US 3636863 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Woyden  ARRANGEMENT FOR COMPACTING REFUSE  lnventor:
Stanley J. Woyden, Stamford, Conn.
International Patents & Development Corp., Kings Point, NY.
 Filed: Aug.2l, 1969  Appl.No.: 852,005
 US. Cl ..100/49, 53/78, 100/45, 100/51, 100/53, 100/73, 100/99, 100/218, 100/229, 100/269, 141/94, 169/23, 340/213  Int. Cl ..B30b 15/16  Field of Search ..53/67, 78; 99/336; 141/94, 141/140; 340/207, 208, 213; 169/23; 100/49, 51,
[ 1 Jan. 25, 1972 3,229,770 1/1966 Harvey ..169/23 X 3,250,414 5/1966 Pi0ch..... ..100/229 X 3,302,103 1/1967 Ochs .53/78 X 3,354,813 11/1967 Meyer et a1... .99/336 3,430,218 2/1969 Healey ..340/213 3,481,268 12/1969 Price et a1 ..100/49 OTHER PUBLICATIONS Research- Cottrell" A five page pamphlet received in Patent Office on Dec. 13, 1968.
Primary Examiner-Billy .1. Wilhite Attorney-Sparrow and Sparrow 5 7] ABSTRACT A control system for use in conjunction with a hydraulically operated refuse compactor. Input signals derived from sensors and limit switches on the compactor are applied to the controlled system which, in turn, generates controlling signals directed to the proper hydraulic valves, and in the correct sequence. Safety interlocks prevent operation of the machine when possible damage may be incurred in the machine or by the operator.
4 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures PATENTEUJANZSEFZ 3.636.863
SHEET 1 OF 4 FIG. 34
ATTO RN EYS PAYENTEB JAMES i972 3.536.863
sum 2 or 4 siesassa PATENTED mas 1972 SHEET 3 0F 4 ATTORNEYS BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION In the operation of refuse compactors to avoid air pollution, it is an essential requirement to provide a control system for operating the refuse compactor which is extremely reliable in repeated use.
Refuse compactors are generally massive machines operated through the application of hydraulic systems. A hydraulic operating system is the feasible one to use because the compacting ram, for example, which compacts the refuse into a bale of considerably reduced size, requires heavy pressures for accomplishing its task. Large forces and high-intensity pressures are conveniently realized through hydraulic cylintiers and pistons. The mechanism used to eject the compacted bale after its formation, is furthermore, also conveniently operated through hydraulic means. In view of the massive pressures that are available from such hydraulically operated systems, it is desirable to have a controlling arrangement which will apply controlling signals to the proper hydraulic cylinders, through their associated valves, and within the correct sequence of time. If the controlling signals do not occur reliably at each and every instance designated for them, operations may not be performed within a compacting cycle, and a change in the operating sequence may result in injury to the machine. Furthermore, in view of the large forces and pressures which are used to actuate the movable parts of the machine, potential danger prevails with respect to the human operator, in the event that the machine is not operated properly. Accordingly, it is a desideratum of the present invention to overcome the foregoing disadvantages and dangers and to supply an efficient and reliable controlled system.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION A controlled arrangement in which a sensor within the refuse storage space of the compactor initiates a signal for commencing a compacting cycle, when sufficient refuse has been accumulated to constitute a compacted bale. The compacting ram is then actuated to execute reciprocating motion for the purpose of applying pressure to the refuse and thereby form it into a compacted bale. When the applied pressure of the ram reaches a predetermined level, the ram is held stationary, and an ejection portion of the cycle is commenced by opening a door through which the completed bale may be ejected. Ejection is achieved through a hydraulically operated ejecting piston which pushes the compacted bale through the opening left by the opened door.
The machine is stopped from operating whenever the compacting pressure exceeds a predetermined level which may be encountered when an incompressible object becomes intermixed with the refuse, and may cause damage to the machine if the ram were actuated against the object. The machine is also stopped from operating in the event that the oil level within the hydraulic system is too low, or any doors of the machine, through which an operator may become injured, are left open prior to initiating or starting ofthe machine.
