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Publication numberUS3635216 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 18, 1972
Filing dateJan 29, 1968
Priority dateJan 29, 1968
Publication numberUS 3635216 A, US 3635216A, US-A-3635216, US3635216 A, US3635216A
InventorsCurtis Daniel L
Original AssigneeGranted To Nasa
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Life support system
US 3635216 A
Abstract
A lightweight life support system for extravehicular space activity which may be either mounted in a back-pack or integrated into a protective suit. Two subsystems are provided to maintain the suit inhabitant in his environment. The first subsystem is an open loop, single pass ventilation system, having a high-pressure oxygen and mixed gas storage which is maintained within lightweight, stress-limited pressure vessels. A breathing bag cooperates with the open loop system to meet the peak respiratory demands. The second subsystem comprises a protective suit having a duct network, a liquid pump, and a sublimator-heat exchanger which in combination provide a suitable thermal condition.
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United States Paten [451 Jan. 18, 1972 Curtis [54] LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM [72] Inventor: Daniel L. Curtis, Manhattan Beach, Calif.

[73] Assignee: Granted to National Aeronautics and Space Administration under the provisions oi 42USC 2457(d) [22] Filed: Jan. 29, 1968 [2]] Appl. No; 701,244

[52] U.S. Cl.... ..l28/l42.5, 128/402, 2/2.1 [51] Int. Cl. ..A62b 7/02 [58] Field of Search ..i28/l42.2, 142.4, 142.5, 142.3, 128/400, 402; 62/259, 223; 2/2, 2.1, 2.5

{56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,117,426 1/1964 Fischer et al. ..62/223 Primary Examiner-Richard A. Gaudet Assistant Examiner-Gerard F. Dunne Attorney-Marvin F. Matthews, Edward K. Fein and John R. Manning [57] ABSTRACT A lightweight life support system for extravehicular space activity which may be either mounted in a back-pack or integrated into a protective suit. Two subsystems are provided to maintain the suit inhabitant in his environment. The first 9 Claims, 4 Drawing; Figures PAIENTEDJAN 181972 SHEET 2 [IF 2 LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEM ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made in the performance of work under a NASA contract and is subject to the provisions of Section 305 of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, Public Law 85-568 (72 Stat. 435; U.S.C. 2457).

FIELD OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a life support system and more particularly to a novel open loop life support subsystem which includes a breathing bag as a reservoir.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART Generally, life support systems may be divided into three categories, namely, closed loop, semiclosed loop and open loop systems. The closed loop system is a highly complex system which leads inevitably to low inherent reliability, thus necessitating high maintainability. Furthermore, a closed loop system requires a rather bulky CO arrangement including a contaminant absorbent, and an electrical circulation fan, which in combination inherently adds additional weight that must be carried by an individual. The semiclosed loop system is also quite complex because of the reprocessing system and the oxygen flow rate is typically four times greater in the semiclosed loop system than in the closed loop system. Thus, roughly four times as much oxygen is required for a mission of the same duration.

On the other hand, the open loop single pass system of the present invention does not require recirculation of the breathing gas and there is no need for a carbon dioxide absorber or a ventilation fan and its associated battery. In addition, the open loop system is more compact and lighter in weight, thus the user may move around with greater dexterity and ease.

Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a life support system having an open loop single pass ventilation flow.

It is a further object of the present invention to provide an improved life support system utilizing an oxygen and mixed gas supply which is circulated in light weight stress-limited pressure vessels.

It is a still further object of the present invention to provide an improved life support system which may be either mounted in a backpack or integrated into a protective suit.

It is another object of the present invention to provide an improved life support system having a pulse pump and a sublimator-heat exchanger to ensure thermal control of a liquid coolant gannent.

