|Publication number||US3635031 A|
|Publication date||Jan 18, 1972|
|Filing date||Sep 9, 1970|
|Priority date||Sep 9, 1970|
|Publication number||US 3635031 A, US 3635031A, US-A-3635031, US3635031 A, US3635031A|
|Inventors||Mitchell J Haddad|
|Original Assignee||Gen Motors Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (35), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
[ 1 Jan. 10, 1972 lJnited States Patent Haddad  EXHAUST MANIFOLD REACTOR  Inventor:
'Primary Examiner-Douglas Hart Attorney-J. L. Carpenter and Robert J. Outland Mitchell J. I-Iaddad, Detroit, Mich.
 Assignee: General Motors Corporation, Detroit,
portions gases through a  Filed: Sept. 9, 1970 d 0 n t m w .m as .n .In 8 H 0 Wm a a a 6 h h 0 m D.
plurality of exhaust port liners connected with discharge the reaction products through ou nected with the other portion. A jacket surrounds the casing defining an air chamber through which fresh air is circulated, where it is preheated and acts as an insulator. Jacket outlets surrounding the inlet port liners deliver the 60/30 R ..F01n 3/10 60/30 R 3 m 5 u 7 u 0 a 7 "r .a "0 No S l I m. wm D. Smk A UHF 1]] l 2 8 2 555 I. [ll
References Cited the inlet ports, where it mixes with the engine exhaust gases at the ends of the port liners for subsequent reaction in the reaction chamber. Air distribution means provide for proper dis- UNITED STATES PATENTS tribution of the air throughout the jacket air chamber includ- 60/30 R ing circumferential movement of the air from a longitudinal R distribution passage to the jacket outlets.
Lehmann Rosenlund uh mm ea TT 9248 0466 9999 1111 ///l 992 l l 4683 4380 9573 394 233 7 Claims, 9 Drawing Figures FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS 933,943 8/1963 GreatBritain.........................60/3OR IAIENTEB JANI8 I972 SHEET 1 BF 4 INVENTOR. mic/1e f Haddaa' ATTOF'ILE SHEET 2 OF 4 ATTORNEY PATENTEB M18 872 SHEET 3 BF 4 mic/2e!! zwgm ATTORNEY PAIENIED m 1 a me I SHEET 0F 4 I N VENTOR.
miicizelljl /zddad ATTO R f' 4' E Y FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to internal combustion engine exhaust manifold reactors and, more particularly, to manifold reactor arrangements which include moving air insulation and preheating means adapted to supply preheated air for mixture with the engine exhaust gases and subsequent reaction within an extended flow path reaction chamber.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides manifold reactor arrangements which combine advantageous construction features with operational advantages.
The invention includes the provision of an extended flow path sheet metal reaction chamber having interior and exterior portions separated by a dividing wall and adapted to receive a mixture of air and exhaust gases from the exhaust ports of an internal combustion engine through connecting sheet metal exhaust port liners. An exterior jacket is provided through which cooling air is passed in a combination of longitudinal and circumferential flow paths to provide cooling for the outer jacket. At the same time the cooling air is preheated and is then directed through openings surrounding the exhaust port liners and, in heat exchange relation therewith, up the exhaust ports to the ends of the port liners. There the air is mixed with the discharging exhaust gases and passes up the interior of the liners into the reaction chamber for completion of combustion reactions.
The arrangements permit the use of fabricated stainless steel interior walls with the alternative of either sheet metal or cast outer jacket portions, while providing a relatively inexpensive unit designed for ease of manufacture and anticipated long life.
These and other advantages of the invention will be more clearly understood from the following description of several embodiments thereof, taken together with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a pictorial view partially in section, showing the construction of one embodiment of exhaust manifold reactor according to the invention;
FIG. 2 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of a portion of the manifold reactor of FIG. 1, taken along the parting line for the two sections of the cast outer jacket;
FIG. 3 is a transverse cross-sectional view of the embodiment of FIGS. l4 shown as connected with an engine and taken generally in the plane indicated by the line 33 of FIG.
