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Publication numberUS3636975 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 25, 1972
Filing dateFeb 2, 1970
Priority dateFeb 2, 1970
Publication numberUS 3636975 A, US 3636975A, US-A-3636975, US3636975 A, US3636975A
InventorsChester A Kirkman, Russell D Kirkman, Wesson A Kirkman
Original AssigneeChester A Kirkman, Russell D Kirkman, Wesson A Kirkman
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Utility arrangement and construction for revolving structures
US 3636975 A
Abstract
A revolving structure having toilets, wash basins, sinks, tubs, and other utilities mounted therein so that the utilities rotate with the structure. The revolving structure is mounted on a base or turntable which is centrally provided with a hub casing, and an annular waste gland has a chamber member and a cover plate axially positioned relative to the annular hub casing. The chamber member is fixed against rotation and is mounted on a fixed foundation member while the cover member is rotated by the hub casing as the revolving structure rotates. Waste material from the utilities is directed through the cover plate into the chamber member in such a manner that the waste material is directed to a waste outlet leading to the sewage system as the structure rotates. A water gland is positioned centrally of the waste gland and supported by the waste gland. The water gland is annular and provided with a nonrotatable outwardly facing annular chamber which is closed by a ring which is revolved as the structure revolves. The ring forming with the annular chamber a water manifold, with suitable piping communicating with the manifold for delivering water to the utilities in the revolving structure.
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itirltinan et all. 1451 ,ian. l 1972 [54] IUTHMT! ARANGEMENT AND FOREIGN PATENTS 0R APPLICATIONS QUNSTRUCTIQN FUR REVWJWNG 120,640 11/1918 Great Britain ..285/l90 S'TlillU CTlUES [72] Inventors: Russell D. lKirltman, 857 Ruland St., San Francisco, Calif.; Chester A. lKirltman, 128 Romley Drive 8., San Francisco, Calif. 94080; Wesson A. Kirkman, 9 Linnell Ave., Napa, Calif. 94558 [22] Filed: lFeb.2,1970

[21} Appl.No.: 7,554

[52] U.S. Cl ..137/580, 52/65 [51] Int. Cl 1 1 ..Fl6l 27/08 Primary Examiner-Henry T. Klinksiek All0rneyJ. Calvin Brown [57] ABSTRACT A revolving structure having toilets, wash basins, sinks, tubs, and other utilities mounted therein so that the utilities rotate with the structure, The revolving structure is mounted on a base or turntable which is centrally provided with a hub casing, and an annular waste gland has a chamber member and a cover plate axially positioned relative to the annular hub casing. The chamber member is fixed against rotation and is mounted on a fixed foundation member while the cover member is rotated by the hub casing as the revolving structure rotates. Waste material from the utilities is directed through the cover plate into the chamber member in such a manner that the waste material is directed to a waste outlet leading to the sewage system as the structure rotates. A water gland is positioned centrally of the waste gland and supported by the waste gland. The water gland is annular and provided with a nonrotatable outwardly facing annular chamber which is closed by a ring which is revolved as the structure revolves. The ring forming with the annular chamber a water manifold, with suitable piping communicating with the manifold for delivering water to the utilities in the revolving structure.

9 Claims, 1111 Drawing Figures IZI UTILITY ARRANGEMENT AND CONSTRUCTION FOR REVOLVING STRUCTURES BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to rotary structures such as buildings, houses and individual floors of a building which may be independently rotated as desired.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART The present invention is an improvement as to certain features of a rotary house base as disclosed by us in US. Pat. No. 2,563,531 granted Aug. 7, I951, and wherein various utilities such as water, gas mains, electrical conduits and sewage disposal units were adequately and efficiently installed in the structure in a manner which permitted the entire structure to rotate without interference by or from the utilities. The inventors believe that their patent was the first to disclose a structure wherein the utilities would rotate with the platform carrying various rooms such as kitchen, bath, toilet and so on. Most installations with which the inventors are aware, provided rooms such as bedrooms, living room and the like, but the utilities were stationary and did not rotate with the rooms. Thus a person entering a room while the platform upon which said room was built is rotating would have no indication as to where the bathroom might be when leaving the room. This fact is true of various restaurants which have an annular type platform which rotates with a stationary center containing utility rooms such as a kitchen, bath, toilet and the like. This problem is not encountered with our invention and the present invention constitutes an improvement in the utility construction for a rotary structure whether it is a multilevel structure having revolving apartments at different levels, or a single platform or base for a house or other dwelling.

