that of outer arcuate section 39 so as to provide at each end of the hinge assembly a longitudinal recess 69. Each recess 69 may receive a reduced shank 71 of a headed pin 70 which extends approximateiy to the end edge of inner arcuate section 52. A head 72 of pin 70 may abut as at 73 the outer edge of outer arcuate section 39. The head 72 has an outer cylindrical surface of approximately the same radius as that of the outer surface 54 of arcuate section 39 so that a continuous cylindrical effect is provided for the width of the panel closure.
When the hinge construction is used horizontally to swingably mount a closure panel at its top horizontal edge, as shown, the flange portion 38 also serves as a water deflector and drip means which prevents rainwater from flowing directly downwardly over the closure panel. When hinge 10 is used vertically to swingably mount a door or like panel, pin 70 may be fixed against longitudinal movement and shank 71 as by a transverse pin extending through outer arcuate section 39 so that relative longitudinal movement between the hinge members will not occur.
It will be understood that other means may be employed for maintaining the hinge members in longitudinal relation, as for example, a transverse slot may be cut in flange portion 51 to receive and engage a suitable rivet or pin driven through an aligned port in the arcuate section 39.
The fixed hinge member 20 may be secured to wall 15 by suitable screwbolts 70 installed in selected longitudinal spaced relation in plate portion 22. It will be apparent from a consideration of FIG. 4d that when the closure panel is in fully open position, the space between the wall 15 and the closure panel is relatively small, and generally speaking, a handle provided at the bottom rail of the closure panel will abut wall 15 so as to provide a stop against further swinging movement of the closure panel. In the event a handle is not provided on the closure panel, a suitable bumper stop may be provided on the panel or wall. Additionally the small space between the closure panel in raised position and the wall permits the use of short-retaining hooks in the event it is desired to hold the closure panel in fully open position. Friction-type latches may also be used.
It will be understood by those skilled in the art that the hinge portions provided by the flange and arcuate edge sections may be made of slightly different configuration. The arcuate or return sections 52 and 39 are preferably made of virtually uniform material cross section, but it will be understood that certain portions of said cross section may be thickened or reduced depending upon the requirements for the hinge construction as long as the several relationships between the surfaces of the return sections, flange portions and plate portions are maintained. In the exemplary embodiment described above which employs part-cylindricaledge sections, the hinging movement is smooth and uniform because of the curved surfaces and the smooth transfer of the hinge axis from one location to another as the closure panel is swung thereabout.
It will be understood that various modifications and changes may be made in the configuration of the hinge member described above which may come within the spirit of this invention and all such changes and modifications coming within the scope of the appended claims are embraced thereby.
1. In a hinge construction, the combination of:
a pair of longitudinally extending mating hinge members including plate portions having front faces;
hinge portions extending from said plate portions and having longitudinal edge arcuate sections in nested concentric relation in one position of said hinge members;
one of said hinge members being normally fixed and the other hinge member being swingable with respect thereto about progressively changing hinge axes during movement of the swingable hinge member;
said arcuate section of the fixed hinge member terminating in an edge extremity spaced from the opposed surface of its flange portion a distance less than the external diameter of the arcuate section of said swingable hinge member;
said arcuate section of the swingable hinge member having an edge extremity spaced from the front face of its plate portion a distance approximately that of the radius of the external surface of the fixed arcuate section whereby contact of said external surface of said fixed arcuate section maintains interengagement of the arcuate sections to maintain assembly of said hinge members while said swingable hinge member is turned through an angle of at least 2. In a hinge construction as stated in claim 1 wherein said arcuate sections include external and internal part-cylindrical surfaces whereby said hinge axis during part of said turning of said swingable member is coincident with the axes of said partcylindrical surfaces.
3. In a hinge construction as stated in claim 1 wherein said edge extremity of said arcuate section of said fixed swingable member is tapered in cross section.
6. In a hinge construction as stated in claim 1 wherein said arcuate section of said swingable member subtends an angle of approximately 270 as measured from its point of tangency with its flange portion; and
wherein said outer arcuate edge section of said fixed member subtends an angle of approximately 240 as measured from its point of tangcncy of its flange portion.
5. In a hinge construction as stated in claim 1 wherein said hinge members are movable longitudinally relative to each 5 other for assembly of said nested arcuate edge sections; and
means for holding said hinge members against relative longitudinal movement.