It is still another object of the present invention to provide an improved life support system wherein a breathing bag serves as a gas reservoir to meet the peak respiratory demands from an average respiratory supply source.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION In accordance with the objects set forth above, the present invention provides a lightweight life support system for extravehicular space activity which may be either mounted in a backpack or integrated into a protective suit. The life support system comprises two subsystemsan open loop ventilation subsystem to meet the ventilation requirements and a thermal control subsystem to maintain suitable thermal conditions. The first subsystem is an open loop, single pass ventilation system, having a high-pressure oxygen and mixed gas storage which is maintained within lightweight, stress-limited pressure vessels. A breathing bag cooperates with the open loop system to meet peak respiratory demands. The second subsystem comprising a protective suit having a duct network, a liquid pump, and a sublimator-heat exchanger in combination provides a suitable thermal condition.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THIE DRAWINGS Additional objects, advantages, and characteristic features of the present invention will become readily apparent from the following detailed description of preferred embodiments of the invention when taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings in which:

FIG. I is a block diagram of a life support system in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 2 is a front view of an astronaut shown within an integrated life support system in accordance with the present invention;

FIG. 3 is a side view of an astronaut shown within an integrated life support system in accordance with the present invention; and

FIG. 4 is a perspective view of a backpack of a life support system in accordance with the present invention.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring now to FIG. 1, there is shown one of the embodiments of a life support system 10in accordance with the principles of this invention. The life support system 10 comprises two subsystems-an open loop ventilation subsystem to meet ventilation requirements and a thermal control subsystem to maintain suitable thermal conditions. Some of the components in the life support system ll) are utilized in both subsystems, for example, a pulse pump 25. The open loop ventilation subsystem will be discussed first.

Normally, an open loop ventilation subsystem requires that the gas flow to the system inhabitant be controlled by the inhabitants breathing pattern. This approach, while functional,

t is considered to be undesirable under certain conditions, for

example, where the lungs act as a pump, fatiguing problems are experienced at metabolic rates higher than approximately 1,100 B.t.u./hr. A preferred method of meeting the ventilation requirements of the inhabitant is to provide a gas flow at a continuous rate. The method practices in accordance with the principles of this invention is to provide a continuous bleed of gas from a compressed gas source 19 at approximately I c.f.m. However, it must be recognized that while an average flow of l c.f.m. matches the average respiratory demand at a metabolic rate of 1,600 B.t.u./hr., the average demand during inhalation is roughly 2 c.f.m. with peak demands as high as 2.5 c.f.m. Thus, a simple gas flow system supplying l c.f.m. on a continuous basis is therefore inadequate as it does not provide for the complete cyclical demand of breathing. Therefore, in order to meet the ventilation requirements of the suit inhabitant at all times, a breathing bag 13 is incorporated within the open loop ventilation subsystem to act as a reservoir to meet peak demand periods. While the invention has been described with particular reference to a compressed gas source operating at approximately 1 c.f.m., it should be understood that the prac tice of this invention is not necessarily limited thereto, but may be practiced to equal advantage utilizing other c.f.m. rates depending upon the requirements of a particular opera tion.

To meet the necessary respiratory ventilation requirements of the astronaut, the compressed gas source 19 is provided. The use of the term gas" is understood to include any combination of gases which may serve to provide ventilation to the astronaut. Throughout this disclosure, the system inhabitant will be referred to as an astronaut; however, the life support system l0 may be used in other suitable environments. A regulator 20 is adapted to receive the gas from the gas source 19 via line 21 at approximately 3,500 psi. A gas pressure gauge 20a is provided as shown. A pneumatic line 23 connects the output of the regulator 20 to a manual control valve 22. The manual control value 22 allows the astronaut to adjust the rate of flow of gas out of the regulator 20. The output of the regulator 20, at approximately 15 p.s.i., is then fed to a pulse pump 25 via a pneumatic line 26. The gas is utilized in the pulse pump 25 as a pumping fluid" to actuate the flow of a liquid coolant through a liquid coolant garment 28. The operation of the pulse pump 25 will be explained in more detail in a later discussion of the thermal control subsystem. The gas is routed through the pulse pump 25 and to the breathing bag 13 via a pneumatic line 27 and an input 13a.

A protective suit 11 including a helmet 12 are shown schematically in FIG. 1. The protective suit 11 may be of any suitable impervious material capable of protecting an individual from atmospheric pressures. Presently, protective suits of either the hard or soft variety are employed depending upon the particular mission. The hard suit type is usually made of aluminum sheet formed into the shape of a human body and having flexible joints where necessary. The soft type is normally made of a fabric that is capable of maintaining a pressurized condition relative to the outside environment. The helmet 12, which is attached to the protective suit 11, may be of any suitable type, for example, one having a hemispherical polycarbonate pressure visor, two movable overvisors and a protective visor cover. Normally, the pressure visor would be constructed of sufficient thickness to resist mechanical and micrometeoroid impacts.