Relay elements are used to determine the sequence of the operating cycle and to provide a substantially reliable system requiring little maintenance and operating personnel.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a controlled system for operating a refuse compactor which is reliable in operation.
Another object of the present invention is to provide a controlled system for refuse compactors which may be repetitively used without experiencing excessive wear or requiring substantial maintenance.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide a controlled system for use in conjunction with refuse compactors which will prevent damage to the machine in the event that specific operations within a timing cycle are not carried out satisfactorily.
It is also a specific object of the present invention to provide interlocks through which the machine is prevented from operating in the event that attending personnel may become injured in the operation of the machine.
A further object of the present invention is to provide a controlled system which will render a refuse compactor a fully automatic machine.
Various further and more specific purposes, features and advantages will clearly appear from the detailed description given below taken in connection with the accompanying drawings which form part of this specification and illustrate merely by way of example, an embodiment of the device of the invention.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS In the following description and in the claims, parts will be identified by specific names for convenience, but such names are intended to be as generic in their application to similar parts as the art will permit. Like reference characters denote like parts in the several figures of the drawings, in which FIG. 1 is a functional diagram of a refuse-compacting system controlled through the arrangement of the present invention;
FIG. 2 is an end view of the refuse-compacting system of FIG. 1;
FIGS. 3 to 5 are partial electrical circuit diagrams of the control arrangement for the system of FIG. 1.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS Referring to the drawings, and in particular to FIG. I, refuse is admitted to the compacting machine through a chute or duct 10. After passing through the chute or duct 10 the refuse accumulates within the space 12 of the machine, in front of the compacting piston 14. In the inoperative state, prior to initiating a compacting cycle, the compacting rarn or piston 14 is in the retracted state shown by the solid lines in the drawings. As refuse accumulates within the chamber I2, it reaches eventually the level of a photoelectric sensor 16 mounted within the duct or chute 10. When the light path of the photoelectric cell 16 is interrupted, for a predetermined length of time, through the presence of refuse beyond that level, the compacting ram or piston 14 becomes actuated for the purpose of commencing a compacting cycle. Disinfectant is injected or sprayed into the refuse as it accumulates within the compacting space 12 and prior to initiating a compacting cycle.
Once the compacting ram 14 becomes actuated, it moves reciprocatingly against the refuse in front of the ram within the space 12, so that a compacted bale becomes formed between the piston head 14 and a cooperating abutting portion 18. In practice, the completed bale has a cylindrical cross section which is determined from the shapes of the piston head 14 and the abutting portion or die portion 18. Thus, the frontal part of the piston 14 and the portion 18 may be considered to be die halves which apply a predetermined shape to the compacted bale. For convenience in handling the bale, this shape is often selected to be cylindrical for the bale.
When the hydraulic pressure applied to the piston 14 for compacting the refuse achieves a predetermined level, the refuse bale is considered to be fully compacted, and the ram 14 is stopped, in its motion, in the forward position in which the ram bears against the compacted bale. A door 20 is then withdrawn from an opening beneath the compacted bale which is held in place between the frontal portion of the piston 14 and the die portion 18 cooperating with the piston in forming the bale. The door 20 is-moved hydraulically through a hydraulic cylinder and piston 22 which is linked to the door through the rod 24. The compacting piston 14 is operated through the hydraulic cylinder 15.
Once the door 20 has been fully withdrawn so that a full opening prevails beneath the compacted bale, the ejecting hydraulic cylinder 26 is operated so as to force the piston 28 downward and thereby force the compacted bale within a container 30. The latter is held within a can 32 which becomes advanced beneath the door 20 prior to initiating an ejecting portion of the cycle. The container 30 may be of the disposable type, so that the entire compacted bale and container may then be transported for discarding purposes.
