US 3635006 A
A strand of loose fibers is moved in the longitudinal direction of said strand, which is frictionally contacted on two opposite sides with two surfaces, which are moved relative to each other in contact with said strand transversely to the longitudinal direction of the strand to twist the latter so as to form a thread, which is withdrawn while being held against rotation.
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
i chrer 1 Jan, 18, 1972  PUCESS AND APPARATUS FOR 2,262,589 11/1941 Peck ..57/1 MAKING SPUN THREADS 1 0 2,294,771 9/1942 Campbell ..57/77.4 TEXTILE FIBERS 2,748,558 6/1956 Mullenschlader... .....57/50 X 2,903,751 9/1959 Allred ...19/150 X  Inventor: Ernst Fehrer, Auf der Gugl 28, Linz, Aus- 3,230,584 1/ 1966 Kalwaites. ..19/ 150 m 3,343,569 9/1967 Barr ..57/50 X 3,478,506 11/1969 Kawashima... ..57/77.4 X 1 1 2- 14, 1969 3,481,004 12/1969 Wright et a1. ..19/150  App1.No.: 849,968
Primary Examiner-John Petrakes Attorney-Kurt Kelman  Foreign Application Priority Data M M V H A Sept. 16, 1968 Austria ..A 8984/68  1U.S.1Cl ..57/50, 19/150, 19/153,  ABSTRACT  Km Cl A strand of loose fibers is moved in the longitudinal direction 58] i 58 51 91 of said strand, which is frictionally contacted on two opposite 57/58 95 4 6 b sides with two surfaces, which are moved relative to each l other in contact with said strand transversely to the longitudinal direction of the strand to twist the latter so as to form a  Reierences Cited thread, which is withdrawn while being held against rotation.
UNITED STATES PATENTS 10 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures 51 1 7 111 1395 Cu pe s ..19/ 150 a k W MWimmwm SHEET 1 BF 2 INVENTOR. E R N51 FEH'R ER BY I Pmmmmwm I 3.655.006
SHEET 2 [1F 2 INVENTOR.
ERA/6T VEmzR Man" PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR MAKING SPUN THREADS FROM TEXTILE FIBERS This invention relates to a process of making spun threads from textile fibers, wherein the loosely supplied fibers are twisted together before a delivery station, in which the thread which has formed is held against twisting. The invention relates also to an apparatus for carrying out the process.
To make spun threads, it has been usual to provide a slubbing, which is stored in a can, or a rubbed silver, which is wound on a drum, and to supply said slubbing or sliver through a drawing frame to a flyer, which is rotated relative to the drawing frame to form a thread and to wind the latter onto a bobbin at the same time. For reasons of mechanical design, there is an upper limit to the speed of the flyer so that the output rate is limited too. It has also been proposed to disintegrate the fiber material by a carding drum into individual fibers and to produce a directed air stream by which the fibers are blown from the carding drum into a drum which rotates at high speed and on the inside periphery of which the fibers collect under the action of centrifugal force, whereafter the collected fibers are centrally withdrawn so as to form a thread. This process too is not fully satisfactory, particularly because it requires a relatively large mechanical expenditure.
It is an object of the invention to eliminate the disadvantages which have been described and to provide a process which enables a high-spinning speed but can be preformed by a relatively simple apparatus.
This object is accomplished in the process according to the invention in that the fibers are moved in the longitudinal direction of the thread before the delivery station and during that movement are twisted together between at least two surfaces, which are in frictional contact with the outermost fibers and transversely to the longitudinal direction of the fibers, are moved relative to each other and, if desired, in mutually opposing directions. The invention thus makes use of the fact that a fibrous strand can be twisted together or spun between two surfaces moving relative to each other, provided that the moving surfaces are succeeded by a delivery station, in which the fibrous strand is withdrawn continuously in a direction which is transverse to the direction of movement of the surfaces but prevents a rotation of the fibrous strand. As a result, the process can be carried out in a simple manner and at very high-spinning speeds.
This process can be practiced in a particularly desirable manner if the loose fibers are supplied to a smooth trough, which has a depth which is smaller than the diameter of the strand and which forms a stationary guide and one of said surfaces whereas the second surface is moved continuously over the trough transversely thereto and to the longitudinal direction of the strand.
It will also be desirable if the fibers are blown by a directed air stream to a guide or into the trough in the longitudinal direction thereof.
