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Publication numberUS3636694 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 25, 1972
Filing dateMay 15, 1969
Priority dateMay 18, 1968
Also published asDE1760454B1
Publication numberUS 3636694 A, US 3636694A, US-A-3636694, US3636694 A, US3636694A
InventorsPfunder Wilhelm, Schmidt Gunter
Original AssigneeRhodiaceta Ag
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Apparatus and process for tangling fibers and filaments
US 3636694 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent 1151 3,636,694 Pfunder et al. 1 1 Jan. 25, 1972 APPARATUS AND PROCESS FOR 2,985,995 /1961 Bunting et al 57/157 x T LI FIBERS AND FILAMENTS 3,022,566 2/1962 Daniels et al... ..57/34 UX 3,079,745 5/1963 Breen et al .57/34 [72] Inventors: Wilhelm Pfunder, Denzlingen; Gunter 3 211432 1 19 5 Bael- 57 X Schmidt, Emmendingen, both of Germany 3,403,501 l0/l968 Nuissl .....57 77 3 {73] Assigneez Rhodiacem AG, Freiburg im Breisgau, 3,455,096 7/1969 Whitley ..28/l 4 X Gelmany FOREIGN PATENTS 0R APPLICATIONS [221 Filed May 436,196 11 1967 Switzerland ..28/l .4 [2|] Appl. No.: 824,805

Primary ExaminerDonald E. Watkins Attorney-Fernanda M. Fiordalisi Foreign Application Priority Data May 18, 1968 Germany ..P 17 454.5 [571 ABSTRACT A loose bundle of fibers is passed through a new nozzle, [52] U.S. Cl. ..57/77.3, 57/34 B, 57/140 R, characterized by a conduit provided with at least two Slots and 57/157 F means for directing a fluid, for instance air, tangentially to the [5]] hit. CL ..D02g 1/16 conduit for the fibers p f the fibers becomes transversely [58] held March 57/3434 3,773 arranged over the remainder of the fibers giving a strong 57/157 140; 28/1 14 wound-up unit, which cannot be spread apart. Fixed points at regular intervals are obtained. [56] References Cited 17 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures UNITED STATES PATENTS 984,195 2/19ll Cooper ..57/34 UX PMENTED JAN25|972 I 3 5355 4 sum 1 0F 3 PATENTED JANZS 1972 3.636394 sum 2 or 3 FIG. 3.

PATENTEU JAN25l972 3636 694 sum 3 ur 3 FIG. 4.

APPARATUS AND PROCESS FOR TANGLING FIBERS AND FILAMENTS This invention relates to filaments and fibers and more specifically to a novel apparatus and process for tangling filaments and fibers.

It is known in the art that, by subjecting a bundle of untwisted fibers to the action of fluids, for instance steam or air, in nozzles, the fibers become entangled and a unit is obtained, in which twisting of the fibers at short intervals of the bundle of fibers is not necessary. The main drawback with the nozzles known in the art is that zones of uncontrollable turbulence are continuously formed and the entangling does not occur in a reproducible fashion. The result is that the fixed points are formed at irregular intervals.

The object of this invention is to provide a novel type of nozzle which eliminates the disadvantages of the nozzles known in the art. Another object is to provide a novel process for tangling bundles of fibers in a simple and economical manner, which gives an improved, stronger unit of fibers. Still another object is to provide a novel apparatus and a process which are applicable to staple fibers as well as to continuous filaments.

The crux of this invention resides in the finding that entangling of the fibers and filaments is conducted in a controllable fashion, if the conduit of the nozzle is provided with slots and if the fluid is directed tangentially to the conduit of the fibers or filaments. By the use of the device in accordance with this invention, a portion of the fibers or filaments becomes transversely arranged forming a wave which is superimposed upon the remainder of the fibers.

In accordance with the invention, the filaments or the bundle of fibers are led into the nozzle spread out and flat. As a result of the construction of the nozzle, transversal waves are formed in the fluid, and they tilt part of the bundle of fibers or filaments one over the other at well defined intervals.

The invention will now be described more in detail by reference to the accompanying drawings, of which FIG. 1 is a side view of the nozzle,

FIG. II is a cross-sectional view,

FIG. "I represents the number of fixed points per meter of fibers or filaments which have passed through the nozzle, and

FIG. IV represents a bundle of tangled fibers prepared in accordance with this invention.

