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Publication numberUS3633327 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 11, 1972
Filing dateJun 16, 1970
Priority dateJun 16, 1970
Also published asCA942922A1
Publication numberUS 3633327 A, US 3633327A, US-A-3633327, US3633327 A, US3633327A
InventorsKlingensmith James D, Merkin Billie C
Original AssigneeAluminum Co Of America
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
High strength wall structure with sill and header members
US 3633327 A
Abstract
A wall structure including at least one sheet metal panel having a profile of raised and valley portions extending between two opposed ends of the panel. Sill and header members having tongue and notched portions, corresponding to the raised and valley portions of the panel, are disposed on the opposed ends of the panel with the tongues and notches of the sill and header members engaging one side of the panel. A clamping member for both the sill and header members, and having tongues and notches corresponding to the raised and valley portions of the panel, is disposed to engage the other side of the panel in interlocking engagement with the panel and with the sill and header members.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent [72] inventors James D. Klingensmith Allegheny Township, Westmoreland County; Billie C. Merkin, Pittsburgh, both of Pa. [21] Appl. No. 46,634 [22] Filed June 16, 1970 Jan. 11, 1972 Aluminum Company of America Pittsburgh, Pa.

[45] Patented [73] Assignee {54] HIGH STRENGTH WALL STRUCTURE WITH SILL [56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,019,707 1935 Jenkins 52/494 2,069,176 1937 Budd 52/578 Primary Examiner-Frank L. Abbott Assistant Examiner- Leslie A. Braun Attorney- Elroy Strickland ABSTRACT: A wall structure including at least one sheet metal panel having a profile of raised and valley portions extending between two opposed ends of the panel. Sill and header members having tongue and notched portions, corresponding to the raised and valley portions of the panel, are disposed on the opposed ends of the panel with the tongues and notches of the sill and header members engaging one side of the panel. A clamping member for both the sill and header members, and having tongues and notches corresponding to the raised and valley portions of the panel, is disposed to engage the other side of the panel in interlocking engagement with the panel and with the sill and header members.

PAIENIEI] Jam 1 m2 :3

INVENTORS. JAMES D. KLl/VGENSM/TH 8 BILL/E C. HER/(IN Attorney BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates generally to exterior wall structures for buildings, such as family-type dwellings though the invention is not limited thereto, and particularly to rigid, load-bearing wall structures employing preformed, ribbed sheet metal panels.

Preformed panel structures have economical advantages over conventional wall constructions since they can be made, preformed and prefinished on a mass produced basis and then taken to the building site for rapid construction and erection using generally unskilled personnel and a minimum of tools and equipment.

However, preformed walls must be as strong as conventional wall constructions. In order to ascertain the strength of preformed wall designs, a variety of tests have been prescribed. A particularly severe test for a wall, and one required by the FHA, is the racking load test in which a substantial force is applied at an upper corner of an 8 foot square wall section and in a direction along the upper end of the wall toward the other upper comer, the upper end and comers being free to move while the lower end of the wall is securely fixed. The force applied tends to move the wall out of square and into a parallelogram configuration.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides a high strength, preformed wall structure by use of sill and header members securely clamped respectively on the lower and upper ends of a sheet metal panel, the panel having a profile of raised and valley portions extending between the ends of the panel. The sill and header members each comprise a first wall portion disposed to engage the ends of the ribbed panel, and a second wall portion having tongues and notches corresponding to the raised and valley portions of the panel located to engage one side of the panel in mating relationship with the raised and valley portions. A clamping member is disposed to engage the other side of the panel, the clamping member also having tongues and notches disposed in mating relation with the raised and valley portions of the panel. The sill and header members are disposed in interlocking engagement with the panel and with their respective clamping member by use of mutually engaging integral flange portions located opposite of the tongues and notches of the clamping, sill and header members.

