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Publication numberUS3638224 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 25, 1972
Filing dateApr 24, 1970
Priority dateApr 24, 1970
Publication numberUS 3638224 A, US 3638224A, US-A-3638224, US3638224 A, US3638224A
InventorsMarion C Bailey, William F Croswell
Original AssigneeNasa
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Stacked array of omnidirectional antennas
US 3638224 A
Abstract
A stacked vertically polarized collinear array of a plurality of independently fed omnidirectional antennas operating at different frequencies. Each antenna consists of an array of five circumferential slots in the outer conductor of a dielectric filled shorted coaxial transmission line with a hollow center conductor for feed leads to pass through.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Unied States atent Bailey et al. [4 1 Jan. 25, 1972 [54] STACKED ARRAY ()F [56] References Cited ()MNIDIRECTIONAL ANTEP JNAS UNITED STATES PATENTS [721 Mari Bailey Blacksburg; William 2,455,224 ll/l948 Buchwalter etal. ..343/769 Cmswell, Hampton 2,744,249 5/1956 Shively et al 73 Assignee; The United states f America as 2,97l,l93 2/l96l Siukola ..343/770 represented by the Administrator of the I National Aeronautics and Space Admlnis- 'y m Lubcl'man m Attorney-Wilham H. King, Howard J. Osborn and John R. Manning [22] Filed: Apr. 24, 1970 [2!] Appl. No.: 31,703 {57] ABSTRACT A stacked vertically polarized collinear array of 11 plurality of 52] us. c1 ..343/771 343/893 independemly fed midimclional mamas [51] Int Cl A l nmilq 13/10 ferent frequencies. Each antenna consists of an array of live [58] Field ..343/767-771 893 circumferential slots in the outer conductor of a dielectric filled shorted coaxial transmission line with a hollow center conductor for feed leads to pass through.

3 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures PATENTEB JAHZS 1972 PlG. 3

FIG. 1

s S H Y N YW NEW 0 A .r V C CM N m M R U MW Y B FIG. 2

STACKEI) ARRAY OF OMNIDIRECTIONAI. ANTENNAS ORIGIN OF THE INVENTION The invention described herein was made by employees of the United States Government and may be manufactured and used by or for the government for governmental purposes without the payment of any royalties thereon or therefor.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates generally to antennas and more specifically concerns a stacked collinear array of independently fed omnidirectional antennas.

This invention was developed for the flight testing of a three frequency Doppler radar collision warning system for use on commercial aircraft. This system utilizes a coherent, CW, Doppler technique in conjunction with directional characteristics of 'the antennas to help discriminate between hazardous andnonhazardous intruding aircraft. The protected aircraft is required to transmit two signals of different frequencies which are received by the intruding aircraft, which retransmits a signal at the difference frequency. Generally, the antennas for such a system are required'to have a fan-type radiation pattern with uniform radiation in the azimuth plane and a 2030 half power beamwidth in the elevation plane.

The antenna radiation patterns required for the intruding aircraft are omnidirectional with 11.5 db. in the yaw plane and contain a half power beamwidth of about 25 in the pitch and roll planes. System response requires a good impedance match (VSWR 1.6) for the two receiving antennas over a MHz. bandwidth centered about the test frequencies.(2,702.5 and 4,252.5 MHz.) and a 1 MHz. bandwidth, for the transmitting antennas, centered about the difference frequency (1,550 MHz.).

The primary purpose of this invention is to provide antennas suitable for use in the collision warning system mentioned above.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION This invention consists of three independently fed omnidirectional antennas stacked in a collinear array. Each antenna consists of a dielectric filled coaxial transmission line with a uniform array of circumferential slots in the outer conductor. A sleeve balun is included on each end of each antenna for pattern control in the elevation plane and to provide some degree of isolation between antennas in the stacked array. Each antenna except the top has a hollow center conductor of sufficient size to accommodate the feed cables for all antennas above it, thus eliminating the cable interference problem usually encountered in the stacking of omnidirectional antennas. Each antenna is fed through two probes located 90 apart around the circumference by signals that are in phase.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is a cross-sectional view of one antenna used in the collinear stacked array;

FIG. 2 is a pictorial representation of a collinear stacked array of antennas; and

FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view of one antenna for. the purpose of providing suitable dimensions of the antennas in a particular stacked array for specific frequencies.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Turning now to the embodiment of the invention selected for illustration in the drawings, the number 11 in FIG. 1 designates the outer conductor and the number 12 designates the center conductor of a coaxial transmission line. Shorting caps 13 and 14 are attached to the ends of the transmission line by any suitable means such as threading them onto center conductor 12. The space between outer conductor 11 and center conductor 12 is filled with a dielectric material 15. Equally spaced circumferential slots 16 are cut into the outer conductor 11 and Plexiglas rings 17 are inserted into these slots to maintain correct slot widths. Baluns 18 and 19 are attached to each end of the transmission line for pattern control in the elevation plane and to provide some degree of isolation between antennas in the stacked array. A molding compound can be used as a loading material to ,reduce the size of the baluns and provide structural support. The excitation of the antenna is through a probe 20 connected to the center conductor '12 and another probe (not shown) connected to the center conductor 12 located from probe 20 around the circumference. The cylindrical feed probes are tapered to improve the excitation efiiciency. 7