The hydraulic cylinders of the compacting machine are operated through the circuit 34 which includes a motor 36 for operating a hydraulic pump and thereby maintain fluid under pressure within the operating cylinders of the machine. The motor 36 may be operated from a three-phase power supply which is connected to the motor by way of circuit breakers 40 used to protect the motor against overload conditions. The power lines to the motor are also passed through contacts of a relay 42 which becomes deenergized whenever the motor is to be stopped for any reason, such as when a condition arises which may be injurious to the machine or the operator. Thus, each of the three-phase lines for the motor are passed through contacts, 42a, 42b and 42c of the relay 42.
To operate the machine, the switch 44 is transferred to the on" position for the purpose of applying power to the connection path or junction 46.
As refuse drops through the chute or duct and past the photocell 16, the latter becomes momentarily actuated and thereby transmits a signal used to energize a time delay relay 48. The signal used to energize the time delay relay 48 is simultaneously applied to the relay 50 which becomes latched in and thereby maintains the delay relay 48 also energized. During the energized state of the relay 48, a solenoid 52 becomes actuated for the purpose of spraying disinfectant into the refuse being accumulated within the storage space 12. After the time interval associated with the time delay relay 48 has expired, the latter becomes deenergized and, as a result, the relay 50 is also released or deenergized, since it is connected in series with a contact 48a or the relay 48.
The latching feature of the relay 50 results from the contact 50a which is connected in series with the coil of the relay 50. A second contact 50b of the relay 50 causes energization of the solenoid 52 whenever the relay 50 is energized, as determined by the time interval of the relay 48. The latter becomes actuated through contact 16a of the photocell assembly 16.
It is not essential that a photocell be used for detecting the accumulation or the passage of refuse through the chute 10. An ultrasonic device, for example, may also be used for purposes of detecting passage of refuse through the duct. Thus, any disturbance of the ultrasonic pattern established by the device would be registered as a signal which would be processed and used precisely the same as the signal emitted by the photocell 16.
When refuse has accumulated within the duct or chute 10 so that it is stacked beyond or above the level of the photocell 16 or similar functioning sensor, so that this sensor or photocell becomes actuated for a predetermined length of time as, for example, several minutes, the time delay relay 54 becomes energized through the contact 16!) associated with the sensor. in the case of using a photocell for the sensor, the relay 54, for example, becomes energized, as a result of the blockage or interruption of the light path associated with the photocell 16. With the operation of the time delay relay 54, the contact 540 of this relay closes and thereby energizes the relay 56 connected in parallel with a timing motor 58. Once the timing motor becomes thus energized, it becomes latched into this energized stage through the contact 58a which is operated by a cam of the timing motor. The operation of timing motors and their cam-operated switches are well known in the art and will, therefore, not be discussed in detail herein.
Connected in parallel with the timing motor 58 which is arranged to operate for a time interval of, for example, 2% minutes, is a time delay relay 60 having, for example, a delay of minutes. This latter time delay relay 60 is a safety device which stops the operation of the machine through the release or deenergizing of the relay 62 connected in series with a plurality of interlocked switching devices. When the relay 62 becomes thus deenergized or released, a redflashing indicating lamp 64 is turned on and a remotely located bell 66 is sounded. The flasher 64 and bell 66 become operated through the contact 62a of the relay 62. These two indicating devices 64 and 66 are used to register an alarm condition which notifies the operator and attending personnel that an unusual operating condition has arisen.
Whenever such an alarm condition is registered, the relay 68 denoted as an alarm relay and connected in parallel with the flasher 64 and bell 66, is also energized. When this relay 68 becomes actuated, as a result of the presence of an alarm condition, such operation of the relay 68 may also be used to transmit a signal over telephone lines to a remotely located central office for the purpose of dispatching maintenance personnel to the scene of the machine. At the same time, switching contacts associated with the relay 68 may also be used to trigger a portable receiver which may be carried by maintenance personnel located remotely from the compacting machine. When such a portable receiver carried by such personnel becomes triggered, the personnel are informed that their attention is required at the machine. The portable receiver carried by such personnel may also be connected to a buzzer or vibrator which is attached to their clothing for the purpose of attracting their attention. Thus, by connecting a radio signal transmitter 70 across the relay 68, for example, an alarm signal is immediately transmitted to such remotely located personnel, through their portable receiver carried on their person, whenever an alarm condition prevails through the energizing of the relay 68. At the same time, this alarm signal may also be transmitted through a telephone transmitter 72, for example, which may be designed in the form of a conventional device used for dialing a specific number so that the signal may be transmitted over conventional telephone lines to a remotely located central station. in the event that directly connected leased telephone lines are used, it is possible to omit the transmitter 72, since the signal resulting from the energizing of relay 68 will then be directly transmitted to the central station without having to dial a specific number. A lamp, furthermore, may be included with the relay 68 so as to indicate a condition that an alarm has been registered.