To secure the sill and header members on the ends of the panel, integral projections or tabs are punched in the panel, the tabs projecting from one side of the panel to engage the clamping member or projecting from the other side to engage the header or sill member, and located near the opposed ends of the panel to allow the edge of the clamping, or sill, or header member to seat over the tabs. The clamping members are then secured to their respective sill and header members to clamp the panel between its ends and the tabs.

With the tongues and notches of the clamping, sill and header members engaging the valley and raised portions of the panel on both sides of the panel, and in an interlocking manner with the panel, and with the clamping of header or sill member engaged with the tabs, a wall structure is provided having an extremely high strength characteristic, and being capable of withstanding substantially increased racking loads that would easily force prior art wall structures into parallelograms or other distorted configurations.

The wall structure of the present invention is further strengthened by providing the integral tabs with a crown portion, and the edges of the tongues and notches of the clamping members with an integral lip or burr portion which seats behind the crown when the clamping members are placed in locking engagement with the sill and header members and with the panel. This structure under a racking load produces a resultant force at approximately right angles to the main tensile force of the load which tends to resist disengagement of clamp and tab. Tabs without crowns and clamping members without burrs produce a resultant force (because of deflection or bow of the header under applied load) at approximately right angles to main tensile force which tends to promote disengagement of the clamp and tab.

THE DRAWING The invention, along with its advantages and objectives, will become more apparent from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawing in which:

FIG. I is an exploded perspective view of a rigid wall structure constructed in accordance with the principles of the present invention;

' FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view of a sill and a clamping member employed in the invention as shown in FIG. I.

PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Specifically, FIG. 1 shows a preformed sheet metal panel 10 having a plurality of raised and valley portions extending between the lower and upper ends of the panel, the raised and valley portions preferably being uniform throughout the height of the panel so that they present vertical, parallel valleys extending between the ends of the panel. Typical dimensions of a panel for the purpose of the invention would include a panel height of approximately 8 feet and a width of 48 inches with the raised and valley portions comprising narrow sections 12 of 2 inches spaced apart by wide sections 14 of 4 inches and transition areas 15 occupying a lateral distance of 1 inch between 12 and 14. The depth of the raised and valley portions are preferably l and %inches. These dimensions, however, are given by way of example only, the dimensions being affected by alloy temper and gauge parameters. The profile of the raised and valley portions may be any configuration suitable for building constructions and preferably for load-bearing purposes. The panel is preferably used as an exterior wall structure with either of the narrow or wide portions 12 and 14 facing to the outside.

As seen in FIG. 1, adjacent each end of the panel 10 is a row of projections or tabs, the lower row being designated 16, and the upper row 18. The tabs can be formed by a suitable punching operation which provides each tab with a crown portion 20 (FIG. 2) spaced from and sloping into the side of the panel. The crown portions of the lower tabs 16 face up, as shown in FIG. 2, and the crown portions of the tabs 18 (not shown) face down with the panel disposed in a vertical position as shown in FIG. 1.

In accordance with the principles of the invention, a panel of the type depicted in FIG. 1, is provided with rigid, high strength characteristic by elongated sill and header members 22 and 24 securely clamped to ends of the panel by respective clamping members 26 in a manner presently to be explained.

More particularly, the lower end of the panel 10 is seated in the sill member 22 and in engagement with a first wall portion 28 of the sill as shown in FIG. 2. The sill is provided, as best seen in FIG. 1, with a second wall portion 30 integrally formed along one edge of the first wall portion and provided with notch and tongue portions 32 and 34 respectively generally dimensioned in accordance with and corresponding to the raised and valley portions 12 and 14 of the panel 10.

The wall 28 of the sill 22 is provided with integral legs 36 for seating upon a suitable floor or foundation structure 38 and an inwardly directed, integral flange 40 extending lengthwise of the sill and preferably the full length thereof along the edge of the wall portion 28 opposite to that of the tongues and notches 34 and 32. The flange 40 is provided with a rounded edge 40A facing in the direction of the opposite edge of the sill. Spaced along the wall portion 28 at locations under the notches 32 are holes 41, only one hole being visible in FIGS. 1 and 2.