FIG. 4 is a transverse cross-sectional view of the embodiment of FIGS. 1-4 shown as attached to an engine and taken generally in the plane indicated by the line 4-4 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view of an alternative embodiment of exhaust manifold reactor shown as attached to an engine;
FIG. 6 is a transverse cross-sectional view of the arrangement of FIG. 5 taken generally in the plane indicated by the line 6-6 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is a partial transverse cross-sectional view taken generally in the plane indicated by the line 7-7 of FIG. 6 and showing portions of the air distribution means reactor chamber wall openings;
FIG. 8 is a transverse cross-sectional view of another embodiment of exhaust manifold reactor shown as attached to an engine; and
FIG. 9 is a transverse cross-sectional view of still another embodiment of exhaust manifold reactor, also shown as attached to an engine.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring first to FIGS. 1-4 of the drawings, numeral 10 generally indicates a preferred embodiment of exhaust manifold reactor formed according to the invention. Manifold 10 is secured by means of bolts 11 to the cylinder head 12 of an internal combustion engine generally indicated by numeral 14, as shown in FIGS. 3 and 4. Cylinder head 12 is conventionally attached to the cylinder block 15 of engine 14, closing the upper ends of the cylinders 16. Exhaust valves 18 are provided to control the flow of exhaust gases from the engine cylinders through passages 19 and exhaust ports 20 in the cylinder heads to the exhaust manifold 10, as will be subsequently more fully described.
Manifold reactor 10 includes a cast iron jacket 22 having separable inboard and outboard sections 23, 24, respectively, which are secured together by a plurality of bolts 26, as well as by bolts 1 1 and are sealed by a suitable gasket 27.
Within jacket 22 there is a longitudinally extending reaction chamber defining casing 28 which is preferably fabricated from stainless steel sheet. Casing 28 is maintained in spaced relation with the jacket 22 by suitable means such as longitudinally extending seal and spacer means 30, 31, and a plurality of longitudinally spaced circumferentially extending seal and spacer means 32.
Within the casing 28 an interior wall 34 is preferably fabricated of stainless steel sheet to define an inner reaction chamber defining casing spaced from the outer casing 28. A plurality of individual exhaust port liners 35 connect with openings 36 in the outer and inner casings 28, 34 and extend through openings 38 in the outer jacket 22 and into the exhaust ports of the cylinder head in spaced relation therewith. In this embodiment, the exhaust port liners terminate short of the exhaust valves adjacent the ends of enlarged portions of the exhaust ports formed to receive the liners.
Jacket 22 includes, adjacent one end thereof, an outlet fitting 39 which connects with an outlet opening 40. The space between opening 40 and the casing 28 is surrounded by a seal member 42. At its other end, jacket 22 includes an air inlet fitting 43, which opens into a longitudinal passage 44 extending the length of the manifold between the walls of jacket 22 and casing 28 and intermediate the longitudinal spacers 30 and 31. These spacers define with casing 28, longitudinally spaced openings, as at 45 in FIG. 4, which serve to permit the escape of air from longitudinal passage 44 in either direction circumferentially, where it is guided in circumferential paths around jacket 28 and along exhaust port liners 35, as will be subsequently more fully described. Along the lower portion of interior wall 34 from approximately the longitudinal center and extending to the end longitudinally opposite from the outlet opening 40, there are provided a plurality of louvered outlet openings 46 connecting the interior reaction chamber portion, defined by wall 34, with the exterior reaction chamber portion, defined between wall 34 and casing 28.
In operation, intermittent combustion, taking place in the various cylinders of the engine, creates exhaust products which are periodically vented, by the opening of exhaust valves 18, into the exhaust passages 19 and on into the manifold 10. At the same time, a controlled volume of fresh air is supplied to the manifold from a pump, not shown, the output of which is connected with inlet fitting 43. The fresh air enters longitudinal passage 44 and is distributed by the spaced openings 45 in longitudinal spacers 30, 31, to the various circumferential passages defined by circumferential seal means 32. From passages 44, the air thus moves circumferentially in either direction through each of the circumferential passages around the outer surfaces of casing 28 and exhaust port liners 35, passing out through openings 38 in the jacket and through passages formed between the exhaust port liners and exhaust ports to the end of the exhaust port liners, where it enters the stream of exhaust gases and is mixed therewith. During the passage of the air, it has the dual function of cooling the walls of the outer jacket 22, as well as the casing and exhaust port liners. At the same time, it is preheated by contact with the casing 28 and exhaust port liners 35 so that it mixes with the exhaust gases at an elevated temperature.
Upon mixing with the exhaust gases, the preheated air immediately begins to burn the residual combustibles present in the exhaust gases and this reaction continues as the mixture passes through the interior of the exhaust port liners 35 and into the inner casing defined by interior wall 34. After further mixing and burning within the interior casing, the gases pass through the iouvered openings 46 and move longitudinally to the other end of outer casing 28, where they are discharged through opening 40 and outlet fitting 39 to the vehicle exhaust system.
