US 3635746 A
A nontacky adhesive coating composition for use over indicia on a surface of a dry transfer sheet, the adhesive comprising by weight 50 to 90 percent wax, 1 to 10 percent of a pentaerythritol ester of rosin, 5 to 30 percent of a pressure-sensitive adhesive, from 0.5 to 5 percent of an amino-substituted alkanol and from 0.5 to 5 percent of an alkaline hydroxide.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Karlan [451 Jan. 18, 1972  DRY TRANSFER AND METHOD  Inventor: Mac Karlan, 1700 Grand Concourse,
Bronx, NY. 10457  Filed: Oct. 19, 1966 211 App]. No.: 857,751
 US. Cl. ..117/3.l, 1 17/15, 161/167,
156/234, 156/240, 106/230, 260/27  Int. Cl. ..B4lm 5/02, C08c 11/70  Field 01 Search ..260/24, 27, 28,5, 28.5 A, 732,
260/733, 28.5 AV, 28.5 B, 584; 161/167; 156/230, 240, 234; 106/230, 30, 29, 31; 117/361, 122 PA,
3,212,913 10/1965 MacKenzie ..117/3.1
3,298,850 1/1967 Reed et a1 ..156/230 OTHER PUBUCATION S Hercules Resins for Adhesives Pages 7-9 cited. 195 l Primary Examiner-Robert F. Burnett Assistant Examiner-R. J. Roche Att0rneyLackenbach & Lackenbach [5 7] ABSTRACT A nontacky adhesive coating composition for use over indicia on a surface of a dry transfer sheet, the adhesive comprising by weight 50 to 90 percent wax, 1 to 10 percent of a pen taerythritol ester of rosin, 5 to 30 percent of a pressure-sensitive adhesive, from 0.5 to 5 percent of an amino-substituted alkanol and from 0.5 to 5 percent of an alkaline hydroxide.
8 Claims, 7 Drawing Figures WENHEB m a s= ..2
SHEET 2 BF 2 sup BRAND fr fHllmuu INVENTOR MAC. KARLAH 2 6 4 nw'mwm This invention relates to transfers (decalomanias) and more particularly to a form of transfer material inwhichan image, design or printed matter, herein generally referred to as .indicia may be transferred from a carrier sheet to a further support. The invention includes transfer materials, their production, adhesive compositions useful in the invention, and the process oftheir use.
Transfer sheets which consist of a carrier sheet carrying certain indicia which may be transferred from the carrier sheet to a support are now well known and great effort has been directed to the productionof such materials which will permit transfer, and close register, of any indicia with ease, speed and reliability and which will give the same quality of transfer consistently.
More recently attention has been directed to the manufacture of transfer sheet materials from which the indicia may be transferred without the use. of any treatment liquid by socalled dry transfer methods."
Some of these materials require the use of heat in order to release the indicia from the carrier support, for example, for the purpose of softening a waxy release layer. More recently it has been proposed to apply to the surface of the indicia a pressure-sensitive adhesive so that the indicia, which is very firmly adherent to the pressure-sensitive adhesive layer, will release from the carrier support and adhere with the same adhesive to another support. This latter type of product has necessitated a protective sheet over the pressure-sensitive adhesive which sheet tobe peeled away as a necessary step immediately prior to the transfer of the indicia to another support. Protective sheets were necessary since otherwise the transfer material was impossible to handle as a commercial article due to its readiness to stick to anything placed in contact with it, such as sheets of such material one against the'other, and accordingly sheets could not be stacked for packing purposes. Among other disadvantagesin such sheets was the actual operation of removing the protective sheet which in many instances resulted in the pulling away from the carrier sheet of the pressure-sensitive adhesive and part or all of the indicia.
In my earlier patent, U.S. Pat. No. 3,013,917, Karlan et al., there is described and claimed a dry transfer sheet wherein the support sheets are chemically treated to facilitate release of the indicia from the transfer sheet and the indicia is treated with certain adhesives to insure adherence thereof to a surface receiving the indicia. In said earlier patent the adhesives employed are any of the waxes of a natural or synthetic nature. The wax is applied in liquid form so as to minimize disturbance of the coherent film. pressure-sensitive ink comprising the indicia. Upon drying, the dry wax adhesive coat forms an excellent bond with the coherent ink film and a useful and commercially attractive product results.
