|Publication number||US3639747 A|
|Publication date||Feb 1, 1972|
|Filing date||Jun 11, 1969|
|Priority date||Jun 11, 1969|
|Also published as||DE2017247A1|
|Publication number||US 3639747 A, US 3639747A, US-A-3639747, US3639747 A, US3639747A|
|Original Assignee||Warwick Electronics Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (6), Referenced by (7), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
50- 36.24 W W (J/ 1,
i v v i 19? XR 3 639,747 i I Uplted States Patent 1151 3,639,747 Schmidt Feb. 1 1972  DIAL DISPLAY DEVICE t1;  inventor: Hans Schmidt, Riverwoods, ill.  ABSTRACT  Assigneez Warwick Electronics Inc. dial display for providing an indication corresponding to an input signal such as corresponding to the tuning of a IBdiO  Filed: June 11', 1969 device. The dial display utilizes a seri'esgltransmitting elements for piping light' ffirniiiliilitf transfer,member toa, [211 App! 832342 front di spiay ols i'tion The light transmitting elements are grouped to haze ntportion thereof effectively define a  U.S.Cl ..240/2.1, l [6/ 124.4 visuallybbs ei'va 1a indicator. The lighttransfer member is [5!] Int. Cl ld 11/23, H03] 1/ 4 sclectivelr'positioniBE by mcans of a suitable indicating  Field of Search ..240/2.l;340/380, 202; meghanigm guoh as a meter movement, The transfer member 325/455, 1 316- 129 M, 129 P receives light from a light source to produce a localized high level of light emission from the dial display corresponding to  References cued the position of the indicating mechanism. The light source is further utilized to provide a background low level illumination UNITED STATES PATENTS emission from the dial display which may be of a color differ- 2,227,86l l/194l Petrone ..340/380 ing from that of the localized high level emission. The transfer 2,333,492 11/1943 Ridge..... ...1 16/129 M member may comprise a piped light member, an apertured 2,441,825 5/1948 Lane lib/1 29 M member, a filter member, etc., to provide the localized indica- 2,907,293 1 sleil'lke X tion in the dial display. The transfer member may also take the 3,134,372 5/1965 y K X form of an opaque element and in effect cast a shadow on the 3,467,960 9/1969 HOSkC! ..340/380 X li ht t s itting elements 35 an indication ofits position, The
Primary Examiner-Louis R. Prince Assistant Examiner-Daniel M. Yasich A1t0rneyHofgren,Wegner, Allen, Steilman and McCord light transmitting elements may be formed in groups for facilitated assembly.
16 Claims, ll Drawing Figures meme!) m 1 1m 33339;
' sum 1 OF 3 PATENTED FEB 1 i972 SHEET 3 OF 3 r 1 DIAL DISPLAY DEVICE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION I. Field of the Invention This invention relates to indicators in particular to means for indicating the value of a variable input signal which may, for example, correspond to the tuning of a radio apparatus.
2. Description of the Prior Art In one form of conventional dial display for use in indicating the station to which a radio apparatus is tuned for example, a movable pointer element is moved across a suitable dial provided with a corresponding scale. Mechanical drives are drives conventionally employed for moving the pointer. One known form of such drive means comprises a string driven by a suitable wheel associated with the tuning capacitor and connected to the movable pointer, with the pointer being guided on suitable track means for movement of the string. In another conventional form of tuning indicator, a wheel is driven directly with the tuning capacitor.
Such known dial display devices have serious disadvantages such as a relatively high maintenance and difficulty of visual observation under adverse view conditions.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention comprehends an improved dial display device useable, for example, as a tuning indicator in a radio apparatus which eliminates the disadvantages of the above described known dial display devices in a novel and simple manner. In general, the invention comprehends the provision of a dial display device including a plurality of fixed light transmitting or light piping elements each having a light emitting front portion and a light receiving'rear portion spaced from the front portion, means supporting the elements to dispose the front and rear portions in separate preselected juxtaposed series, means to establish a first or background state of illumination on the rear portions of said light transmitting elements and means for establishing a second different state of illumination of a restricted width, generally corresponding to the width'of said light transmitting elements. The apparatus for establishing said second state illumination is movable in accordance with an input variable indicative, for example, of the frequency to which a radio is tuned. Movement of the means for establishing the second state of illumination effectively causes this narrow state of illumination to scan across the end surfaces of the light transmitting elements. I
This, in turn, presents a movable dial type indication on the front surfaces of the light transmitting elements in the form of narrow contrasting state of illumination. For the purpose of definition, complete absence of light is considered to be a state of illumination" and states of illumination may be different in intensity, color, presence and absence, etc.