An object of the invention is the provision of an improved sewage system for a rotary structure.

A further object is the provision of improved utility means such as for water, gas, entering and leading to various fixtures in a rotary structure.

A further object is the provision of an improved sewage disposal means for rotary structure which is positive in its action and assures disposal from the rotary structure of all sewage.

A further object is the provision of a water-supply system for a rotary structure wherein the water is assured against any contamination.

A further object includes an improved construction for rotary structures for distributing water to the fixtures in said structure and wherein the structure will handle the water under substantially any pressure without leakage and will operate in a positive manner.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. I is a fragmentary, vertical sectional view taken on the line ll-ll of FIG. 5, sheet 3;

FIG. 2, sheet 2, is an enlarged vertical sectional view of the upper and rotatable portion of the waste gland and associated elements of the invention;

FIG. 2, sheet 2, is an enlarged, fragmentary sectional view of a part of the waste gland;

FIG. 3, sheet 2, is a fragmentary, vertical sectional view of the nonrotatable portion of the waste gland and other ele ments;

FIG. 4 is a detached and partially sectional view of a part of the water gland;

FIG. 5 is a fragmentary, partially sectional plan view on the line 5-5 of FIG. ll;

FIG. 6 is a fragmentary, partially sectional view on an enlarged scale, taken substantially on the lines 66 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 7, sheet l, is an enlarged fragmentary sectional view on the line 7-7 of FIG. 5, sheet 3;

FIG. 8, sheet I, is a fragmentary, sectional view taken on the line h-tl of FIG. 7;

FIG. 9, sheet 2, is an enlarged fragmentary, sectional view of a gland connector for a gas line; and,

FIG. III), sheet 3, is a fragmentary, enlarged sectional view, taken on the line III-Iil of FIG. ti.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS The present invention is directed to improvements in the sewage system for a rotary house or other structure and to improved means for directing potable water into the structure for distribution to various utilities therein. A detailed explanation of a rotary structure generally is set forth in our US. Pat. No. 2,563,531 heretofore referred to. Said patent discloses a means for handling waste products from fixtures, as well as the handling of utilities such as water, gas, electricity and telephone lines and the present devices are directed specifically to improvements as set forth. Referring to FIG. 1, the center of rotation for the house base is shown and it is at the center that the utilities are arranged. Thus, we provide as in our US. Pat. No. 2,563,53 l a foundation I, the usual masonry 2 and bearing supports 3 secured to the masonry by bolting as shown at A. The bearing supports carry not only the nonrotatable portions of the structure or assembly, but also support the rotatable portions in a manner to be described.

A pivot hub casing III is provided at the center of rotation of the rotary structure, the hub casing rotates with the turntable, platform, or base and the hub encloses in part the sewage disposal assembly as well as the water intake and gas intake leading from a source of supply to fixtures in the structure. This hub is provided at its base with a hearing or pivot plate II of annular form and is supported by an annular baseplate I2, the baseplate in turn being carried by the bearing support or supports 3. A thrust bearing is provided between the plates 11 and 12. In addition, an inner ring 113 bears against the inner edge of the base plate and a lower portion of the inner surface of the hub to stabilize rotation of the hub relative to the baseplate and other structure.

The waste gland assembly is designated by 2i) as an entirety and said assembly, as shown in the Figures, is centrally disposed relative to the hub. The waste gland assembly 20 includes fixed and rotatable elements 2I and 22 respectively. Element 211 constitutes a chamber or trough of annular form of substantially U-shape cross section, the chamber being dimensioned to have a varying depth. The chamber member sides at the upper ends thereof are internally and externally provided with stepped flanges as shown at 23 and 24 respectively. The steps in each instance are of annular form and the construction is such that the dimension of the chamber is not diminished by the step portions, both inner and outer steps, are inwardly extending and outwardly extending as shown. The member 22 is a cover plate of annular dome form provided with outwardly stepped flanges 26 and 27 which are complementary to the steps of the flanges 23 and 2A.