Once the timing motor 58 is operating and the relay 56 is energized, a standby lamp 74 is shorted across its terminals, and a compacting lamp 76 is turned on. When the timing motor 58 becomes actuated for the purpose of initiating a compacting cycle, the ram 14 is in the forward position illustrated by the broken lines in FIG. 1. ln this forward position of the compacting ram or piston 14, a limit switch 78 actuated through the motion of the ram, is in the position shown in the drawing. This limit switch 78 is of the toggle switch design, and the switch will not transfer state until the compacting piston or ram 14 has reached its retracted position. The toggle switch 78, may, for example, be actuated through an actuating device mounted directly upon the piston or ram 14. When the latter reaches its forward position, the switch 78 is transfered to the position shown in the drawing. Upon retracting of the piston 14, the actuator leaves the switch 78 in this position, and when the piston 14 has attained its fully retracted position, a second actuator mounted or secured to the piston actuates the toggle switch 78 to the opposite switching position. The spacing between the two actuators mounted or secured to the piston for purposes of actuating the switch 78 is, in this example, equal to the length of stroke of the piston.
Consequently, when power is applied through the limit switch 78, as a result of the operation of the timing motor 58, the solenoid 80 becomes energized for the purpose of retracting the ram. The solenoid 80 is associated with a hydraulic valve by which the cylinder 15 and piston 14 are operated so as to cause retraction of the piston. Upon reaching the retracted position, the piston 14 will cause the transfer of the switch 78 through means of the actuating devices described, and as a result the solenoid 82 becomes energized for causing the ram to move back to the forward position. The solenoid 82 is also associated with a hydraulic valve for the cylinder 15 and piston 14 and is specifically designed so as to direct the hydraulic fluid for pushing the ram into forward position.
When the ram thereby reaches the forward position, the switch 78 is transferred again in position and the reciprocating cycle is repeated. The ram is thus maintained with reciprocating motion for the length of time determined by the timing motor 53, which may, for example, be of the order of 2% minutes. During this interval of operation of the motor 58 and reciprocating motion of the ram 14, the standby lamps 74 is turned off through the shorting contact 56a of the relay 56. The compacting lamp 76 which notifies the operator that the ram is in motion, is, at the same time, turned on.
At the end of the time interval determined by the motor 58, the relay 56 becomes deenergized, and the piston 14 will be directed to move to its forward position, provided that the limit switch 84 is closed. The latter is a momentary contact switch which is cam operated and is in the closed position at all times except when the piston 14 is fully extended in the forward position. Accordingly, when the timing motor 58 ceases to operate, for the purpose of terminating the compacting cycle, the piston 14 is brought to the forward position.
Communicating with the hydraulic fluid lines of the system is a pressure switch 86. When a bale of refuse has been formed through the compacting action of the piston 4, the pressure switch 86 will indicate a predetermined pressure magnitude or pressure intensity. The pressure switch 86 is a conventional device which results in a circuit closure when a preset pressure level is attained. 1n the system of the present invention, this set level of the pressure for the device 86 corresponds to the pressure resisting the compacting piston 14, when the bale of refuse has been fully formed. If such compacting pressure is attained within the time interval established by the motor 58, the switch 86 becomes closed and, as a result, a time delay relay 88 is energized. After the time interval associated with the delay relay 88 has expired, the relay 90 becomes energized and remains in this energized state through the latching contact 90a of this relay 90. The relay 90 is energized as a result of the contact 880 associated with the relay 88. Once the relay 90 is in the energized state, the ejecting lamp 92 becomes turned on.
