US 3635459 A
Bottom and wall refractory bricks for steel casting ladles are shaped to minimize penetration of slag into the lining formed by courses of the refractory bricks to prolong the life of the refractory bricks and to improve performance and lessen maintenance. The bricks have an oblique tilted midpart and end equal right parallelepipedal top and bottom socles or end surfaces. The long side of each brick is double the short side.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
I United States Patent 1151 3,6 Mare 1451 Jan. 18, 1972 [541 REFRACTORY BRICK HAVING 2,970,218 1/1961 Shaw ..52/ss9 x OBLIQUE SURFACE 3,396,504 8/1968 De Olivei'ra... ..52/608 X 3,418,774 12/1968 Kocher e11 a1 .52/608 X Inventor: Arrigo Mare, Via Pom degli Archi N3, 3,472,031 10/1969 KelSO 52/608 x Gen a, Italy 3,495,369 2/1970 Laroche ..52/608  Filed: Feb. 29 1968 3,508,367 4/1970 Niebylski ..S2/608 X [21 Appl No: 709,488 FOREIGN PATENTS 0R APPLICATIONS 1,022,014 3/1966 Great Britain ..266/43  U.S.Cl ..266/43 51 1 1111. C1 ..C2lb 7/06, c211 9/06, c216 5/44 7 Ass1sIanIExammer-John E. Roethel  Field of Search ..266/43, 52/589, 593, 608, Aname M Boesen 57 ABSTRACT  References Cited Bottom and wall refractory bricks for steel casting ladles are UNITED STATES PATENTS shaped to minimize penetration of slag into the lining form ed by courses of the refractory bricks to prolong the life of the 323'876 8/1885 s at al 2 refractory bricks and to improve performance and lessen 1295796 2/1919 ens I maintenance. The bricks have an oblique tilted midpart and 1,382,652 6/1921 Krefer ..s2/593 x end equal right parallelepipeda] top and bottom Socles or end 117101833 4/1929 M'rabella et "52/593 surfaces. The long side ofeach brick is double the short side. 2,509,029 5/1950 Antill ...263/46 X 1 2,932,745 4/1960 Alberti et a1 ..52/608 X 4 Claims, 40 Drawilng Figures \l /AL\\\\ PATEMEU mu we $635,459
SHEET 2 OF 3 INVENTOR. 4 64/ REFRACTORY BRICK HAVING UBLIQUE SURFACE The steel casting ladles are provided on their whole inner bottom and wall surface with a refractory lining which contacts the melted metal. Usually this lining consists of refractory bricks, having flat surfaces, cemented one to another by means of refractory cement.
The ladle bottom must be cleaned from the tapping slags after every steel casting and this is a very delicate operation, as during the casting the material can sink more or less deeply into the brick interstices and the slag removal can cause also the refractory lining destruction owing to the removal of the bricks fixed one to the other only by refractory cement. The ladle bottom is particularly damaged because on it there is the tapping slag storage and the cleaning operations are per formed upside down.
The present invention reduces or better eliminates the above mentioned inconvenience, as it provides the ladle lining with refractory bricks particularly suitable to minimize the slag seepage into the interstices and to make the brick junction stable as not it is not only performed by the interlaying refractory cement, but it is also and above all due to the brick faying surfaces so that one of them after the erection cannot be removed from its position and therefore it cannot be removed with the slags.
Schematically some types of refractory bricks, constituting the object of the present invention, and the instructions about their erection are illustrated in the enclosed drawings, in which:
FIG. 1 shows a ladle bottom refractory brick in the positions:
a. long side view;
b. short side view;
c. top view;
FIG. 2 shows a right and left bottom edging refractory brick in the positions (a) (b) (c) as in FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 shows another type of right and left bottom edging refractory brick in the positions (a) (b) (c) as in FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 shows another type of right and left bottom edging refractory brick in the positions (a) (b) (c) as in FIG. 1;
FIG. 5 shows a central ladle bottom refractory brick in the positions (a) (b) (c) as in FIG. 1;
FIG. 6 shows a possible arrangement of the bottom refractory bricks as in FIG. 1 according to section A-A of the following FIG. 8;
FIG. 7 shows another possible arrangement of the bottom refractory bricks as in FIG. 1 according to section B-B of the following FIG. 8;
FIG. 8 shows the top view of a possible bottom refractory brick arrangement;
FIG. 9 shows the section of a ladle wall refractory lining;
FIG. 10 shows a refractory brick in the wall first lower courses as per G in FIG. 9, in the positions:
a. side view transversal to the lining;
b. top view;
c. side view parallel to the lining (from the outside of the ladle);
FIG. 11 shows a wall refractory brick of the upper courses H in the positions (a) (b) (c) as in H6 10.
FIG. 12 shows another type of bottom brick with S-shaped faying surfaces in the positions (a) (b) (c) as in FIG. 1;
FIG. 13 shows another type of V-shaped bottom brick in the positions (a) (b) (c) as in FIG. 1;
FIG 14 shows another C-shaped bottom brick in the positions (a) (b) (c) asin H6. 1;
FIG. 15 shows another double S-shaped bottom brick in the positions (a) (b) (c) as in FIG. 1;
FIG. 16 shows another double C-shaped bottom brick in the positions(a) (b) (c) as in FIG. 1.