The chamber or trough member 21 has a hub 30 which communicates with the interior of the chamber member and outwardly thereof and is connected to an adjustable elbow 311. The outlet from the elbow is connected to the main sewage disposal pipe indicated in dotted lines at 32. As shown in FIG. I, the foundation I and masonry 2 are formed to accommodate the elbow and the main outlet sewage line. The elbow may be secured to the end of the hub 30 in any approved manner such as by providing a flange 33 with a gasket 34 between the flange and the end of the hub with bolts or screw means between the flange and the hub for holding the parts in working relationship.

The stepped flanges of both members 21 and 22 are machined to close tolerances and stepped gaskets AI) and All are provided between the stepped flanges of said members to effectively seal and prevent gases from escaping from the unit. The stepped flanges of the cover plate are preferably coated with ceramic or comparable material to aid in reducing friction where said steps are in contact with the gaskets A0 and AI. The cover plate has a drip ring at A2 and the drip ring is coated with ceramic or similar material to aid in preventing rust from forming thereon. This is true also of the step portions 26 and 27. The cover plate 22 is provided with a hub or bell 415 which communicates with the interior of the cover plate and an inlet elbow 46 has its spigot end received in the bell. Packing 61 is provided between the bell and spigot end, see FIG. 7. Elbow 46 is passed through a port 47 in the pivot hub casing 10. This elbow in turn communicates with suitable piping from the waste-receiving fixtures in the dwelling or other structure.

It is essential that the pivot hub casing be held firmly seated relative to the chamber member 21 and for this purpose a stabilizer bar 50 is secured by bolts at its ends to lugs 51 and 52 internally secured to the hub 10. The top of the cover plate 22 is externally enlarged to provide a pair of diametrically positioned bosses 53 and 54 and pins 55, FIG. 2, pass through bores in the stabilizer bar 50 and in turn are passed through soft metal bushings 56 which engages the bosses S3 and 54 in each instance and into a bore 57 of each boss. A coil spring 58 is positioned between the bushings and the stabilizer bar, whereby the cover plate is held in close engagement with the chamber member. In addition, the stabilizer bar 50 together with the pins 55 cause turning movement or rotation of the cover plate relative to the chamber member 21 when the hub is rotated. Hub 10 is rotated when the building or other structure rotates as the hub is the center of rotation of such a structure.

As shown in FIGS. 1, 7 and 8, the bell 45 extends within the cover plate and the inner end of said bell carries a directional elbow 60. Thus when the base structure is rotated to rotate the hub 10 and the connected cover plate 22, the directional elbow 60 moves within the chamber member 21 and as waste material is directed to the waste elbow into the directional elbow, the directional elbow causes the waste material to move forwardly of the direction of rotation of said elbow to be received in said elbow 31 and hence into the sewer pipe 32. Thus the waste material does not move in two directions when received within the chamber member 21 but moves in one direction through use of the directional elbow 60. Rotation of the directional elbow is through 360 and will, therefore, move any waste matter that lacks buoyancy to the hub 30. An access opening having a removable cover is provided in the cover plate 22 at 22a.

The entire waste gland assembly is supported by brackets 62 depending from the top flange 63 of bearing support 3. The brackets extend beneath the flange 24 as shown in FIGS. 1 and 3.