The breathing bag 13 is physically located between the protective suit 11 and the chest and back area of the astronaut. The breathing bag 13 has an input 13a and an output 13b. The output 13b of the breathing bag 13 is adapted to allow gas to be fed into the helmet 12. A communications system 15 including an antenna 16 is shown connected to the helmet 12 via line 17 in order to provide the astronaut with a communications system. A one-way check valve 18 is shown connected to the helmet 12 to provide an outlet for the expired gas of the astronaut.

Since the protective suit 11 provides a rigid torso section in the area of the astronaut's chest and back, the breathing bag will be compressed and inflated in response to the breathing pattern established by the astronaut. During inhalation, the chest of the astronaut will compress the breathing bag 13, thus allowing additional gas to be available in the oral-nasal region. During exhalation, the breathing bag 13 is allowed to be reinflated by the continuous gas stream into the input 13a. Any expired gas routed to the helmet l2 aids in flushing expired gas from the region of the helmet 12. Thus, the breathing bag 13 serves as an intermediary reservoir allowing peak respiratory demands to be met from an average supply source having a c.f.m. capacity less than half the peak requirements.

The expired gas of the astronaut flows from the helmet 12 via the check valve 18. This expired gas will be cooled and dehumidified and then routed back into the protective suit 11 where it will assist to maintain the body of the astronaut in a comfortably dry condition. The expired gas first travels to a gas cooler 37 via a pneumatic line 42. The expired gas is cooled in the gas cooler 37 and then travels to a water separator 38 via a pneumatic line 43. The water separator 38 may be a standard elbow water trap which will condense the respiratory water vapor from the gas. The condensed water is routed to a water storage unit 34 via a line 39. The water storage unit 34, which is primarily part of the thermal control subsystem, provides water to a sublimator-heat exchanger 33 to initiate the sublimation process in addition to storing the aforementioned condensed water. A bladder 35 prevents the condensed water from going to the clean water portion of the water storage unit 34. The cooled, low-moisture content gas is then allowed to enter an input 41 of the protective suit 11 viaa line 40. This cooled, low-moisture content gas is routed from the input 40 to the body extremities, that is. the arms and legs, of the astronaut via suitable ducts, shown schematically as 4lathrough d. The gas then circulates over the body of theastronaut and is expelled from the protective suit 11 at an output 44. Preferably, the output 44 is located in the chest area of the protective suit 11 to ensure that the cooled, low-moisture content gas maintains substantially the entire body of the astronaut in a comfortably dry position. The continual venting of the expired gas from the output 44 of the protective suit 11 ensures the operation of the open loop ventilation subsystem,

thus, there is no need to require a blower to maintain circulation of the ventilation gas.

in addition to the ventilation subsystem described, the life support system 10 includes a thermal control subsystem. The thermal control subsystem comprises the liquid coolant garment 28, the sublimator-heat exchanger 33, a pump accumulator 29, the water storage unit 34, and associated components. A liquid coolant supply which is stored in the pump accumulator 29 travels in the closed loop 31 in a counterclockwise direction as shown. The thermal control subsystem ensures adequate cooling of the body of the astronaut.

The liquid coolant garment 28 may be of any suitable type, for example, the type described in the Alan S. Penfold US. Pat. application, Ser. No. 376,745, assigned to the same assignee of this invention. The liquid coolant garment 28 is designed to cover the body areas extending from the knees to the elbow, including the back of the neck and skull. Normally, elastic material is employed in the arm and leg areas to maintain proper pressure contact of the garment with the skin. The pump accumulator 29, including a diaphragm 30, ensures that an adequate liquid coolant supply is available to flow through the liquid coolant garment 28.

As discussed earlier, pulse pump 25 is utilized to provide a smooth flow of liquid coolant through the liquid coolant garment 28. The pulse pump 25 may be of the type shown in the Daniel L. Curtis US. Pat. application, Ser. No. 488,367, assigned to the same assignee of this invention. The pulse pump 25 is shown schematically with the proper inlets and outlets. Basically, the pulse pump 25 comprises a pump casing 51 having an inlet port 51a and an outlet port 51b, through which the gas from the compressed gas source 19 may flow, and a flexible wall chamber 50, which may be a tubular membrane, positioned within the pump casing 51 having an inlet port 510 and an outlet port 51b. The liquid coolant from the pump accumulator 29 is fed to the inlet port 50a, through the flexible wall chamber 50, and then out of the outlet port 50b to the liquid coolant garment 28.