While the transfer sheets of my earlier patent are. commercially successful products, certain disadvantages in use and handling exist. For example, in shipping the sheets of my earlier invention during hot periods of the year, the wax has a tendency to melt because of the high heat in the trucks or railroad cars or other means of transportation. Also small particles of residue which detractsomewhat from their. use resultiduring transfer of the indicia to a support.
I have now found that the minimal disadvantages of my earlier transfer. sheets can be eliminated and certain new highly desirable advantages can be achieved by my present invention. In brief, 1 have now been able to produce transfer sheets which may be shipped in hot weather without deleterious effects, which have a stronger affinity for the. surface to which applied, which have substantially longer shelf life and which leave less residue upon the support surface upon transfer of the indicia thereto.
Accordingly, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a dry transfer sheet with transferable ink indicia wherein the indicia being transferred has strong affinity for the surface to which applied.
Another primary object of this invention is to provide a dry transfer sheet with transferable ink indicia which will ensure strong adherence of the indicia transferred to the surface receiving the indicia.
Yet anotherprimary object of the: present invention is the provision of dry transfer sheets which may be subjected to high temperatures, for example, extremes in hot weather, without any deleterious effect.
Still a further primary object of this invention is the provision of an adhesive formulation which makes possible the desired advantages above enumerated.
As in my earlier patent, the invention contemplates the provision of a dry transfer sheet with transferable ink indicia on one surface and with horizontal and spaced vertical guidelines preferably on the other surface, for arranging the transfer indicia in a desired style or line, with particular reference to correct horizontal or vertical spacing of the separate characters on a suitable background.
Other objects and important features of the invention will be apparent from a study of the specification following taken with the drawing, which together show, illustrate, describe and disclose a preferred embodiment of the invention and what is now considered to be the bestmode of practicing the principles thereof. Other embodiments or modifications may be suggested to those having the benefit of the teachings herein, and
such other embodiments or modifications are intended to be reserved especially as they fall within the scope and spirit of the subjoined claims.
In the Drawing:
FIG. 1 is a rear view of the dry transfer transparent sheet with variousinked characters thereon adapted to be transferred to a plain sheet;
FIG. 2 is a face view of a plain sheet to which the character shown on a dry transfer sheet in FIG. ll may be transferred;
FIG. 3is a cross-sectionalview of the dry transfer sheet shown in FIG. 1, the thickness of the various materials applied to the sheet being exaggerated;
FIG. 4 is a front view of the dry transfer transparent sheet overlying the plainsheet, showing how the inked characters on the transfer sheet are dry transferred to the plain sheet;
FIG. 5 is a face view of a plain sheet shown in FIG. 2 and now bearing some of the transferred characters;
FIG. 6 is a fragmentary front view of a dry transfer transparent sheet embodying a modified form of the invention with various dry transferable ink characters on a rear surface thereof and with guidelines on the front surface thereof, and
FIG. 7 is a fragmentary rear view of a dry transfer sheet shown in FIG. 6.
Referring now in greater detail to the drawings, for the purpose of illustrating the invention,.in FIG. I there is shown a rectangular base sheet 10 of thick pellucid, nonelastic sheetlike "material, such as translucent paper, calendered parchment, onion skin paper, tough tissue paper, cellulose acetate sheeting, cellulose acetate butyrate sheeting, vinyl polymer (polyvinyl chloride or polyvinyl acetate) sheeting, polystyrene sheets, cellophane, and the like. Similarly sheets made from polyolefln materials, such as polyethylene, polypropyleneand the like, are normally suitable for use in this invention. Said base sheet has printed on the rear surface 12 thereof, in reverse position as viewed from the rear of the sheet (FIG. 1) and in normal reading position as viewed from the front of the sheet, a number of designs or characters in a form of upper case letters 14 of the alphabet, lower case letters 16, punctuationmarks 18, and numbers 20. The letters are conveniently arranged alphabetically and the numbers conveniently are arranged numerically. Each base sheet 10 preferably has two or more sets of letters, punctuation marks,
numbers and the like. The designs. or characters are printed in spaced rows on the sheet and the spacing between the rows of designs and between the individual designs is sufficient to permit each character to be worked on by a rubbing or buinishing implement without interference with adjacent characters.