More specifically, the present invention comprehends an indicating device of the type described having a light source, a light transmitting transfer member having a light emitting portion and a light receiving portion spaced from the light emitting portion, and means for supporting the transfer member to receive light from the light source and move the light emitting portion thereof selectively in registry with different ones of the light receiving portions of the elements, whereby light is emitted from different ones of the light transmitting element front portions as a function of the movement of the transfer member. The light transmitting elements may comprise piped light elements wherein the light is internally conducted with minimum transmission loss. The transfer member may similarly comprise a piped'light element. Alternatively, the transfer member may comprise an apertured member, a filter member, or an opaque member providing a visual indication in the dial display relative to the background appearance thereof. The light transmitting elements may be formed as individual strips. In one improved form, the light transmitting elements are molded as two separate sheets of strips integrally connected to interfit and define the full series.
Further more specifically, the invention comprehends the use of filters for providing the background illumination from the same light source as utilized by the transfer memberto provide the indication illumination. The transfer member is preferably relatively lightweight for facilitated selective posi tioning therein by low torque devices such as meter movements and similar indicating mechanisms. Thus, the dial display is advantageously adapted for us in indicating the tuning of a radio apparatus. The present invention is particularly useful for indicating the tuning point of varacto'r, or electronically tuned radios wherein a variable voltage or current is used to vary the tuning point of the radio. When used with such a wave signal receiving apparatus, the present invention comprehends the use of a known meter movement, coupled to said variable voltage or current to control the movement of the light transmitting transfer member.
The invention further comprehends the provision of a plur rality of light sources and corresponding light transfer members for providing selectively different indications. Thus, illustratively, the dual arrangement may be utilized to provide a dial display in a radio apparatus having both frequency modulated and amplitude modulated signal receiving capability. Different filters may be provided for each light source. such that the dial background changes color depending on which receiving mode this radio is in. Suitable means are provided to turn on one light source or the other, depending on the signal mode selected, Still further, the dial display is adapted for indicating a stereo operation of such a radio apparatus as by the joint operation of the dual elements.
In the stereo mode the two light sources are both on whereby a third color background is obtained to indicate stereo.
As the dial display device utilizes a localized light indication, the display provides facilitated visual observation under adverse environmental conditions. The dial display device is extremely simple and economical of construction while yet providing the desirable features discussed above.
, BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS Other features and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings wherein:
FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a radio apparatus provided with a dial display device embodying the invention;
FIG. 2 is a fragmentary enlarged vertical section taken substantially along the line 22 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 3 is a transverse section taken substantially alongthe line 33 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 4 is atop plan view of the dial display device with portions broken away to facilitate illustration thereof;
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary horizontal section of another form of dial display device embodying the invention; and
FIG. 11 is a fragmentary horizontal section of still another form ofdial display device embodying the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS In the exemplary embodiment of the invention as disclosed in FIGS. 1 through 7 of the drawings, a dial display device generally designated 10 is shown for use in an electrical apparatus such as a radio 11. Illustratively, radio II may comprise an AM-stereo FM radio. The radio 11 may include an .sound as from a conventional stereo FM station and for this purpose may be provided with a pair of loudspeakers 17; The radio chassis 18 may be mounted within the cabinet 12 and may be of conventional construction as well known to those skilled in the art.
The dial display device 12) is arranged to provide to the observer an indication of the frequency to which the wave signal receiver is tuned by means of an electrical meter movement 19. The meter movement 19 may be of conventional construction and includes a stationary portion 20 and a rotatable portion 21 defining a pair of spaced supports 22 and 23 selectively positionable about a vertical axis as a function of the voltage on input leads 56 which, as previously explained, is proportional to frequency to which the device is tuned.
The leads 53 and 54 (FIG. 4) are coupled to the tuner section of the wave signal receiver via mode switch 16a. Mode switch 16a is operatively coupled to knob 16 by means not shown and may include for example, a double pole, double throw switch for selectively coupling the FM or AM tuning voltage output from the tuner to the meter and a source of power (not shown) to either the light sources 28 and 32 or 28' and 33 whereby the operator is presented a visual indication of the mode selected. Suitable scaling means may be provided in the tuner output in order that the meter movement may accurately track both AM and FM tuning voltages. The signal input to the meter is not restricted to the tuner control voltage but can also be derived from a potentiometer for example, which is driven by the tuning knob ofa conventional mechanically variable ganged capacitor.