A limit switch 94 is included for the purpose of initiating immediate ejection of the refuse accumulated within the space 12, should an incompressible object be dropped through the chute 10, which may cause possible damage to the machine. if, for example, a long steel rod is dropped through the chute 10, the piston 14 in its forward stroke will cause the rod to bear against the limit switch 94 located at the position 94a in FIG. 1. With the closure of this switch 94, the ejection cycle becomes initiated. Thus, the switch 94 serves to apply a safety feature to the machine whereby the latter is protected against possible damage resulting from incompressible objects. The location 94a, at the same time, may be used in the form of a cutting edge so that when, for example, a wooden rod is dropped through the chute the ram 14 will cut the wooden rod during its forward motion. Under normal operating conditions, the ejecting portion of the cycle is not begun unless the compacting pressure, as sensed by the device 86, is maintained for a predetermined time interval established by the time delay relay 88. When, however, the switch 94 becomes actuated, the relay 88 is bypassed and the relay 90 is immediately energized so as to initiate an ejecting cycle. By providing the relay 88, assurance is had that the bale will not be ejected prematurely if a higher pressure is developed for only a short time interval during the compacting process and a bale has not, as yet, been completed.
With relay 90 energized, the forward solenoid 82 of the compacting ram also becomes energized through the contact 90b, The ram, therefore, is extended in the forward position, while at the same time, the door solenoid 96 becomes energized through the contact 90c of the relay 90. The switching contact 90b serves to maintain the ram in its extended forward position for the ejecting process, and prevents the ram from creeping back, by maintaining the solenoid 82 energized. In effect, the ram is also extended somewhat more than it is during the compacting process for the purpose of obtaining a firmer packaged or compacted bale prior to ejection. The relay also has a contact 90d for the purpose of maintaining the retracting solenoid 80 for the ram deenergized. This retracting solenoid would normally become energized as a result of the position of the limit switch 78, which assumes the position shown in the drawing, when the ram is in the forward position.
After the solenoid 96 has caused the door 20 to be withdrawn so as to leave an opening beneath the compacted bale, a limit switch 98 on the door is transferred to the closed circuit position. The limit switch 98 is of the momentary contact type of switch which is spring actuated and will be held only in the closed circuitposition provided that the door 20 is in its open position. With the limit switch 98, however, in the closed circuit position while the door is open, the time delay relay I00 becomes energized, The ejection solenoid 10;. becomes, at the same time, energized through the limit switch 104. The limit switch 104 is actuated through the motion of the ejecting piston 28, at the extreme positions of this piston.
When the piston 28 is in its uppermost position, the switch 104 is transferred to the position shown in the drawing, corresponding to the position 104a. The switch 104 is of the toggle type of switch and will remain in this position 1040 until the piston 28 reaches its lowermost position, at which instant the switch 104 is transferred to its position 104b. The position l04b of the switch will then be maintained until the piston again reaches its uppermost position. The actuation of the limit switch 104 through actuators mounted directly upon the piston, or secured thereto, is similar to the arrangement described in relation to the compacting piston 14. Once the ejecting solenoid 102 is energized, the piston 28 is moved downward and the compacted bale is ejected.
The ejecting piston 28 is associated with a second limit switch 106 which is of the momentary contact type and which is mounted so that it becomes actuated when a piston is in its uppermost position. In this uppermost position of the piston, the switch 106 is in the position 106a. For all other positions of the piston, the switch 106 is spring-actuated to the position 106b. Through the contact a of the time delay relay 100, the relay 90 is maintained energized until the limit switch 106 transfers to its position l06b.
When the ejecting piston 28 reaches its lowermost position, the limit switch 104 is transferred to its position 104b and energizes, thereby, the relay 108. With the transfer of the limit switch 104, the ejecting solenoid 102 becomes deenergized. As a result of the contact 108a of the energized relay 108, the motor 110 used to rotate the turntable upon which the cans 32 are situated, becomes energized.