In FIGS. 1 and II, numeral 1 designates the nozzle and numeral 2 designates the conduit of the fibers. The slots are shown at 4 and numeral 5 designates the fluid inlet into the conduit of fibers or filaments. The fluid conventionally is air or steam.

In FIG. IV, numeral 1 designated the bundle of fibers being passed through the nozzle in loose, spreadout form. Numeral 2 indicates the points at which a part of the fibers is twisted, crosses over the remainder of the fibers and is deposited at a location where no other crossed fibers are present. FIG. IV shows that, at the points where a part of the fibers crosses over the remainder, the entire bundle is obtained in a partially wound form because of the portion of the bundle of the fibers which is twisted or crossed over. Numeral 3 in FIG. IV indicates the points where the bundle is partially wound.

The novelty of the nozzle of this invention is that transversal waves are formed in the fluid. The result of the transversal waves is that the fibers are entangled and that fixed points are obtained at regular intervals. The entire unit of the fibers is considerably improved and is so strong that, at least at the points where a part of the fibers is twisted and crosses over the remainder, the bundle of fibers is irreversibly entangled. Thus, by application of the apparatus and process of this invention, the bundle of fibers cannot be opened by mechanical forces, that is, the individual fibers cannot fall apart nor spread out.

Another substantial advantage of the device and the process of this invention is that, even with a small amount of air and at low air pressure, 0.1-2 atmospheres, the velocity of the fibers may be very high and still fixed points are formed at regular intervals with only a small deviation. This is shown in FIG. III. These results are achieved because of the transverse wave superimposed upon the main bundle of fibers.

The formation of a transverse wave has been used in the preparation of threads with a false twist, but it is new in the preparation of entangled fibers. Although the principle of a transverse wave has been known for a long time in the case of a false thread, it has never been successfully applied to the preparation of entangled fibers, prior to this invention. Manifestly, the reasons are that, not only the formation of the transverse wave has been accompanied by disadvantages, but also that it has been necessary to overcome technical difficulties. The nozzle of this invention represents the first instance of a device which permits the formation of transverse waves and the entangling of fibers and filaments in a satisfactory manner.

For the achievement of the unitary yarn, it is, essential that the nozzle be so constructed that the points at which part of the bundle of the fibers is crossed over, are at continuously recurring intervals. For this reason, by reference to FIGS. 1 and II, the nozzle of this invention must be so constructed that the conduit of the fibers shown at 2 is provided with the slots 4 at definite intervals which are shown by the numeral 3.

the fluid which enters through the inlet designated by the numeral 5 must force upon the edges of the slots so as to cause a turbulence. In view of the fact that the turbulence occurs at definite intervals, a transversal wave is formed which forces upon the running fibers. The result is a bundle of fibers with'a portion of fibers crossed over the remainder at definite intervals.

The dimensions of the nozzle of this application should be in definite relationship to each other for the achievement of satisfactory results. The ratio of L, that is, the length of the fiber conduit represented by the numeral 2 in FIGS. I and II to the diameter, D, should be between 10:1 and 1:1, and

preferably between 10:25 and I0: 1.2. The number of the slots should be at least 2 and preferably should be equal to L/(D+2), in which L and D are the length and the diameter respectively, of the fiber conduit 2 of FIGS. I and II. The width of the slots should be at least 0.1D, that is, one-tenth the diameter of the fiber conduit and preferably between 0.2D and 0.6D. The depth of the slots 4 in FIGS. I and II should be at least 0. l D and preferably between 0.2 and 0.5D. The slots 4 should be located at equal distance, as shown by the numeral 3 in FIG. 1 in order to impart stability to the path of the fibers.

The width of the slots may be varied from nozzle to nozzle. It should be noted that, by varying the width, the zone in which a part of the bundle of fibers crosses over the remainder, is somewhat widened.

The inlet for the fluid 5 in FIGS. I and II is so arranged that the fluid runs advantageously onto one slot 4, tangentially to the diameter of the conduit of the fibers 2. The fluid enters the nozzle at a point located in the range between two-eighths and six-eighths of the length of the conduit of the fibers, and preferably in the middle.

The following example is described in detail hereinbelow for the purpose of further clarification of this invention.