The rear surface 12 of the sheet base is treated to provide the pellucid release coating as indicated at 22 before the characters are applied thereon, so as to facilitate the release of said characters from the treated rear surface in a manner which will be described hereinafter. The release coating can be applied to said rear surface 12 of the pellucid sheet in any well-known manner, for example, by spraying, brushing, dipping, casting, silk-screening, calendering or doctor-blading. Chemicals for release coatings are well known per se, as are their applications as release coatings to paper and sheetings, in general release chemicals being employed which are compatible with the sheet 10. Typical chemicals for release coatings 22 which are satisfactory in the practice of the instant invention are certain silicones and quilon. The former are organopolysiloxanes and the latter is a stearatochromic chloride made by E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc. Any of the commercially available silicones may be employed. For example base sheet 10 may be spray coated with dimethyldichlorosilane and then heat calendered. Also, modified silicones can be used, e.g., Syl-Ofi 23," a solution of a silicon rubber polymer in xylene, made by Dow Corning Corp., of Midland, Mich., the same being heat cured on a base sheet after spray coating.
The indicia are printed over the release coating using a coherent-film-forming transferable-when-dry ink, which may be black, white or any desired color. The ink generally employed is insoluble in water.
The rear exposed surfaces of the designs or characters comprising the indicia on the release coated sheet 10, are coated with an adhesive formulation, hereinafter described, indicated at 24 so that said indicia can be adhered to a sheet 26 adapted to receive the same. The coherent film characters formed by the ink adhere to the rear release coated surface of the transparent base sheet and also adhere to the adhesive coating, but the adherence to the adhesive coating constitutes a considerably stronger bond than the adherence to the release coated rear surface of the transfer sheets.
The adhesive formulations of this invention found eminently suited in providing the advantages described comprise any wax melting at 110 F. or higher, a synthetic rosin resin, a pressure-sensitive adhesive, an amino substituted alcohol and an alkaline hydroxide.
in formulating the adhesive compositions of this invention any of the waxes, natural and synthetic, melting at 110 F. or higher may be employed. Preferably it is desirable to use a clear, that is, water white or a white wax, such for instance as a high melting point polyethylene wax, microcrystalline wax, spermaceti wax or carnauba wax. However, although these waxes are preferred, other waxes can be used, such for instance, animal, vegetable or mineral waxes of any kind. Typical thereof are petroleum waxes, paraffin waxes, paraffinicnaphthenic waxes, beeswax, castor wax, candelilla wax, and the like.
The rosin resin may be one of the group manufactured by Hercules Powder Company and known commercially as Pentalyn resins. Typically, these resins comprise a group of pentaerythritol esters of rosin, in unmodified maleic and phenolicmodified types. Particularly useful in the present adhesive formulations are the Pentalyn resins designated as Pentalyn H and Pentalyn K.
Any one of a number of pressure-sensitive adhesives may be employed in the formulation to augment the adhesive characteristics of the wax provided it retains sufficient tack after thorough drying to permit bonding pressure. Typical of such pressure-sensitive adhesives as are suitable are EC-791, a clear, transparent oil-soluble elastorner in a highly volatile petroleum solvent and manufactured by Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing company. This adhesive is a clear stationer's adhesive that retains pressure-sensitivity when dry so that it retains sufficient tack after thorough drying to permit rebonding under light pressure. It is commonly known as a rubber cement and is classified under Federal Specification ZZ-C-l9la, type (cement, rubber-artists and photographers). Another pressure-sensitive adhesive which may be utilized is Double Tack, a reclaimed rubber-based pressuresensitive adhesive manufactured by Sloman Laboratories. Other useful pressure adhesives will be obvious to those skilled in the art.
The amino alcohols suitable in the present formulation comprise the class of alkyl and amino substituted aliphatic alcohols, represented by l-ethyl, Z-amino-ethanol, l-ethyl, 2- amino-propanol, and the like.
The alkaline hydroxide component of the formulation may be any of the alkaline hydroxides but preferably sodium hydroxide.
The various components above described may be employed in varying amounts in the preparation of the present adhesive formulations. Thus the wax may comprise the major component and in use comprises a solution in a hydrocarbon solvent ranging from 10 to percent by weight of wax. The Pentalyn resin usually comprises from 1 to 10 percent by weight of the formulation with 3 to 7 percent being preferred. The pressure-sensitive adhesive is usually used inamounts corresponding to 5-30 percent by weight of the formulation with 10-20 percent being preferred. The amino alcohol may be employed in an amount ranging from 5 percent with l-3 percent being preferred. The alkaline hydroxide is used in an amount rang ing from 0.5-5 percent, 1-3 percent being preferred. As mentioned above, the wax is the major component and may be used in amounts corresponding to 50 to 90 percent by weight of the formulation.