Thus, the cans 32 are mounted upon an endless conveyor 31 which advances an empty can beneath the piston 28, as required, and removes a filled can after the ejecting piston has pushed the compacted bale into the container 30 lining the can 32. Although the contact 1080 will reopen upon deenergizing of the relay 108 when the ejecting piston 28 reaches its uppermost position and thereby transfers switch 104 to position 104a, a limit switch 112 mounted on the turntable maintains the motor 110 energized until a new container or can 32 is positioned properly in place beneath the opening covered by the door 23. The limit switch 106 also serves a safety function by preventing the compacting ram from operating until the ejecting piston 28 has returned to its uppermost position.
A further safety feature of the controlled system of the present invention is provided through the pushbutton type of switch 114. When the latter switch becomes depressed by the operator, for example, the relay 116 becomes energized and remains in this energized state through the latching contact 11611. With the energization of the relay 116, a time delay relay 118 also becomes energized, and remains in this state through the energized state of the relay 116. As a result of the contact 116b, the door solenoid 96 is actuated so as to cause the opening of the door 20. The solenoid 96 is of the spring return design so that when the solenoid becomes deenergized, the valve for actuating the door 20 is transferred to the state wherein the door becomes opened.
Through the contact of 1160, 116d and 116e, furthermore, the motor starting relay 42 becomes energized so as to actuate the compacting ram. The latter becomes retracted through the presence of the relay 120 which is connected in parallel with the relay 116 and is also energized during this interval when the relay 116 is energized.
Through the arrangement of the switching contacts 120a and 120b, the solenoid 80 is energized and the compacting ram is moved into its retracted position. After the elapse of the time interval associated with the relay 118, the relay 116 and 120 again become deenergized through opening of the switching contact 118a. The time delay of the relay 118 is of the order of several seconds required to open the door and retract the compacting ram 14. Consequently, by depressing the pushbutton 114, the door may be opened and the compacting ram may be retracted within several seconds. Another safety feature which prevents damage to the machine is achieved through a pressure-detecting switch 122. The latter detects the condition when the pressure behind the compacting ram 14 exceeds apredetermined level. At that point, the switch 122 is transferred to closed circuit position and energizes, thereby, the relay 124. With the energized state of the relay 124, the machine becomes immediately turned off through the switching contact 124a. Through the contact 124b the red-flashing light 64 becomes actuated and the bell 66 becomes sounded. At the same time, the lamp 126 becomes turned on so as to indicate that a maximum pressure condition as sensed by the device 122 has resulted.
The pressure-sensing device 122 is similar to that of 86, with the exception that the device 122 has been set to provide a circuit closure when the pressure level exceeds a predetermined limit which is substantially above that for which a circuit closure is realized through the device 86. By noting the lamp 126, the operator may immediately determine why the machine has stopped and apply, therefore, corrective action. The pressure sensor 122 would become actuated, for example, when an incompressible steel rod has dropped into the machine and is blocking the free motion of the compacting ram. Under such circumstances, it is desirable to protect the machine from becoming damaged as a result of developing excessive pressures and, for this reason, the switch 122 is provided to shut off the machine.
Connected in parallel with the high-pressure switch 122, is also another pole of the manually operated switch 114 for retracting the compacting ram. Thus, when this switch 114 is depressed, the conditions resulting from closure of the switch 122 are also simulated.
The control system, in accordance with the present invention, has several other safety features through which the machine becomes turned off and is prevented from operating, so as to prevent damage to the operator or to the machine itself, Thus, in the event that a fire prevails within the machine as a result of, for example, the dropping of inflammable chemicals or similar materials into the machine from the chute 10, a thermal switch 128 becomes actuated and transfers to the position 1280 where it energizes the solenoid valve 130. The thermal switch 128 is a temperature-detecting switch constructed of a bimetallic element which will perform a switching action when the temperature to which the switch is subjected to exceeds a predetermined limit. With the energizing of the solenoid 130, a sprinkler built into the machine will become actuated for the purpose of extinguishing the fire. This sprinkler may, at the same time, be also used as a cleaning agent for the machine. By actuating the pushbutton 132 it is possible to energize the solenoid valve 130 without the action of the switch 128. Thus, the operator may, at any time, depress a pushbutton 132 for the purpose of energizing the solenoid 136 and thereby actuate the sprinkler system for cleaning the interior of the machine. Whenever a tire is, however, registered through the transfer of the switch 128 to the position 128a, the lamp 132 is turned on for the purpose of informing the operator of this condition. At all other times, the lamp 132 is shortened through the contact of the switch 128. The machine becomes stopped when the switch 128 does become actuated, because the relay 62 becomes deenergized.