An apparatus for carrying out the process according to the invention is essentially characterized by a table, which is provided with at least one trough and preferably with a multiplicity of parallel troughs disposed one beside another, an endless belt extending transversely to the troughs and revolving over said table, and at least one pair of delivery rolls or the like succeeding the table. The surface which is continuously moved transversely to the troughs is thus formed by a revolving endless belt. This arrangement is very simple in structure and has the advantage that such endless belt is sufficient for a multiplicity of troughs and for a multiplicity of threads to be formed and the fibers can be twisted together at high speeds because the threads are very small in diameter and the belt may move at speeds which can be controlled well whereas high spinning speeds can be produced in that the thin thread rolls in contact with the belt moving thereover.
The trough tapers in depth and width toward the delivery rolls or the like in order to ensure that the loosely supplied fibers will be properly condensed. The table is preferably preceded by a common carding drum, which extends transversely to the troughs and is provided with an inlet device and on multiplicity of threads.
The process according to the invention may be carried out alternatively by an apparatus which comprises a circular table having radial grooves, and a central station for delivering threads, and a disc which is coaxially disposed over the table and about the same size as the latter and forms the surface which is moved transversely to the troughs. In this case too, a single apparatus, which is relatively simple, may be used to make a multiplicity of spun threads. The speed of the disc in this case may be only a small fraction of the speed of the elements which have been used before for a twisting together or spinning of strands.
Alternatively, the process according to the invention may be carried out by an apparatus which comprises two parallel endless belts, which are disposed one over the other and revolve in the same direction and with their confronting courses form two surfaces, which are moved relative to each other transversely to the longitudinal direction of the thread and serve to twist at least one strand which is pulled through between them and which moves through a funnel disposed on one longitudinal side and through an eye or the like disposed on the other longitudinal side of the endless belts, which eye or the like is succeeded by a pair of delivery rolls or the like. Because the endless belts revolve in the same sense, the two confronting courses of the belts move in mutually opposite directions so that the fibers are twisted together as between the palms of two hands. It will obviously be possible to pull a plurality of parallel strands between the two endless belts, provided that there is a guide consisting of a funnel and an eye or the like for each strand. The belts might be replaced by two rolls, the axes of which are parallel to the longitudinal direction of the strands. It will even be possible to provide three or even more such rolls which are spaced around the strand so that the need for a separate strand guide will be eliminated.
The invention is illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which FIG. 1 is a perspective view showing the essential parts of an apparatus for carrying out the process according to the invention,
FIGS. 2 and 3 are, respectively, a longitudinal sectional view and a transverse sectional view taken on line III-Ill in FIG. 2 and showing diagrammatically an apparatus as shown in FIG. 1.
FIGS. 4 and 5, respectively, are also longitudinal and transverse sectional views showing diagrammatically another apparatus.
It is apparent from FIG. 1 that loose fibers are supplied to a smooth trough 1, the depth of which is smaller than the diameter of the thread. To twist the fibers together, a surface 2 is continuously moved over the trough ll transversely to the longitudinal direction of the trough or thread. The surface 2 is in frictional contact with the uppermost fibers of the trough. The trough l is terminated before a pair of delivery rolls 3, which continuously withdraw the thread which has been formed but hold the thread against rotation so that the fibers in the trough are actually twisted together as a result of the transverse movement of the surface 2, particularly because before that surface the fiber material is loose and free to twist.
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 2 and 3, a table 4 if formed with a multiplicity of parallel troughs 1 extending one beside the other and in succeeded by delivery rolls 3. The troughs 1 taper toward the delivery rolls. The surface 2 moving transversely to the grooves is formed by a revolving endless belt. The table 4 is preceded by a common carding drum 5, which extends transversely to the troughs and is provided with an inlet unit 6. On the side facing the table, the carding drum 5 turns upwardly. The carding drum 5 is set with pins or teeth and disintegrates the fiber material into individual fibers. The fiber material is supplied to the drum throughout the width thereof. Air nozzles 8 are associated with respective troughs 1 and open into the drum housing 7 under the carding drum. The nozzles 8 extend in the direction of the trough and approximately tangentially to the carding drum. Hence, the directed air streams extending from the nozzles 8 entrain the individual fibers and carry the into the troughs 1, which between the carding drum and the endless belt 2 are provided with a perforated cover 9, through which the air can escape. The thread which has been made can then be wound up in any desired manner behind the delivery rolls 3.