The adhesive formulations are prepared by first preparing a l0-90 percent solution of the wax in a hydrocarbon solvent and then adding to this solution the other components of the formulation with vigorous agitation. Agitation is required to provide a stable composition of uniform consistency.
The adhesive formulations herein described enable the production of the new and novel transfer sheets of this invention. Sheets embodying these adhesives have demonstrated no adverse effects when subjected to high temperatures for long periods and as a result shelf life is considerably increased. In use, substantial improvements over competitive products has been observed in the affinity with which the indicia transfers to the support being printed on. Similarly, on transfer to another surface considerably less residue appears on the sur face.
Without intending to be bound by any particular theory in connection with the components of the formulation, it is believed that'the rosin resin adds to the body of the wax without causing a continuous film and it also elevates the melting point of the wax. Similarlyfit is believed that the amino-alcohol bites into the release agent on the carrier sheet so that the transfer remains clear. The alkaline hydroxide is also believed to add to the bite properties of the amino-alcohol.
In order that those skilled in the art may more fully comprehend the invention and its scope the following example of a typical adhesive formulation is given.
EXAMPLE I Component by Weight (I) Pentalyn H 3% (2) Pressure sensitive adhesive (EC-791) 15% (3) l-ethyl Lamina ethanol 2% (4) Sodium hydroxide 2% (5) Polyethylene wax-Allied Chemical 0212 (50% solution in methylene dichloride) 78% These components were stirred vigorously and a stable adin the manufacture of the present transfer sheets, the ink is applied to the release coated rear surface of the transfer sheet in any well-known manner. While silk screening is preferred, any method of printing such as flexography, letter press, offset or web can be employed. Preferably the ink is applied in a fashion which will permit a reasonably thick heavy deposit thereof so as to obtain a stable coherent film upon drying of the film.
The adhesive formulation which is applied as a coating 24 over the rear release coated surface of the base sheet and over the rear exposed surface of the indicia after they have dried, is applied in any well-known fashion, for example, by brushing, silk screening, roller coating or spraying. The thickness of the adhesive film is not critical. However, it is preferred that a comparatively thick film be employed as this is more economical and will create less interference on the finished sheet to which the indicia have been applied by dry transfer.
The dry adhesive coat 24 thus deposited forms an excellent bond with the coherent ink film, as has already been pointed out, and no special steps need be taken to effect this bond. The bond is considerably stronger than the bond between the coherent ink film and the release coated rear surface of the nonelastic pellucid transfer base sheet lit). Usually, the adhesive is applied over the whole surface of the printed side of the base sheet and it is found that it will shear upon burnishing around the elements of the printed indicia so that only the adhesive coat on the printed indicia will transfer.
By way of specific example, a dry transfer sheet embodying the present invention comprises a base sheet 10 of polyethylene, a quilon release coating on the rear surface thereof, dried inked characters formed from a slow drying China oil enamel with an additive of about 5 percent cobalt blue as a dryer, and adhesive coating over the dried ink characters, as well as the release coated rear surface of the base sheet 10 where no characters are present, and exclusive ofthe margins.
By placing the back of the dry transfer sheet 10, with the ink characters thus downwardly, upon another sheet such as the sheet 26 shown in FIG. 2, the sheet 26 can have selected coherent dried ink film characters on the sheet 10 applied or transferred to the sheet 26 by rubbing, that is, burnishing, the front surface of the ink bearing dry transfer sheet over the characters to be transferred without the aid of chemicals, water, heat, liquids of any nature, or electricity. That is to say, various selected ink characters can be accurately applied to a plain sheet 26, or any other surface, by a dry transfer method only involving rubbing. This is shown by way of example in FIG. 4 in which it is seen that the character H is being transferred to the sheet 26 by rubbing the face of the transfer wheel 10 with a burnishing tool 28.