In the operation of the pump 25, when the liquid coolant fills the flexible wall chamber 50, the chamber becomes fully distended and covers the outlet port 5012 thereby inhibiting the flow of the gas through the pump casing 51 so that the pressure of the gas within the casing will increase. The flexible wall chamber 50 is thereby inflated to its maximum dimension, as limited by the internal wall of the pump casing 51. Thus, an effective gas seal is formed by the flexible wall chamber 50 against the inner wall of the pump casing 51 and gas flow into the pump from the constant pressure source is trapped causing the gas pressure in the pump 25 to increase. As the gas pressure increases it becomes greater than the pressure of the liquid coolant, so as to cause the flexible wall chamber 50 to collapse and pump the liquid coolant contained therein in a smooth motion from one end of the pump casing 51 to the other. The gas seal is broken upon the collapse of the flexible wall chamber 50, allowing the gas to exit the pump through the outlet port 51b. The sudden drop in gas pressure within the pump, as the gas escapes through the outlet port 51b, results in the pressure of the liquid coolant being greater than the gas pressure and allows the liquid coolant to enter the flexible wall chamber, forcing it to reexpand. Thus, the pumping cycle is initiated again.

A pneumatic line 27a is connected between the pneumatic line 27 and the inlet port 53 of the pump accumulator 29 in order to provide a pressure head on the liquid coolant in the pump accumulator 29. The pressure head is maintained by the diaphragm 30, which separates the gas from the liquid coolant.

Also included within the closed loop 31 is a diverter valve 32. A portion of the liquid coolant from the liquid coolant garment 28 flows directly to the diverter valve 32 via line 31a, while another portion is diverted via line 31b through the sublimator-heat exchanger 33. The liquid coolant divertedv through the sublimator-heat exchanger 33 will be cooled. Thus, the temperature of the liquid coolant out of the diverter valve 32 that is ultimately fed to the liquid coolant garment 28, may be regulated. The diverter valve 32 allows the astronaut to adjust the flow of liquid coolant through the heat exchanger portion of the sublimator-heat exchanger 33. if the body surface temperature of the astronaut is too warm, the diverter valve 32 may be adjusted to allow additional liquid coolant to flow through the sublimator-heat exchanger 33. On the other hand, if his body surface temperature is too cool, the astronaut may adjust the diverter 32 to allow less liquid coolant to flow through the sublimator-heat exchanger 33.

The sublimator-heat exchanger 33 is typical of the class of heat dissipation devices that are used in a vacuum for the purpose of rejecting system heat to the vacuum such as the type disclosed in the copending Daniel L. Curtis US. Pat. application, Ser. No. 825,812, filed May 19, 1969 and assigned to the same assignee of this invention. Other sublimator-heat exchangers have been previously disclosed in US. Pat. Nos. 2,990,696; 3,170,303 and 3,197,973 among others. The sublimator-heat exchanger 33 may be a typical sublimator consist ing of a porous material, usually metal, with an adjacent surface of the porous material exposed to a vacuum. The vacuum in the case of utilization of the system by an astronaut would be outerspace. In the operation of a sublimator-heat exchanger 33, a liquid, usually water, is allowed to make contact with the porous material, in the present case, water from the water storage unit 34. This water is fed to the sublimator portion of the sublimator-heat exchanger 33 via line 55 and valve 56. The valve 56 may be closed during the time the astronaut is in the spacecraft to prevent water leakage. The water in the porous material evaporates to a point that sufficient heat is lost and the water freezes. The water in a frozen state sublimates directly to a gas. The gas may be vented overboard via port 57. Since the liquid is water, then the porous material surface of the sublimator maintains itself at an average temperature of 32 F., independent of the heat load, by its self-controlling sublimation of the water. The device is self-regulating because as the heat input to the sublimatorheat exchanger 33 rises, the vapor pressure in the sublimatorheat exchanger 33 rises and the sublimation process speeds up. Thus, heat from the liquid coolant in the closed loop 31 may be transferred to the sublimator-heat exchanger 33. Therefore, the suit inhabitant may control the temperature of the liquid coolant by adjusting the diverter valve 32 which controls the amount of liquid coolant flowing through the sublimator-heat exchanger 33, which in turn, determines the amount of heat released from the liquid coolant.