In the embodiment shown in FIGS. 4 and 5, the apparatus consists of two parallel endless belts 2, 2a, which are disposed one over the other and revolve in opposite sense so that their confronting courses form two surfaces moving in mutually opposite directions. Between these surfaces, a plurality of strands move in parallel transverse directions. FOr each strand, a strand guide is provided, which consists of a funnel 10 on one longitudinal side and an eye 11 on the other longitudinal side of the two endless belts 2. The eye 11 is succeeded by the pair of delivery rolls 3. The loose fibers are blown into the guide funnel 10, e.g., by a unit which is like that shown in FIG. 2. At the beginning of the spinning operation, a cord or the like is pulled through between the delivery rolls 3 and through the eye 11 and the funnel 10. At its end near the funnel, that cord is untwisted to be similar to a slubbing. When the supply of the fibers is initiated, they will adhere to the disintegrated portion and when the cord is delivered form a strand, which succeeds the cord. This strand is spun into a thread by being twisted together between the endless belts.
l. A process of making a spun thread from textile fibers, comprising the steps of l. delivering loose and freely movable textile fibers to a spinning station,
2. moving the loose and freely movable fibers through the spinning station in the longitudinal direction of the strand, with the fibers extending substantially in said direction,
frictionally contracting the fibers with two surfaces wherebetween the fibers are moved in the spinning statron,
4. moving at least one of the surfaces relative to the other surface transversely of the longitudinal direction to twist the loose fibers into a spun thread, and
5. withdrawing the spun thread from the spinning station while holding it against rotation.
2. A process as set forth in claim 1, in which said two surfaces are moved in mutually opposite directions transversely to said longitudinal direction.
3. A process as set forth in claim 1, wherein the other surface is formed by a smooth stationary trough having a depth smaller than the diameter of the strand, the trough confining and guiding the loose fibers of the strand, and the other surface is continuously moved transversely of the trough.
4. A process as set forth in claim 1, further comprising directing an air stream in said longitudinal direction to deliver the loose and freely movable fibers to the spinning station to extend substantially in said direction.
5. Apparatus for making spun threads from textile fibers, which apparatus comprises a table which is formed with a trough defined by a first surface and adapted to receive a strand of loose fibers,
a revolvable endless belt having a course extending transversely to said trough, said course having a lower surface which forms a second surface disposed closely above said trough, said belt being revolvable to move said second surface relative to said first surface transversely to the longitudinal direction of said trough,
whereby said strand is frictionally contacted with said first and second surfaces and twisted to form a thread, and
delivery means operable to withdraw said thread from said trough while holding said thread against rotation.
6. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5, in which said table is formed with a plurality of said troughs, which are parallel to each other,
each of said troughs is defined by a first surface and adapted to receive a strand of loose fibers,
said second surface is disposed closely above all said troughs,
said belt is revolvable to move said second surface relative to all said first surfaces transversely to the longitudinal direction of said troughs, whereby each of said strands is frictionally contacted with one of said first surfaces and said second surface and twisted to form a thread, and
said delivery means are operable to withdraw all said threads from said troughs while holding said threads against rotation.
7. Apparatus as set forth in claim 6, which comprises an inlet unit adapted to receive fiber material,
a carding drum adapted to receive fiber material from said inlet unit and having an axis which is transverse to said troughs and a surface which faces said table,
said carding drum being operable to impart an upward movement. to said surface facing said table, to disintegrate said fiber material into loose fibers, and to discharge said loose fibers,
a housing enclosing said carding drum, and having a bottom, said housing being open toward said troughs,
a plurality of air supply nozzles opening into said housing through the bottom thereof and extending in a direction which is substantially tangential to said carding drum and parallel to said troughs,
each of said nozzles being directed toward one of said troughs,
said endless belt being disposed between said housing and said delivery means and spaced from said housing, and
a perforated cover on top of said troughs between said housing and said belt.
8. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5, in which said delivery means comprise a pair of delivery rolls.
9. Apparatus as set forth in claim 5, in which said trough tapers in its depth and width toward said delivery means.
10. Apparatus for making spun threads from textile fibers, which apparatus comprises a funnel adapted to receive loose fibers and having an outlet for discharging a strand of loose fibers,
an eye spaced from said outlet,
two endless belts having parallel confronting courses which are disposed one over the other and extend transversely to the direction in which said eye is spaced from said outlet,
said confronting courses having confronting first and second surfaces which are closely spaced apart,
said belts being operable to revolve in the same sense so that said confronting first and second surfaces move in mutually opposite directions transversely to the longitudinal direction of a strand extending from said outlet to said eye and said first and second surfaces are in frictional contact with said strand to twist the same and form it into a thread, the eye receiving the thread, and
delivery means arranged to receive said thread from said eye and hold it against rotation.
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