The sill 22 is clamped to the bottom end of the panel 10 by one of the clamping members 26, the clamping members being best seen in the perspective view of FIG. 1. Like the sill member, the clamping member is provided with notches and tongues 42 and 44, generally dimensioned to fit around and in respectively the raised and valley portions of the panel, and an integral, outwardly facing, C-shaped flange 46 extending lengthwise of the member. The tongues 44 of the clamping member are shown provided with a hole 48 as best seen in FIG. 1.

To clamp the sill 22 to the panel 10, as shown in FIG. 2, the first wall portion 28 of the sill is disposed to engage the end of the panel while the slots and tongues 32 and 34 of the sill are located in mating engagement respectively with the valley and raised portions of the panel on the side thereof opposite the tabs 16, though the tabs and sill can be on the same side of the panel. The C-shaped flange 46 of the clamping member 26 is next disposed to engage the rounded edge 40A of the flange 40 of the sill along their length dimensions, and then rotated therearound toward the panel until the notches and tongues 42 and 44 of the clamping member engage the side of panel provided with the tabs 16 and seat on the crown 20 of each tab. With the tongues 'and slots of the clamping member rotated into place against the side of the panel, the holes 48 in I the tongues are aligned with the holes 41 provided in the sill.

The sill and clamping member are next secured to the panel and to each other by bolts or preferably, self-tapping screws 50 extending through the holes 41 in the sill into the holes 48 of the tongues 44 of the clamping member, only one of the screws being shown in FIG. 1. The screws pull the sill and clamping members together, the clamping member bearing against the shoulders 20 of the tabs 16 at approximately right angles to planes of the tongues. With the interlocking engagement provided by the flanges 40 and 46 of the sill and clamping member, and the clamping member bearing against the tabs 16 and surface 28 against bottom of sheet panel, the sill and clamping member are prevented from slipping off the end of the panel.

The wall structure of the present invention includes further the header member 24 and a second clamping member 26 preferably identical to the clamping member described above in connection with the sill 22. Like the sill 22, the header member is an elongated structure having notches 54 and tongues 56 dimensioned and shaped to seal respectively round the raised portions in the valleys of the panel on the side thereof opposite the row of tabs 18. Similarly, the header has a first (upper) wall portion 58 provided with holes 60 (only one of which visible in FIG. 1), and an inwardly extending integral flange 62 on the edge of the wall portion 58 opposite to the notches and tongues 54 and 56.

The configuration of the header 24, is somewhat different from that of the sill 22 since, for building construction purposes, the header member is generally required to support a beam or plate (not shown) suitable for say attaching roof trusses.

Since the clamping member 26, employed to clamp the header 24 is preferably identical with that of clamping member employed with the sill 22 as mentioned above, the portions of the member are given the same numerical identification.

The manner of attaching the header 24 to the upper end of the panel 10 is essentially the same as that described above in connection with the sill 22. Thus, the header is disposed on the upper end of the panel, the end of the panel engaging the inside surface of the wall portion 58 .of the header while the notches and tongues 54 and 56 thereof engage the raised and valley portions of the panel on the one side thereof. The curved flange 46 of the clamping member 26 is then disposed to engage the rounded edge of the flange 62 of the header, and rotated inwardly towards the panel until its notches and tongues 42 and 44 engage the other side of the panel and seat around and in, respectively, the raised and valley portions of the panel. As shown in FIG. 1, the screws 50A are provided to extend through the holes 60 in the header and to thread into the holes 48 provided in the tongues of the clamping member, only one screw and hole being visible in the view of HO. 1. The slotted and tongue portions of the clamping member are thereby secured beneath and in engagement with the crown of the tabs 18 in interlocking relationship with the header and panel.