it is also desired to stop the machine from operating when all of the cans 32 have been filled, and none are further available for receiving additional bales of compacted refuse. Under these circumstances, a limit switch 134 mounted upon the conveyor 31 becomes transferred to the open circuit position and thereby deenergizes the relay 62. The lamp 136 becomes simultaneously turned on with the actuation of the limit switch 134 so as to indicate the reason for the stoppage of the machine.
To protect the operator from possible injury while the machine is in motion, a limit switch 138 becomes actuated and deenergizes the relay 62 for turning off the machine, in the event that the inspection doors to the machine are left open, so that any person may have access to the interior of the machine and thereby incur possible injury while the machine is in operation. Whenever the machine becomes turned off as a result of the actuation of the limit switch 138, the lamp 140 lights to indicate this condition.
If, for any reason whatsoever, the motor 36 draws overload current, the circuit breaker 40 becomes actuated to deenergize the relay 62 and light, at the same time, the lamp 41 for the purpose of indicating the reason for the nonoperating condition of the machine.
Should the temperature of the oil used for the hydraulic fluid in the operating system of the compactor exceed a predetermined limit, the thermal switch 142 becomes actuated and deenergizes the relay 62 for stopping the machine. The switch 142 may be in the form of a bimetallic element which becomes actuated at a predetermined temperature level. When the switch 142 has become thus actuated through a temperature which is considered too high for the oil within the hydraulic system, the lamp 144 becomes lighted to indicate this condition.
If, on the other hand, the level of the oil within the hydraulic system is too low, a level-indicating switch 146 becomes actuated and the lamp 148 is lighted so as to indicate this condition, whereby the operator may take appropriate action to replenish the oil that may have been lost from the system.
If, in the event that photocell 16 becomes defective or soiled, so that the time delay relay 60 becomes actuated, the switching contact 60a opens for the purpose of deenergizing the relay 62 and, at the same time, indicate the inoperative condition through the lamp 150. The time delay relay or timer 60 is, for example, set for a 15-minute time interval, and should a compacting cycle not have been fully carried out by that time and the light path of the photo cell 16 have been cleared, it may be concluded that the photo cell requires attention or maintenance, and the operator is alerted to this condition through the lamp 150 turned on as a result of the switching contact 60a being transferred to open circuit condition.
To prevent disturbances to residents of a building during the night as a result of the operation of the compacting machine, a timer 152 is provided which will open the circuit to the relay 62 and thereby deenergize the latter, when the time set on the timer 152 is exceeded. Thus, the timer 152 may be set so as to maintain its switching contact open during the night hours of each day, and thereby maintain the machine in the inoperative state. A lamp 154 indicates this condition when the timer 152 has rendered the machine inoperative.
Accordingly, the relay 62 may become deenergized whenever one of a series of conditions prevail, during which it is desirable to have the machine inoperative. All of the switching devices which are actuated to disconnect the machine from the line are all connected in series and, at the same time, in series with the coil to the relay 62.
Whenever any one of these series-connected switches becomes actuated, the switch opens its respective lamp circuit and permits the lamp, thereby, to light. At all other times, the switching contact short circuits the lamp and thereby maintains the lamp in the turned-off state.
Resistors 200 to 206 are connected to the respective lamps for the purpose of assuring that the correct voltage appears across the lamp when the corresponding switching contact for the lamp is opened.