The position of the rotatable portion 21 of the meter movement 19 is translated into a light signal to be read out through the dial display device and more specifically to be read out on a front surface 24 thereofextending across a dial plate 25 carrying suitable AM frequency scale 26 and FM frequency scale 27 on the upper and lower portions thereof respectively. A pair of illuminating lamps 28 and 28' may be provided behind the dial plate 25 for selectively illuminating the appropriate AM scale 26 or FM scale 27 as selected by the control 16a. The indication observable on the dial display device surface 24 illustratively comprises a localized, relatively high level light emission from the surface 24.
More specifically, the device includes a housing 29 defining a first lamp chamber 30 at an upper rear portion thereof and a second lamp chamber 31 at a lower rear portion thereof. A first lamp 32 is disposed within chamber 30 and a second lamp 33 is disposed within chamber 31. Chamber 30 is defined forwardly by a light transmitting wall 34 which may comprise a red filter, and chamber 31 is defined forwardly by a light transmitting wall 35 which may comprise a green filter. As shown in FlG. 2, the lamps 28, 32 and 33 are selectively energized individually or jointly by the control switch 16a. Thus, when the lamp 32 is illuminated as by selection of the AM mode of operation, the interior of the housing 29 is illuminated by the filtered red light emanating forwardly through the filter 34 and when the lamp 33 is illuminated as by selection of the FM mode of operation, the interior of the housing 29 is illuminated by green light emanating through the green The dial display device 10 further includes a plurality of fixed light transmitting elements generally designated 36 each having a light emitting front portion 37 and a light receiving rear portion 38. The housing 29 supports the elements 36 to dispose the front portions 37 in a juxtaposed side-by-side series to define the composite front surface 24. As illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7, the light transmitting elements 36 may vary in longitudinal.configuration from a substantially rectilinear configuration 36a to a maximum turned configuration 36b whereby the rear portions 38 effectively define an arcuate rear surface 39 which is centered on the vertical axis 40 of the meter movement 19. The front surface 24, however, is substantially planar parallel to the plane of the front wall 13 of the radio cabinet 12. Each of the light transmitting elements 36 comprises a light conductor wherein the light is internally reflected to conduct it substantially without loss from end to end of the element. lllustratively, the elements may be formed of a plastic material having suitable light conducting characteristics for this purpose and herein are formed of acrylic resin plastic. As is well known to those skilled in the fiber optics art, the efficient conduction of light through such elements may be effected by highly polishing the elements and designing the curvature of the turned portion, such as portion 360 of configuration 3612 (FIG. 7) to be sufficiently great to avoid loss therein. In conventional fiber optics applications, such light conductors are of cylindrical cross section. However, it has been found that, by arranging the light transmitting elements 36 as shown, substantially complete transmission of light from the receiving portions 38 to the emitting portions 37 may be obtained with the illustrated flat strip configuration. The flat configuration provides a fine screen effect in the surface 24 whereby each end portion 37 has an effectively thin line appearance.
Light is transmitted to the light receiving portions 38 of the respective light transmitting elements 36 selectively from lamp 32 or lamp 33 by means of a pair of light transmitting transfer members 41 and 42. As shown in FlG.-5, light transfer member 41 includes a light emitting front portion 43 and a light receiving rear portion 44. .Similarly, transfer member 42 includes a light emitting front portion 45 and a rear light receiving portion 46. The transfer members are carried by the rotatable portion 21 of the meter movement 19 to dispose the light receiving portions 44 and 46 in registration with vertically aligned openings 47 and 48 in the housing wall defining chambers 30 and 31 respectively. As best seen in FIG. 2, the transfer members 41 and 42 may be turned whereby end surfaces 44 and 46 extend horizontally whereas the end surfaces 43 and 45 extend vertically. Thus, light may be conducted from lamp 32 through opening 47 and through the transfer member 41 to the light receiving portion 38 of the light transfer element 36 with which the light emitting portion 43 of member 41 is aligned. Similarly, light is conducted from lamp 33 through opening 48 and transfer member 42 to the light receiving portion 38 of the light transfer element 36 with which the light emitting portion 45 of member 42 is aligned. The light transmitted through the transfer members maybe unfiltered and, thus, is transmitted through the light transmitting element to be seen on the surface 24 as a white light. As the light is conducted through the transfer member directly from the lamp and the selected transmitting element, the thusly conducted light is of relatively high intensity as compared to the low level of illumination of the surface 24 produced by the light passing from the lamp through the selected filter 34 or 35. Resultingly, the dial display device 10 shows the position of the meter movement portion 21 as a thin bright line against a colored lower level illumination background.