Any desired character on the sheet 10 may be transferred to the sheet 26 by rubbing the front surface of the dry transfer sheet 10 at the place occupied on the rear .surface by the character selected. By placing the dry transfer sheet 10 over the sheet 26, with the rear surface downward and positioning the selected character at the place on the sheet 26 that is desired, and then merely by rubbing the front surface of the dry transfer sheet 10, the desired coherent dried ink film character will be transferred to the sheet 26 at the desirable lace. p Any suitable available implement 28 may be used for effecting the rubbing, provided it has a smooth yet hard and preferably blunt and rounded end. The sheet 26 should not be permitted to move while the rubbing process is being effected and preferably is held down firmly by hand or by drawing pins or other conventional method.
The sheet 26 shown in FIG. 5 illustrates the appearance of a series of transferred characters.
in the modified form of the invention shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, a nonelastic pellucid dry transfer sheet 10' has printed on the rear surface 12' thereof a set of coherent film-dried ink designs or characters 114 in the manner described in detail hereinabove with respect to the dry transfer sheet ll). in addition, on the front surface of the same sheet there is provided a horizontal guideline 30 below each row of characters and a series of spaced vertical guidelines 32 in association with and intersecting each horizontal guideline. Each character is bracketed by a pair of the aforesaid vertical guidelines which between them define a space 43 wherein such character is disposed. The guidelines 30, 32 are printed in a conventional manner and are not transferable. These lines are employed to assist in the spacing and arrangement of the transferred characters on another surface. For example, when using the sheet 10', the operator will lightly draw a line on a surface to which the characters are to be transferred. Then he will register the horizontal line 30 with such lightly drawn line, using the horizontal line 30 below a character which he is to transfer. When another character is transferred, the horizontal line 30 in association with it is registered with the lightly drawn line, and the vertical guideline on the left-hand side of the second character being transferred will be placed close to the right-hand side of the character previously transferred. in this manner the characters transferred are properly horizontally registered and are nicely spaced from one another.
By reason of the present invention, printers, advertisers, artists, and the like can readily place printed matter on copy they desire to employ, with particular reference to correct horizontal or vertical spacing of the separate characters.
While the invention has been shown, illustrated, described and disclosed in terms of the embodiments or modifications it has assumed in practice, the scope of the invention should not be deemed to be limited by the precise embodiments or modifications herein shown, illustrated, described or disclosed, such other embodiments or modifications intended to be reserved especially as they fall within the scope of the claims here appended.
What is claimed is:
1. A nontacky adhesive coating composition for a dry transfer sheet which is highly resistant to inadvertent transfer but which, when transferred, does so cleanly and without substantial residue comprising from 50 to percent by weight of a Wax having a melting point of at least F. and from i to 10 percent by weight of a pentaerythritol ester of rosin, from 5 to 30 percent by weight of a pressure-sensitive adhesive, from 0.5 to 5 percent by weight of an amino-substituted alkanol and from 0.5 to 5 percent by weight of an alkaline hydroxide.
2. The coating composition of claim 1 comprising from 50 to 90 percent by weight of wax, from 3 to 7 percent by weight of pentaerythritol ester of rosin, from 10 to 20 percent by weight of tacky pressure-sensitive adhesive, from i to 3 percent by weight of amino-substituted alkanol and from I to 3 percent by weight of alkaline hydroxide.
3. The coating composition of claim 1 wherein the wax is a polyethylene wax.
4. As a new article of manufacture, a dry transfer sheet comprising:
a. a pellucid base sheet having a surface with high release properties,
b. a plurality of coherent, solid, spaced opaque dry indicia on the rear surface of said base sheet, and
c. a dry coating of the composition of claim over the rear surfaces of said indicia.
5. An article as set forth in claim 4 wherein the amino alcohol is selected from the group consisting of l-ethyl, 2- amino-ethanol and l-ethyl, Z-amino propanol.
6. An article as set forth in claim 5 wherein the release coating is a silicone and the wax is a polyethylene wax.
7. An article as set forth in claim 5 wherein the release coating is a stearato-chromic chloride and the wax is a polyethylene wax.
8. An article as set forth in claim 4 wherein the coating extends over substantially the entire rear surface of the sheet and is firmly adhered to the release coating.
i IV b W i ll extending UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent No. 3,635,76 I Dated January 18, 1972 Mac Karlan Invento r(s) It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent 'and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
On the cover sheet  "Appl. No. 857,751" should read Appl. No. 587,751
Signed and sealed this 17th day of October 1972.
EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR ROBERT GOTTSCHALK Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents FORM PO-1050 (10-69) USCOIMM-DC 60376-PB9 9 0.5. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE "I9 O3 6633|,