EXAMPLE 1 A continuous bundle of fibers of cellulose secondary acetate with about 133 dtex and 60 fibrils was passed through the nozzle of this invention with a velocity of 610 meters per minute. The nozzle was operated with compressed air at l.l atmospheres. The fibers were under a tension of 0.1 gJdtex. The resulting bundle of fibers was wound in the usual manner.

FIG. "I shows on the abscissa the number of fixed points per meter of fibers or filaments which have passed through the nozzle, while the velocity per minute is plotted on the ordinate. The fibers prepared according to Example 1, contained l9 fixed points per meter with a deviation s=2.36 points per meter.

The nozzle used in this experiment had the following dimensions: the length of the conduit for the fibers was 20 mm. the width was 3 mm., the width of the slots was I mm. and the depth was 1 mm. The number of the slots was 4 and the width of the air inlet was 2 mm.

The nozzle shown at l in FIG. I was divided in half and contained the conduit for the fibers in the middle. This division into two parts has the advantage of permitting to control easily the function of the nozzle and the loading of the nozzle with bundles of fibers.

What is claimed is: I

l. A device for entangling fibers and filaments which comprises inlet means for a fluid, inlet means for the fibers or filaments, and a conduit for the fibers or filaments, said conduit being provided with at least two annular slots in the direction perpendicular to the direction of flow of the fibers and filaments and means for directing the fluid tangentially to the conduit of the fibers or filaments.

2. The device, according to claim 1 which is a nozzle and wherein the number of said slots is equal to the ratio Length of the nozzle in mm. Diameter of the nozzle in mrn.+2.

3. The device according to claim 1 which is a nozzle wherein staple fibers are entangled and the ratio of the length of the conduit of the fibers to the diameter is in the range between 10:1 and 1:1.

4. The nozzle according to claim 3 wherein the ratio of the length of the conduit of the fibers to the diameter is in the range between 10:25 and 10:12.

5. The nozzle according to claim 1 wherein the width of the slots is at least one-tenth of the diameter of the conduit of the fibers or filaments.

6. The nozzle according to claim 5 wherein the width of the slots is between 0.2 and 0.6 the diameter of the conduit of the fibers or filaments.

7. The nozzle according to claim 1 wherein the depth of the slots is at least one-tenth of the diameter of the conduit of the fibers or filaments.

8. The nozzle according to claim 7 wherein the depth of the slots is between 0.2 and 0.5 the diameter of the conduit of the fibers or filaments.

9. The nozzle according to claim 2 wherein the number of the slots is more than 2 and the slots are equidistant.

10. The nozzle according to claim 3 which is divided in the middle along the length thereof.

11. The device according to claim 1 which is a noule wherein the fluid is introduced in the part between one-fourth and three-fourths of the length of the nozzle.

12. The nozzle according to claim 11 wherein the inlet for fluid is in the middle of the nozzle.

13. A process for entangling fibers or continuous filaments which comprises subjecting a bundle of fibers in a loose form or continuous filaments to the action of a fluid in a confined zone said fluid forming a transversal wave whereby a turbulence is produced at definite intervals, part of the fibers or filaments is twisted and crosses over the remainder, and the fibers or the filaments at the points where part thereof crosses over the remainder thereof, are held firmly and fixed points are formed at definite intervals.

14. The process according to claim 13 wherein between 0.7 and 1.5 cubic meters of air per hour is introduced, the air being the fluid to which the bundle of fibers is subjected to.

15. The device according to claim 1 wherein fluid is directed tangentially to the conduit of the fibers onto a plurality of slots in the same direction.

16. The device according to claim 1 wherein the fluid is directed tangentially to the conduit of the fibers onto a plurality of slots in the opposite direction.

17. A bundle of entangled fibers and filaments prepared by the process of claim 13.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4009563 *Oct 30, 1974Mar 1, 1977Bayer AktiengesellschaftApparatus for false-twisting synthetic filament yarns
USRE32944 *Jun 1, 1977Jun 6, 1989Kissei Yakuhin Kogyo KabushikiAromatic carboxylic amide derivatives
Classifications
U.S. Classification57/333
International ClassificationD02J1/00, D02G1/16
Cooperative ClassificationD02G1/16
European ClassificationD02G1/16