Thus, FIGS. ll5 illustrate bricks having upper and lower socles, which are suitable for use as bottom bricks; FIGS. 6-8 show a bottom brick arrangement; FIGS. 10 and 11 show wall bricks; FIGS. 1246 show an alternative form of bottom bricks; and FIG. 9 shows a ladle wall lining made up of Section F composed of bottom bricks and sections G and H composed of wall bricks. In FIG. 1 the bottom refractory bricks substantially consist of two equal rectangular and parallelepipedal socles (upper socle 1 and lower socle 2); between them there is the oblique parallelpepipedal suitably tilted midpart 3. Another feature is that the horizontal longer side of the socles is the double of the shorter side. Therefore against the long face of a brick there may be arranged either the long face of another brick or the short faces of two bricks. In FIGS. 2, 3, and 4 showing edging bricks, being the brick features of FIG. 1 equal, they vary and show one or two vertical side surfaces, while the remaining two or three are oblique. Of course the oblique tilted surfaces will match with the surfaces of the bricks in FIG. I while the vertical ones will appear as bottom external edging.
FIG. 5 illustrates a central refractory brick that is-the brick that, arranged in the center of the ladlle, enables the bottom building towards the outside with any order as to the bricks as in FIG. I;
The bottom brick arrangement may follow any order and any established configuration. For example from the central brick it is possible to extend forming a cross and then complete the quarters with the bricks illustrated in FIG. 1 indifierently arranged side by side either with the long side or the short one; or it is possible to avoid the central brick and start building the bottom either from the center or a side always arranging the bricks adjacent with. the long or short side.
FIG. 8 illustrates, in a way of example the top view of a ladle bottom part where the bricks are arranged in both directions; of the same FIG. 8, in FIGS. 6 and 7 there are illustrated the sections A--A and 8-8.
FIG. 9 illustrates, as mentioned above, a ladle vertical section, in which F refers to the bottom, G to the wall brick lower courses and H to the upper courses.
Courses G are realized with the bricks shown in FIG. 10 presenting the suitably bent surfaces 4 for the vertical reciprocal matching and bent surfaces 5 for the horizontal reciprocal matching, while surfaces 6 forming the ladle outside and inside walls are flat.
In the first course bricks G show the lower flat surface 4 as shown by short dashes line L in order to enable their laying on the bottom bed that is fiat.
Above brick courses G there are arranged brick courses H illustrated in FIG. 11 similar to the: preceding ones, but presenting an inferior thickness.
Eventually above courses H there can be arranged a similar course but presenting an even inferior thickness.
There are also half bricks or anyway small bricks to facilitate the brick annular course finishing as shown by the short dashes lines L in FIGS. 10 and 11.
FIGS. 12, 13, I4, 15 and 16 illustrate further modified types of bottom bricks presenting particularly shaped faying surfaces.
All these types different from the types illustrated in FIG. I are completed with the edging and central bricks having flat vertical surfaces equal to those illustrated in FIGS. 2, 3, 4 and 5 but having faying surfaces differently shaped according to the features of the kind they belong to. The wall bricks can be arranged as in fIG. 9, in superimposed circular courses, and also, as usually happens, spirally.
In the latter case the series of bricks illustrated in FIGS. 10 and 11 are completed by a first and a last course consisting of differently high bricks.
Now after explaining the particular features of both the bottom and the wall bricks and their assembling instructions (that are several for the bottom), we examine the working of the ladles shielded with the lining constituting the object of the present invention during the casting and the following scum removal.
When the ladle is full of melted metal, as has already been mentioned, there is a melted metal penetration into the brick the brick interstices, and the advantages offered by the bricks having bent or oblique surfaces compared with the flat bricks are two, i.e.:
inferior penetration owing to the direction change;
being the penetration power equal, there is an inferior average depth, as the contact line between two bricks is larger. Therefore even with the penetration width equal, the depth reached by the metal is inferior.
For the ladle cleaning, after the casting that is carried out, as has already been explained, upside-down, the removal of the slags sunk into the interstices causes also the removal of the bricks usually manufactured.
This cannot happen with the bricks constituting the object of the present invention, as in every brick, the bottom bricks through the oblique walls of parallelepiped 3 or the walls shaped as illustrated in FIGS. l2, l3, 14; 15 and 16 and the wall bricks through bent walls 4 and 5 cannot come out from the adjacent bricks and therefore it cannot be removed along with the tapping slags. Therefore the total integrity of the refractory lining after the cleaning operations is assured and this allows the refractory lining a longer life.
Obviously the invention which has been described above as an embodiment and not a limitation may in practice undergo changes in the face tilting and bending according to the particular ladle on which they are arranged, always remaining within the purpose of the following I claim:
1. A refractory lining suitable for use in a steel casting ladle, comprising at least one course of refractory bricks in side-byside relationship, each refractory brick having upper and lower right parallelepipedal socles of equal size between which is a four-sided midpart, each of said sides of said midpart being oblique.
2. A brick according to claim 1, wherein each of said socles has a long side and a short side, the long sides of both socles being parallel to each other, and the long side of the socle being twice the length of the short side of the socle.
3. A refractory lining suitable for use in a steel casting ladle, comprising atleast one course of refractory bricks in side-byside relationship, each refractory brick having upper and lower right parallelepipedal socles of unequal size'between which is a four-sided midpart, each of said sides of said midpart being oblique.