The annular water gland assembly designated as 70 is positioned axially of the center of rotation of the hub 10 and is in part nested within the center of the waste gland assembly 20. However, the water gland assembly is free from any contamination by the waste gland assembly and said assemblies are so related as to give stability to the structures. The annular water gland assembly includes a body formed in two parts, viz upper and lower plates 71 and 72, FIG. 10. Both plates are of substantially annular form and the upper plate 71 has a central hub 73 which extends above and below the upper and lower surfaces of said plate, as shown at 74 and 75. The lower plate 72 is centrally socketed at 76 to receive the portion 75 of the hub 73. The lower plate is provided with an annular machined step flange or shoulder 77 and the step is provided with an annular groove 78. The top plate is provided with an annular groove 79 which has the same radius of curvature as the groove 78. The grooves when the parts are assembled, as shown in FIG. 10, are in alignment. A gasket 80 is placed between the two plates where they coengage and the two plates are held together by bolts 81, in the present instance four equidistantly spaced bolts as shown in FIG. 6, the bolts being passed through transverse bores 82 in the plate 71 for reception in threaded transverse bores 83, in the plate 72. The annular grooves 78 and 79 both are provided with gaskets 84 and 85 which conform to the groove sections, which in the present instance are U-shaped. The gaskets may be of any material, plastic, vulcanized rubber, or the like. Received between the gaskets 84 and 85 is a ring 86, in the present instance preferably formed of brass. The ring 86 lies between and is in engagement with the gaskets 84 and 85 and may be regulated as to pressure engagement therebetween by varying the thickness of gasket 80. When the ring 86 is positioned, as shown in the Figures, particularly FIG. 10, an annular water manifold is provided at 87. Water is directed by a pipe 90 in the foundation from a water source into a pipe 91 secured to the plate 72, the pipe communicating with a bore 92 in the plate and leading to the manifold 87. The outlet for the water from the manifold is through a pipe 93 communicating with the manifold and passed through the ring 86, as shown at 94. The pipe and the ring may be secured together in any suitable manner. The spacing between the step 77 of the lower plate 72 and the upper plate 71 is such as to allow clearance for the pipe 93 therebetween. Pipe 93, in turn, through a suitable coupling communicates in the present instance with a flexible conduit 94a which in turn connects by union 96 passed through hub 10 with various fixtures in the structure.

To stabilize the ring 86, a pair of diametric tie bars 100 and 101 are secured to the ring in any suitable manner such as by welding. Each bar adjacent its outer end is transversely bored, see FIG. 2, Sheet 2, at 102 to allow the flanged bushing 56 to loosely pass therethrough. The assembly, as previously stated, is maintained centrally of the waste gland assembly and to this end the lower plate 72 is provided with an annular step 104. The annular step 104 has the same diameter as the top step of the flange 23 of the chamber member 21. Thus the lower plate member 72 seats on the flange of the chamber member in the manner shown in FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 at 105. Transverse bleed ports 106 extend through the uppermost step of flange 23 so that in case of any water leak the water may be conducted from the area to drop upon the foundation 1.

The gasline 121 is passed axially upwardly by means of a pipe 122 through central bores in the annular water gland plates 71 and 72, as shown in FIG. 10 at 122 and 123 through a stuffing box designated generally as 124. This stuffing box, as shown in FIG. 9, is of ordinary construction. Pipe 125 leads from the stuffing box and is connected with different fixtures in the rotary structure. The pipe 121 is also passed centrally through an annular mercury cup 126 for telephone lines. This is not detailed.

The operation, uses and advantages of the invention are as follows.

It is assumed that a rotary structure of some character such as disclosed in US. Pat. No. 2,563,531, is utilized and that said structure is rotated by suitable means. The annular waste gland is installed in the structure, particularly the turntable or the rotary base as well as installation of the annular water gland and that both glands communicate in one instance with a sewer pipe leading from the waste gland and to a water supply pipe leading to the water gland and through piping to fixtures in the structure. The hub 10 is fixed to the rotary base or turntable so that it is rotated as the base or turntable turns. The hub, in turn, rotates the annular cover plate 22 relative to chamber member 21. Thus, referring to FIG. 1, the masonry 2 is secured to the foundation 1 and is nonrotatable while members such as the hub 10 rotate upon the baseplate 12. Usually the waste gland assembly which includes the chamber member 21 and the cover plate 22, is formed of grey cast iron and has considerable weight which helps to stabilize the annular waste gland assembly during a slow rotation of the annular cover plate. Furthennore the stabilizer bar 50 stabilizes the annular cover plate during turning thereof relative to waste chamber member 21. Rotation of the cover plate is assured due to said stabilizer bar and its connection with the cover plate through the medium of the pins 55. The springs 58 surrounding the pins 55 constantly urge the stepped flanged portions of the cover plate into engagement with the gaskets on the step flange surfaces of the chamber member 21. Thus there is an effective seal and one that assures that sewer gases and the like will not escape from the annular waste gland assembly. Sewage moves through the inlet elbow 46 through the bell 45 into the waste gland chamber 21 by being directed therein by the directional elbow 60. As the annular cover plate moves counterclockwise relative to the waste gland chamber 21,

directional elbow as imparts longitudinal movement to the waste material as it is dropped into the chamber, for directing the waste material towards elbow 311 for disposal in sewer pipe 32. Hence light waste material as well as heavy waste material are assured of disposal by the sewage system. As the waste material is moved by the rotation of the directional elbow 360, the sewage, by being directed ahead of the outlet of said elbow, will move into the hub 30 and dropped downwardly into the adjustable elbow 3i and thence into pipe 32. This is to be noted for the reason that there is a direct gravity drop of the waste material rather than having a sewage outlet pipe connecting with the chamber 211 on a slope. The system shown directly discharges the waste material. This results in the waste material not building up in the chamber member.