The design of the reactor manifold includes the provision of sheet metal interior components which heat up quickly after engine starting so that proper operational temperatures within the manifold are quickly reached. The arrangement also provides extended residence time of the exhaust gases within the manifold so that completion of the combustion reactions is encouraged. In addition, the preheating of the added combustion air reduces the cooling of the exhaust gases at the point of air injection within the engine exhaust ports and, at the same time, the air is used to cool the exterior manifold jacket so that engine compartment temperatures may be maintained at reasonable levels.
Referring now to FIGS. 5-7 of the drawings, there is shown an alternative embodiment of exhaust manifold reactor 48 formed according to the invention and similar to, but differing somewhat from, the embodiment just described. In view of the similarities, comparable elements of this alternative embodiment are identified by numerals identical to those used for the first described embodiment but adding the suffix a.
Thus, manifold reactor 47 is secured to engine 14a by means of bolts 11a. Instead of cast iron, the manifold jacket 22a is formed of sheet steel having inboard and outboard sections 23a, 240, respectively, which are secured together by screws 26a. Casing 28a, inner wall 34a and exhaust port liners 35a function similarly to those earlier described but differ slightly in that the exhaust port liners extend further into the engine exhaust ports a and the inner and outer casings extend upwardly from their intersections with the exhaust port liners. The iouvered outlet openings 46a in inner wall 34a are disposed above and opposite from the connections at openings 36a of the exhaust port liners with the inner casing and extend longitudinally along the entire length of the interior wall 34a, this location being laterally opposite the location of the casing outlet opening 40a and the jacket outlet fitting 39a.
The fresh air inlet fitting 43a is disposed on an upper surface of the inboard section 23a of jacket 22a and connects with the longitudinal passage 440 defined between longitudinal seals 30a and 31a. The distribution openings 45a are in this embodiment provided by indentations in the wall of the casing 28a, where it contacts the seal 31a. Circumferential flow of the air is from the longitudinal passage 44a clockwise, as viewed in FIG. 6, around the casing 280 to the jacket outlet openings 38a, through which it enters the engine exhaust ports 20a. In general, the remainder of the components are essentially as described in respect to the first embodiment.
Referring now to FIGS. 8 and 9 of the drawings, there are shown two additional alternative embodiments of exhaust manifold reactors formed according to the invention. For ease of understanding, the comparable components of the embodiment of FIG. 8 are identified by the same numerals as those of the first two described embodiments, terminating with the suffix b, while, in like manner, the components of the embodiment of FIG. 9 are identified with like numerals terminating with the suffix c."
In the embodiment of FIG. 8, the outer jacket and inner and outer casings of the manifold are generally cylindrical in transverse cross section, while in the embodiment of FIG. 9 these same elements are generally rectangular. Otherwise, the embodiments of FIGS. 8 and 9 are basically similar and differ from the first two embodiments primarily in that the exhaust port liners, rather than connecting with their inner reactor chamber portions, connect instead with their outer reactor chamber portions at the lower portions of their respective casing walls 28b, 28c. Connection of the outer and inner reactor chamber portions is then through openings 46b, 46c, formed respectively at spaced longitudinal locations along the inboard sides of the interior walls 34b, 340 respectively. The inner reactor chamber portions are then connected through outlet openings 40b, 40c, respectively, to the outlet fittings 39b, 390, respectively. In other ways, the construction and operation of the embodiments of FIGS. 8 and 9 are, in general, similar to the embodiment of FIGS. 5-7.
While a number of variations in the embodiments have been shown and described, it is seen that generally similar operation of the manifold reactor arrangements is obtained by the use of cooling air which is preheated and added to the exhaust products to burn the combustibles therein, while the mixture is passing through an extended flow path within the sheet metal interior casings provided in the various manifold arrangements. Although several embodiments of the invention have been disclosed, it should be apparent that additional modifications of the inventive concepts could be made within the spirit and scope of Applicant's disclosure without departing from the inventive concepts defined in the following claims.