The assembly of the wall structure of the invention as thus far described can take place on the building site or in the factory in a rapid and economical manner. For example, the preformed panel 10, after arriving at the site, can be placed on saw horses, and the sill and header members 22 and 24 quickly attached to the panel in the manner described, the only tool required being a screwdriver. A few persons can then easily stand the wall in place on a foundation or floor structure (38), the number of persons required to handle the wall depending upon the size of the wall. The wall structure can then be secured to the floor by a suitable screw and a mounting clip (not shown) located to fit over an integral extension of the sill 22, or by an anchor bolt (not shown) extending through the sill into the floor or foundation.

As shown in the drawings, the sill 22 is further provided with an integral, downwardly facing channel 74, and extending lengthwise of the sill, to receive a gasket 76 in sealing relation with a floor or foundation supporting the wall structure of the invention.

The wall structure of the invention, as thus far described, is extremely strong because of the direct, fitted engagement of the raised and valley portions of the panel 10 with the corresponding notched and tongue portions of the sill, header and clamping members attached to the panel in the interlocking manner described. The wall structure is particularly resistant to racking loads as explained earlier, and in testing the wall structure of the invention under racking load conditions, a force would be directed along the length of the header 24 while the wall structure remains free to move except for the lower portion thereof which would be fixed at the sill member 22. The force of such a load would tend to bow the header 24 in an outward (upward) direction with the consequent tendency of the sides of the header and clamp to spread outwardly thereby moving the notched and tongue portions away from the panel. When this occurs the interlocking force on the clamping member is lessened (with outward movement of the flange 62 of the header) which reduces the overall rigidity and resistance of the wall to the racking load.

However, with the screws 50A securing the clamping and header members together in their interlocking relationship, the force of the racking load must be substantial before the header bows, and when if it does bow, the screws pull the clamping member with the header in the direction of the bow so that clamping and header members tend to remain in inter locking engagement, the clamping member bearing against the tabs 18.

The strength of thewall structure is further increased by providing the edge of the clamping member 26 engaging the side of the panel 10 with an integral lip or burr 78, which extends along the edge of the notched and tongue portions 42 and 44 thereof. When the clamping member 26 is rotated into place against the panel, the lip or burr 78 seats behind the crown 20 along the entire distance of the row of tabs and the notched and tongue portions of the clamping member.

In FIG. 2, only the crown 20 of one lower tab 16 is shown (in engagement with lip 78), the crowns of the other lower tabs 16 and those of the upper tabs 18 being the same as the one shown in FIG. 2. Thus, the lip 78 of the upper clamping member 26 is positioned to seat behind the crowns of the tabs 18 when the clamping member is disposed and secured in clamping engagement with the header 24.

In this manner, further positive locking of the clamping members to the panel is effected giving further increase in the overall strength of the wall structure formed thereby. The lip and crown structure, as depicted in FIG. 2, is particularly resistant to racking loads imposed upon the wall, since, with this type of load, the tongue and notched portions of the clamping member, which ordinarily tend to pull away from the side of the panel as explained above, are secured to the panel [0 by the tabs 16 and 18. In this manner, the tendency of the sides of the header to spread apart under racking loads is further substantially reduced.

As explained earlier, the tabs can be on the side of the panel facing the sill and header members, in which case, the tongues and notches thereof would be provided with a lip portion for seating behind the crowns of the tabs.

The tabs 16 are further shown in FIG. 2 as having a body portion which slopes gradually into the panel N), the tabs 18 being similarly formed. This structure assists in distributing the load imposed on each tab over an area of the panel larger than that of the tab itself.

The sill, header and clamping members of the invention are preferably extruded metal structures which add further to the economy of the wall structure of the invention. With extruded structures, the notched and tongue portions described above can be easily punched therein in a rapid and economical manner using conventional punching apparatus and processes.