While it may, at times, be possible to operate the compacting machine during the night without producing disturbances to residents in the vicinity, it may not be desirable to sound the bell 66 in the event that an alarm condition is realized. The flashing lamp 64 and bell 66 are normally actuated whenever the relay 62 is deenergized or the relay 124 becomes energized. Under these conditions, when the bell 66 is not desired to sound, a switch 158 may be transferred to the circuit-open position so as to prevent actuation of the bell. By linking the switch 158 to a timer 156, it is possible to automatically turn off the bell 66 during the night hours, for example. Thus, by setting the night timer 156 similar to that described in relation to the night timer 152, it is possible to deactivate the bell 66 during specific hours of the night.
lf, for any reason, the control system develops defective operation so that an excess of current is drawn, a circuit breaker 160 disconnects the entire control system from the line. The circuit breaker 162 is provided, on the other hand, to disconnect the turntable motor 110 from the line, in the event that this motor draws excess current through overload or defective operation.
If the machine has been stopped for any reason, and it is desirable to reset the machine for continued operation, the switch 44 is transferred to the Reset position and then to the On position. Through such actuation of the switch 44, the relay 124 becomes deenergized when the switch is in the Reset" position, and consequently the control circuitry will have been reset to an operative state when the switch is returned to the *On position.
A pushbutton 164 permits the operator to index the turnta ble or conveyor 31 manually without applying the automatic system, of the present invention. Thus, by depressing the pushbutton 164, the relay 108 becomes energized and as a result the motor 110 becomes operated through the contact 108. The operator is free to depress the pushbutton 164 any number of times for the purpose of advancing the cans 32, or setting the conveyor or turntable 31 into motion. Switching contacts 56b, 62b, and l24c of relays 56, 62, and 124 respectively, assure that their circuit branches operate in the proper sequence in relation to the overall operating phases of the controlled system.
While the invention has been described and illustrated with respect to a certain preferred example, it will be understood by those skilled in the art after understanding the principle of the invention, that various changes and modifications may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
1. An arrangement for compacting refuse comprising, in combination, refuse storage means for storing and accumulating refuse to be compacted; detection means communicating with said storage means for detecting when a predetermined quantity of refuse has been accumulated within said storage means; hydraulic-oil-actuated pressure-applying means operatively connected to said detection means for applying pressure to said predetermined quantity of refuse and forming into a compacted mass of refuse, said pressure-applying means being actuated through said detection means when a predetermined quantity of refuse has been accumulated; pressure-sensing means connected to said pressure-applying means for sensing when the pressure applied to said quantity of refuse has attained a predetermined level, said quantity of refuse being formed into a compacted mass when said predetermined level of pressure has been attained; closure means for opening and closing said refuse storage means and operatively connected to said pressure-sensing means for opening said storage after said predetermined level of pressure has been attained, said compacted mass being removable from said storage means after opening thereof; ejecting means actuated in response to the opening of said storage means by said means for opening and closing said refuse storage means, said ejecting means forcing said compacted mass from said storage means when opened; access door means for access to the interior of said refuse-compacting arrangement' container means for receiving said compacted mass of refuse after being e ected from said storage means; conveying means for conveying a plurality of container means in sequence to to said storage means for receiving said compacted mass in sequence; and alarm-indicating means for indicating an alarm signal when predetermined undesirable operating conditions prevail, said alarm-indicating means comprising lamp means emitting a light signal upon presence of a tire within said refuse-compacting arrangement, upon the number of containers available for conveying to said storage means for receiving said compacted mass being exhausted, upon opening of said access door means, upon overloading said oil-actuated pressure-applying means, upon rise in temperature of said oil above a predetermined level, upon decrease of said oil below a predetermined level, and upon inoperativeness of said detection means.
2. The arrangement according to claim 1 wherein said lamp means comprises a bank of interconnected lamps, each lamp indicating one of said undesirable operating conditions, and a bank of interconnected switches for actuating said lamps, each lamp being actuated by one switch so that said lamp is extinguished when said switch bridges said lamp and said lamp lights when said switch is in open position.
3. The arrangement according to claim 1 including radiotransmitting means for transmitting said alarm signal to a remotely located radio receiver.
4. The arrangement according to claim 1 including means for transmitting said alarm signal through conventional telephone line to a remote location.