The water gland provides a positive means which will function for a long period of time without leak and which will handle water under any pressure. Water is delivered from a source into a manifold chamber b7 and from the manifold chamber through suitable piping to fixtures within the house or other structure. All machined surfaces are provided with suitable gaskets and the annular ring 86 prevents leakage of water from the manifold. Furthermore, both the water gland and the waste gland structures are easily disassembled or reassembled without complication. Perhaps it is unnecessary to state that the waste gland assembly, as well as the water gland, will be of a size capable of handling either the waste or the water necessary in a particular structure and the number of fixtures accommodated in said structure.

We claim:

ll. A water gland for a rotary structure comprising: two plates separated in part to provide a water manifold to receive water from a water source, said plates formed with oppositely facing annular grooves and a ring bridging said grooves and forming the outer wall of the manifold, and piping extending through said ring and communicating with the manifold in the rotary structure.

2. The device as set forth in claim 11: with the addition of means for holding the water gland plates fixed against rotation, and means for rotating the ring.

3. A water gland for a rotary structure, including: a pair of plates secured together to provide an outwardly open manifold, a ring positioned between said plates and rotatable relative to the plates, the ring enclosing the outwardly open manifold, means for supplying water to said manifold, and tubing extending through said ring and communicating with the manifold for conducting water from the manifold.

4. A revolving structure having a base with utilities carried by said revolving structure to move therewith as the structure rotates, the improvement which consists in: a central annular hub casing secured to the base, an annular waste gland centrally positioned relative to the annular hub casing, the waste gland having a fixed chamber of annular form, a complemental cover plate in rotatable, fluidtight relationship therewith, conduit means leading from the waste utilities carried by said structure and communicating with the waste gland chamber through said cover plate, outlet means communicating with the interior of the waste gland chamber and with a sewer disposal system, a directional elbow in communication with the interior of said waste gland chamber for receiving waste from said conduit means, said directional elbow acting to impart longitudinal movement to the waste as it is dropped in said waste gland chamber, for directing the waste towards said outlet means, a fixed foundation member beneath the waste gland chamber, and means between the foundation member and the waste gland chamber for supporting the waste gland.

5. A revolving structure having a base with utilities carried by said revolving structure to move therewith as the structure rotates, the improvement which consists in: a central annular hub casing secured to the base, an annular waste gland centrally positioned relative to the annular hub casing, the waste gland having a fixed chamber of annular form, a complemental cover plate in rotatable, fluidtight relationship therewith,

said waste chamberbeing substantially U-shaped in cross section and provided with outer and inner step flanges, said cover plate being provided with step flanges complementary to the step flanges of the waste chamber, sealing gaskets between the step flanges of the cover plate and of the waste chamber, conduit means leading from the waste utilities carried by said structure communicating with the waste gland chamber through said cover plate, outlet means communicating with the interior of the waste gland chamber and with a sewer disposal system, a fixed foundation member beneath the waste gland chamber, and means between the foundation member and the waste gland chamber for supporting the waste gland.

6. A revolving structure having a base with utilities carried by said revolving structure to move therewith as the structure rotates, the improvement which consists in a central annular hub casing secured to the base, an annular waste gland centrally positioned relative to the annular hub casing, the waste gland having a fixed chamber of annular form, a complemen' tal cover plate in rotatable, fluidtight relationship therewith, a stabilizer bar secured diametrically to the annular hub casing, spring means extending between the stabilizer bar and the cover plate for urging the cover plate into pressure engagement with the waste gland chamber, pins secured to the cover plate and the stabilizer bar whereby the cover plate is rotated when the annular hub casing is rotated, conduit means leading from the waste utilities carried by said structure and communicating with the waste gland chamber through said cover plate, outlet means communicating with the interior of the waste gland chamber and with a sewer disposal system, a fixed foundation member beneath the waste gland chamber, and means between the foundation member and the waste gland chamber for supporting the waste gland.