Referring to FIG. 2, there is shown three antennas 21, 22 and 23 stacked in a collinear array. Each of these antennas is identical to the one described in FIG. 1 except that they differ in size. Antenna 21 is attached to antenna 22 by a reducing coupling 24, and antenna 22 is attached to antenna 23 by a reducing coupling 25. Antenna 23 has a flange 26 attached to it for the purpose of attaching the collinear array of antenna to the surface of an object such as an aircraft. Coupling 24 has two slots 27 in it so that leads 28 connected to antenna 21 can pass through the center conductors of antennas 22 and 23. Coupling 25 has two slots 29 in it so that leads 30 connected to antenna '22 can pass through the center conductor of antenna 23. It is necessary that the center conductors of antennas 22 and 23 are of sufficient size to accommodate the feed leads that pass through them. Leads 31 are connected to antenna 23, hence all leads to the antennas pass through an area below flange 26.

FIG. 3 is a drawing of the antenna in FIG. 1 labeling the difference dimensions of the antenna. Suitable dimensions for antennas 21, 22 and 23 for operating frequencies 4,252.5 MHz., 2,702.5 MHz. and 1,550 MHz., respectively, are shown The advantages of this invention are numerous and it is especially adapted for use on commercial aircraft that utilize a three-frequency Doppler radar collision warning system. It is to be understood that the form of the invention herewith shown and described is to be taken as a preferred embodiment. Various changes can be made in the shape, size and arrangement of parts. More or less than five circumferential slots could be used in each antenna; more than three of the antennas could be stacked in a linear array; and different operating frequencies than those described could be used without departing from the invention claimed in the following claims.

What is claimed is:

1. A stacked collinear array of antennas for mounting on a surface such as the outside surface of an aircraft comprising: a plurality of different frequency antennas with each-antenna comprising a coaxial transmission line consisting of an outer conductor and a hollow center conductor, a dielectric material for filling the space between said outer conductor andsaid center conductor, shorting caps located at each of said coaxial transmission line for electrically connecting said outer conductor to said center conductor, a plurality of slots cut into said outer conductor, and probe means for feeding each antenna; said plurality of antennas being stacked in a collinear array with adjacent antennas being attached to each other by a coupling having openings in it for electrical leads to pass through; a flange attached to the bottom antenna of said collinear array for attaching said array of antennas to said surface such that the hollow portion of the center conductor of said bottom antenna terminates below said surface; and separate electrical leads connected to said probes of each antenna with each lead passing through one of said openings in said couplings and then through the hollow of the center conductor of every antenna between said one of said openings and said surface whereby the interference problem usually enprovide uniform excitation around the circumference of the center conductor.

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2455224 *Jun 16, 1944Nov 30, 1948Harvey George GAntenna
US2744249 *Jan 30, 1953May 1, 1956Rca CorpAntenna feed systems
US2971193 *Jun 21, 1957Feb 7, 1961Rca CorpMultiple slot antenna having radiating termination
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3810183 *Dec 18, 1970May 7, 1974Ball Brothers Res CorpDual slot antenna device
US3936836 *Jul 25, 1974Feb 3, 1976Westinghouse Electric CorporationZ slot antenna
US4186396 *Apr 28, 1978Jan 29, 1980Mitsubishi Denki Kabushiki KaishaRadar beacon apparatus
US4408606 *Mar 19, 1981Oct 11, 1983Telectronics Pty. Ltd.Rate related tachycardia control pacer
US4477812 *May 29, 1981Oct 16, 1984The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The NavySignal acquisition and tracking system
US4697192 *Apr 16, 1985Sep 29, 1987Texas Instruments IncorporatedTwo arm planar/conical/helix antenna
US8253636Nov 28, 2006Aug 28, 2012Bae Systems PlcImprovements relating to antenna arrays
USRE29296 *Jul 16, 1975Jul 5, 1977Ball Brothers Research CorporationDual slot microstrip antenna device
Classifications
U.S. Classification343/771, 343/893
International ClassificationH01Q5/00, H01Q21/28, H01Q21/30, H01Q13/20
Cooperative ClassificationH01Q21/30, H01Q13/20, H01Q21/28
European ClassificationH01Q13/20, H01Q21/28, H01Q21/30