1. An air-insulated and air-cooled exhaust manifold reactor adapted to deliver preheated air into the exhaust ports of an internal combustion engine to mix with the exhaust gases and to receive the mixture for the burning of combustibles at elevated temperatures, said manifold comprising a casing defining an enlarged longitudinally extending reaction chamber for receiving mixtures of exhaust gases and air for reaction therein, said casing being provided with a plurality of longitudinally spaced exhaust port liners internally defining inlet passages opening to said reaction chamber, said liners being adapted to extend into the exhaust ports of such engine in spaced relation to the walls of such ports to define therewith external air passages surrounding said liners,
said casing having outlet means connecting with said reaction chamber to permit the discharge of exhaust gases therefrom and a jacket surrounding said casing and defining therewith an air chamber substantially surrounding said reaction chamber, said jacket having outlets from said air chamber adjacent each of said exhaust port liners and adapted to register with such external air passages to permit air to flow from said air chamber into such engine exhaust ports through such external air passages, said jacket further including air inlet means connecting with said air chamber and air distribution means in said air chamber and defining a plurality of longitudinally spaced circumferential passages extending substantially around said casing and a longitudinally extending passage connecting said circumferential passages with said air inlet means, each said circumferential passage connecting with the air chamber outlet adjacent one of said exhaust port liners, whereby substantially all portions of said air chamber are in a flow path of air passing from said air inlet means to said air chamber outlets.
2. The manifold reactor of claim 1 wherein said casing further includes wall means separating said reaction chamber into two distinct portions, one of said portions substantially surrounding the other, said wall means having an opening therein remote from both the inlet passages and the outlet means of said reaction chamber, said inlet passages connecting with one of said reaction chamber portions and said outlet means connecting with the other of said portions, whereby an extended path is provided for the flow of exhaust gas reactants through said reaction chamber.
3. An exhaust manifold reactor adapted to deliver air into the exhaust ports of an internal combustion engine to mix with the exhaust gases and to receive the mixture for the burning of combustibles at elevated temperatures, said manifold comprising a sheet metal casing defining an enlarged longitudinally extending reaction chamber for receiving mixtures of exhaust gases and air for reaction therein,
a plurality of longitudinally spaced exhaust port liners extending from said casing and internally defining inlet passages opening to said reaction chamber, said liners being adapted to extend into such engine exhaust ports in spaced relation to the walls thereof to define therewith external air passages surrounding said liners,
outlet means on said casing and connecting with said reaction chamber to permit the discharge of exhaust gases therefrom,
wall means in said casing and separating said reaction chamber into distinct interior and exterior portions, said exterior portion substantially surrounding said interior portion, said wall means having a plurality of openings therein remote from both the inlet passages and the outlet means of said reaction chamber, said inlet passages connecting with one of said reaction chamber portions and said outlet means connecting with the other of said portions, whereby an extended path is provided for the flow of exhaust gas reactants through said reaction chamber and a jacket surrounding said casing and defining therewith an air chamber substantially surrounding said reaction chamber,
a plurality of outlets from said air chamber in said jacket adjacent each of said exhaust port liners and adapted to register with such external air passages to permit air to flow from said air chamber into such engine exhaust ports through such external air passages,
an inlet means in said jacket and connecting with said air chamber and air distribution means in said air chamber and defining a plurality of longitudinally spaced circumferential passages extending substantially around said casing and a longitudinally extending passage connecting said circumferential passages with said air inlet means, each said circumferential passage connecting with the air chamber outlet adjacent one of said exhaust port liners whereby substantially all portions of said air chamber lie in a flow path for air passing from said air inlet means to said air chamber outlets.
4. The combination of claim 3 wherein said reaction chamber inlet passages connect with said chamber interior portion and said reaction chamber outlet means connects with said chamber exterior portion, said wall means openings being disposed in a generally longitudinally extending portion of said wall means, said wall means opening portion being located laterally opposite the connection of at least certain of said reaction chamber inlet passages with said chamber interior portion.
5. The combination of claim 4 wherein said wall means opening portion is disposed laterally opposite said reaction chamber outlet means.
6. The combination of claim 4 wherein said wall means opening portion is longitudinally displaced from said reaction chamber outlet means.
7. The combination of claim 3 wherein said reaction chamber inlet passages'connect with said chamber exterior portion and said reaction chamber outlet means connects with said chamber interior portion, said wall openings being disposed in a generally longitudinally extending portion of said wall means, said opening-containing portion being disposed adjacent the location of said chamber inlet passages but separated therefrom such that the main body of reactants entering said chamber must pass circumferentially around nearly all of said exterior portion before entering said interior por- IlOn.
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|U.S. Classification||60/307, 60/282, 60/298, 60/321, 60/305|
|International Classification||F02B61/04, F01N3/30, F01N3/26, F01N13/10|
|Cooperative Classification||Y02T10/20, F01N13/10, F02B61/045, F01N3/34, F01N3/26|
|European Classification||F01N3/26, F01N3/34, F01N13/10|