7. A revolving structure having a base with utilities carried by said revolving structure to move therewith as the structure rotates, the improvement with consists in: a central annular hub casing secured to the base, an annular waste gland centrally positioned relative to the annular hub casing, the waste gland having a fixed chamber of annular form, a complemental cover plate in rotatable, fluidtight relationship therewith, conduit means leading from the waste ultilities carried by said structure and communicating with the waste gland chamber through said cover plate, outlet means communicating with the interior of the waste gland chamber and with a sewerdisposal system, a fixed foundation member beneath the waste gland chamber, means between the foundation member and the waste gland chamber for supporting the waste gland, and a water gland centrally positioned within the annular hub casing, said water gland comprising two members, a ring between said two members to provide an enclosed manifold, a source of water supply in communication with the manifold, piping connected to said ring and communicating with the manifold and with water utilities in the rotary structure for delivering the water from the manifold to the water utilities, and means between the manifold ring and the cover plate of the waste gland for rotating said ring when the waste gland cover plate is rotated.

h. The device as set forth in claim il, said second named means comprising tie bars.

9. The device as set forth in claim 11, and means between the water gland and the waste gland for supporting the water gland.

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3851663 *Jul 18, 1973Dec 3, 1974Circle Milking IncRotary coupling for rotating milking parlors
US3910309 *Apr 8, 1974Oct 7, 1975Kaiser Heinz WRotatable coupling for fluid and electrical services
US3933400 *May 30, 1974Jan 20, 1976Raytheon CompanyRevolving kitchen package
US4019292 *Jun 19, 1975Apr 26, 1977Enrique PedroRotary structure for the support of loads
US4353608 *Jun 19, 1980Oct 12, 1982Massau Julien GSystem of collectors for conduits in a dwelling
US4644707 *Jun 8, 1984Feb 24, 1987Aubourg Peter LRotatable building frame
US4805738 *Aug 20, 1987Feb 21, 1989Mark VaydaTimed cycle single stop shopping facility
US5016736 *Jan 23, 1990May 21, 1991Mark VaydaTimed cycle single stop shopping facility
US5113974 *Jan 23, 1989May 19, 1992Mark VaydaTimed cycle single stop shopping facility
US5755160 *Jun 7, 1995May 26, 1998Blufordcraving; Charles NathanielRotating floor for motor vehicles
US5918424 *Feb 20, 1998Jul 6, 1999Rice; JamesAccommodation units
US6742308 *Oct 13, 2000Jun 1, 2004Albert E. Johnstone, IIISwivel joint apparatus and method for utility supply to a rotatable building
US7032353 *Nov 17, 2003Apr 25, 2006Al Johnstone, IIISwivel joint apparatus and method for utility supply to a rotatable building
US7107725 *Aug 29, 2001Sep 19, 2006Albert E. Johnstone, IIISwivel joint apparatus and method for utility supply to a rotatable building
US7536831May 31, 2006May 26, 20093Sixty Technologies, LlcRotatable building
US20020045383 *Aug 29, 2001Apr 18, 2002Johnstone Albert E.Swivel joint apparatus and method for utility supply to a rotatable building
US20040103594 *Nov 17, 2003Jun 3, 2004Johnstone Albert E.Swivel joint apparatus and method for utility supply to a rotatable building
US20060201071 *May 31, 2006Sep 14, 2006Johnstone Albert E IiiRotatable building
EP0022119A2 *Jun 17, 1980Jan 7, 1981Julien MassauSystem of collectors for pipes in an orientable dwelling
EP0022119A3 *Jun 17, 1980Mar 18, 1981Julien MassauSystem of collectors for pipes in an orientable dwelling
WO2002031277A1Oct 10, 2001Apr 18, 2002Johnstone, Janet, L.Swivel joint apparatus and method for utility supply to a rotatable building
Classifications
U.S. Classification137/580, 52/65
International ClassificationE03D11/12, E04B1/346, F16L39/06
Cooperative ClassificationF16L39/06, E03D11/12, E04B1/3465
European ClassificationE04B1/346B, F16L39/06, E03D11/12