The sill member 22 is shown in FIG. 1 and 2 having an essentially inclined profile when attached to the panel 10 and disposed to rest on a floor to provide drainage of moisture and condensation to the exterior side of the panel, and holes (not shown) can be provided near the lower corner of the sill to permit such moisture and condensation to flow from the sill. The bottom wall 28 of the sill, however, can have an essentially level configuration, for example, as the upper wall portion 58 of the header 24.

From the foregoing description it should now be apparent that a new and high strength wall structure has been provided which is easily and economically assembled, and which provides rapid construction of buildings using the wall structure of the invention. This is accomplished by using a panel preformed with raised and valley portions extending between two opposed ends thereof, and header and sill members having corresponding notched and tongue portions directly engaging one side of the panel in mating relationship with the raised and valley portions. The sill and header members are secured to the panel by respective clamping members similarly having notched and tongue portions directly engaging the raised and valley portions of the panel on the other side thereof. The clamping members seat over projections or tabs provided in the panel which secure the sill, header and clamping members on the panel. To provide further strength to the wall structure of the invention, the tabs are provided with crown portions spaced from the surface of the panel for receiving an integral lip on the edge of the clamping (or sill or header) members engaging the panel.

While the invention has been described in terms of preferred embodiments, the claims appended hereto are intended to encompass all embodiments which fall within the spirit of the invention.

Having thus described out invention and certain embodiments thereof, we claim:

1. A rigid wall structure comprising at least one sheet metal panel having a profile of raised and valley portions extending the distance between two opposed ends of the panel,

elongated sill and header members each having a first wall portion disposed in respective engagement with the opposed ends of said panel, and a second integral, wall portion provided with a profile of tongues and notches corresponding to the valleys and raised portions of said panel, said tongues and notches being disposed in mating engagement with the valley and raised portions of said panel on one side thereof,

said sill and header members further each having a flange portion located opposite said second wall portion, and extending lengthwise of the members and in a direction toward each other when said members are disposed to engage the ends of said panel,

an elongated clamping member for each of said sill and header members, each of said clamping members having a profile of tongues and notches disposed in mating engagement with the valley and raised portions of said panel on the side thereof opposite the second wall portions of said sill and header members,

each of said clamping members having furlher an integral flange portion extending lengthwise thereof, and disposed in locking engagement with, respectively, the flange portions of said sill and header members, said panel further having on at least one side thereof at least one row of tabs extending from the surface of the panel and located between both ends of the panel and the location at which the tongues and slotted portions of the sill, header and clamping members engage the sides of said panel, and

means for securing each of said clamping members respectively to said sill and header members in locking engagement with said panel.

2. The structure of claim 1 in which the tongues and notches of the clamping member have an integral lip portion, and the tabs are provided with a sloping edge portion providing a crown surface spaced from the panel surface and adapted to receive and support said lip portion of the tongues and notches.

3. The structure of claim 1 in which the tabs are provided with a main main body portion sloping into the surface of the panel to distribute the load imposed on the tab over an area of the panel substantially larger than the tab itself.

' UNITED STATES PATENT-OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,633,327 I I Datd Januarv ll. 19 72 ln'vent fl James D. Klingensmi th and Billie C. Merkin It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 3, line 41 Change "seal" to "seat".

Column 4, line 46 Insert --and-- after "when".

Column 6, line 2 Change "out" to -'--our--.

Column 6, line 47 Delete "main" (second occurrence) Signed and sealed this 6th day of June 1972.

(SEAL) Attest:

EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. ROBERT GOT'I'SCHALK Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents FORM USCOMM-DC some-p69 Q U.S. GDVERNMENY PRINTING OFFICE I I959 0-365-334

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3952462 *May 20, 1974Apr 27, 1976Barry Albert BeazleyPanel wall systems
US4265064 *May 29, 1979May 5, 1981Allen ParezoBasement waterproofing system
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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/300, 52/645, 52/274, 52/466, 52/798.1, 52/241, 52/293.3
International ClassificationE04B2/72, E04C2/38
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2/72, E04C2/384
European ClassificationE04B2/72, E04C2/38C