Referring now to FIGS. 2 and 3, a front view and a side view, respectively, of an astronaut within an integrated life support system are shown. The protective suit 11 is shown with the accompanying helmet 12. The breathing bag 13 is located between the protective suit 11 and the chest and back area of the astronaut. The output 13b of the breathing bag 13 allows gas to be fed to the helmet 12. The liquid coolant garment 28 which covers nearly all of the body of the astronaut is not shown. Also shown is the communications set 15 including the connection 117 to the astronaut. The check valve 18 is shown connected to the helmet which provides an outlet for the expired gas of the astronaut along with the output 44 which allows the cooled low-moisture gas to be vented into space after being circulated over the body of the astronaut. The manual control valve 22 and the diverter valve 32 are shown on the torso section of the protective suit ill, for controlling the gas flow and water flow, respectively. Additional items shown are the sublimatonheat exchanger 33, the compressed gas source l9, the pump accumulator 29, the water storage unit 33, the gas pressure gauge a, and a compartment 60 for holding the various components, for example, the compressed gas source 19 and the pump accumulator 29. Other components are shown which are numbered in accordance with the block diagram of FIG. 1.

Referring now to H0. 4, there is shown a perspective view of a backpack 70 of a life support system. The backpack 70 as illustrated would utilize two compressed gas sources 19a and 19b, for supplying primary and emergency ventilation requirements, respectively. Also shown are various other components, illustrated without connections, such as the sublimator-heat exchanger 33, the gas cooler 37, the pump accumulator 29, the pulse pump 25, the water storage unit 34, the manual control 22, and the manual water control, for controlling the gas flow and water flow, respectively.

Depending upon the requirements of the vehicle, the environment, or the mission, the integrated life support system of FIGS. 2 and 3 or the backpack arrangement of FIG. 4 may be utilized by the astronaut in a particular operation.

Thus, although the present invention has been shown and described with reference to particular embodiments, nevertheless, various changes and modifications obvious to a person skilled in the art to which the invention pertains are deemed to lie within the spirit, scope, and contemplation of the invention as set forth in the appended claims.

What is claimed is:

l. A life support system for an individual comprising:

a. an atmosphere-impervious suit enclosing said individual;

b. closed loop means secured to said suit for regulating the thermal condition of said individuals said closed loop means including:

i. a liquid coolant garment in pressure contact with the body of said individual, said liquid coolant garment having an input port and an output port;

ii. a pump accumulator having a liquid coolant therein,

said pump accumulator having; an input port and an output port;

iii. a pulse pump having a first and second port connected to said output port of said pump accumulator and said input port of said liquid coolant garment, respectively;

iv. a sublimator-heat exchanger having a first and second port connected to said output port of said liquid coolant garment and said input port of said p'ump accumulator, respectively, said sublimator-heat exchanger including a water storage unit; and

. open loop means secured to said suit for providing the ventilation requirements of said individual, said open loop means cooperating with said closed loop means to insure proper regulation of the terminal condition of said individual.

2. A life support system as recited in claim 1 wherein said atmosphere-impervious suit comprises:

a rigid torso section;

four sections covering the extremities of said individual,

said four sections connected to said rigid torso section, said four sections having flexible joints relative to respective natural joints of said individual; and

a helmet connected to the upper part of said rigid torso section so as to enclose the head of said individual, said helmet having an input port and an output port.

3. A life support system as recited in claim 2 wherein said open loop means comprises:

compressed gas means; and

a breathing bag having an input port and an output port,

said output port connected to said input port of said helmet, said input port of said breathing bag adapted to receive gas from said compressed gas means, said breathing bag constructed in the shape of a vest covering the chest and back area of said individual, said breathing bag adapted to be retained between said rigid torso section and said chest and back area of said individual so as to be compressed and inflated in accordance with the breathing pattern of said individual.

4. A life support system as recited in claim 3 wherein said compressed gas means cooperates with said pulse pump of said closed means for ensuring a flow of said liquid coolant through said liquid coolant garment.

5. A life support system as recited in claim 4 comprising:

drying means for drying the skin surface of said individual,

said drying means having an input port and an output port, and

dehumidifying means coupled between output port of said helmet of said suit and said input port of said drying means for cooling and dehumidifying the expired gas of said individual.

accumulator, respectively, said sublimator-heat exchanger including a diverter means for bypassing part of said liquid coolant from entering said sublimator-heat exchanger, said sublimator-heat exchanger further having 6. A life support system as recited in claim wherein said 5 a second input port and second output port; dehumidifying means comprises: a water storage unit having a bladder interposed therein for a gas cooler having an input port and an output port, said providing a first and second compartment, said first cominput port being coupled to said output port of said helpartment having an input port and said second compartmet; ment having an output port, said output port of said first a water separator having an input port and first and second 10 compartment being connected to said second input port output ports, said input port being connected to said outof said sublimator-heat exchanger; put port of said gas cooler, said first output port being at least one regulated compressed gas source connected to connected to said water storage unit and said second outsaid second input port of said pulse pump; put port being connected to said first input port of said a breathing bag having an input port and an output port drying means. connected to said second output port of said pulse pump 7. A life support system as recited in claim 6 wherein said and said input port of said helmet, respectively, said drying means comprises a network of four ducts coupled from breathing bag constructed in the shape of a vest covering said input port of said drying means to the responsive outer exthe chest and back area of said individual, said breathing tremities of said individual, said ducts being capable of carrybag adapted to be retained between said rigid torso secing the cooled, low-moisture content gas from said water tion and said chest and back area of said individual so as separator, and said output port of said drying means is located I be compressed and inflated in accordance with the in said rigid torso section of said suit. breathing pattern of said individual;

8. A life support system for an individual comprising: a gas cooler having an input port and an output port, said an atmosphere-impervious suit enclosing said individual, input port being coupled to said output port of said helsaid suit including a rigid torso section, four sections cont; nected to said rigid torso section and covering the respec a Water sep tor having an input port an fir t and second tive extremities of said individual, said four sections havoutpu P 1 Said input port being connecte t Said Opting flexible joints relative to respective natural joints of Put port of cooler fi output Port w said individual, and a helmet connected to the upper part connected to and Input of Sam water storage mm; of said rigid torso section, said helmet enclosing the head a I 3 of said individual and having an input port and an output drying means including a network of four input ducts and an pom output valve, said network of four Input ducts coupled a liquid coolant garment in pressure contact with the body 531d Secfmd output 9? Sam sePzframr of Said individual, said liquid coolant garment having an and said respective outer extremities of said lndlvldual, input port and an output port; said ducts adapted to carry cool, low-moisture content a pump accumulator having a liquid coolant therein, said gas m f separatoriand outPut valve bemg pump accumulator having an input port and an output 'f m 531d torso F" 9 port; 9 A l fe support system for an individual as recited in claim a pulse pump having a first input port and first output port 8 wherein said regulated compressed gas source, said sublimaconnected to Said output port of Said Pump accumulator 0 tor-heat exchanger, said gas cooler, said pump accumulator, and said input port of said liquid coolant garment respec said pulse pump, and said water storage unit are mounted in a fively, said pulse pump further having a Second input port backpack means for providing the capability of detaching the and a Second output port; 7 sub stantialbulky items of said l fe support system when said a sublimatopheat exchanger having a first input port and ind vidual ISIIOI required to utilize said life support system first output port connected to said output port of said durmgapamcular liquid coolant garment and said input port of said pump

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Referenced by
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US4799476 *Sep 29, 1986Jan 24, 1989The Boeing CompanyUniversal life support system
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US8671940 *Jan 24, 2011Mar 18, 2014Carleton Technologies, Inc.Life support and microclimate integrated system and process with internal and external active heating
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US20110184252 *Jan 24, 2011Jul 28, 2011Ian ArcherLife support and microclimate integrated system and process
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Classifications
U.S. Classification128/202.11, 607/104
International ClassificationB64G6/00
Cooperative ClassificationB64G6/00
European ClassificationB64G6/00