The transfer member 41 and 42 are effectively cantilevered from the meter movement portion 21 and as shown in FIG. 5, improved rigidity thereof may be effected by means of interconnecting lugs 49 on member 41 and holes 50 in member 42 snugly receiving the lugs.
The meter movement 19 may be accurately supported in the housing 29 by means of suitable shoulders 51 and 52. Further, the housing may be provided with a pair of terminals 53 and 54 and a channel 55 for conducting the wires 56 from the terminals 53 and 54 to the meter movement 19. The housing 29 is preferably formed in two parts including an upper portion 29a and a lower portion 2912 which may be substantially identical. The housing portions may be fixedly secured together by suitable connectors 57 inserted through suitable openings 58 in the respective housing portions. As best seen in F16. 2, the housing 29 includes a fiat front portion 59 provided with a suitable groove 60 for receiving lugs 61 on each of the light transmitting elements 36 to secure the light transmitting elements in juxtaposed association.
The functioning of dial display device is extremely simple. When the radio 11 is caused to operate illustratively inthe AM mode of operation, the lamps 32 and 28 are illuminated thereby providing a low level red appearance to the dial surface 24 and an illumination of the associated AM frequency scale 26. Depending on the tuning of the radio, the meter movement 19 rotatably positions the transfer member 41 to dispose the transmitting surface 43 in alignment with the light receiving portion 38 of the light transfer element 36 corresponding to the selected frequency. Light is transmitted directly from the lamp 32 through the transfer member 41 and the corresponding light transmitting element 36 to provide a relatively high level while light emission from the front portion 37 of that light transmitting element to provide a relatively bright light line on the lower level red background to indicate to the user the selected AM frequency. As the light transfer member 41 swings about the axis 40, the light emitting portion 43 thereofis disposed in closejuxtaposition to the light receiving portions 38 of the different light transmitting elements 36. As the light transmitting elements are highly efficient in the conduction of the light, substantially no difference in the amount of light transmitted from the front portions 37 thereof occurs notwithstanding a difference in the length of the different elements as illustrated in FIGS. 6 and 7.
Where the radio is set for an FM mode of operation by the control 16, the lamp 33 and lower lamp 28' will be illuminated. illumination from lamp 33 is transmitted through transfer member 42 to the corresponding light transmitting element 36 in the same manner as discussed relative to the transfer from lamp 32. However, as the background illumination is'provided by the green filter 35, the dial surface 24 will present a green low level lighted background thereby indicating to the user automatically that the radio is operating in the FM mode of operation in contradistinction to the AM mode of operation indicated by the red background.
Further, where the radio is operating in the stereo mode, the lamps 32 and 33 may be concurrently energized so as to provide an orange background illumination comprising a combination of each of the red and green illuminations provided by the filters 34 and 35. At the same time, each of the light transfer members 41 and 42 conducts light from the respective lamps to provide a double line appearance on the dial surface 24 thereby further indicating to the user the stereo operation of the radio apparatus. This simultaneous operation of the light source may be achieved by employing suitable switching means (not shown) responsive to the stereo indication signal in conventional radios to couple the source of power to lamp 32 which is normally on only for AM mode operation.
As will be obvious to those skilled in the art, the high level illumination piped to the surface 24 through the light transfer members 41' and 42 may be colored as by disposition of a suitable filter (not shown) across the openings 47 and 48. Stili further if desired, the surface 24 may be defined by an upper or lower surface of the light transmitting elements 36 rather than the end surface portion 37 thereof. Further as will be ob vious to those skilled in the art, while the invention has been described in connection with a meter movement 19, any suitable rotary translation device may be employed for effecting the desired selective disposition of the light transfer means. Still further as will be obvious to those skilled in the art, while the illustrative embodiment comprises a display apparatus, the dial display device 10 may be utilized in connection with other suitable apparatus where a visual indication of a selective disposition ofa movable element of the apparatus is desired.
To provide an improved readout on the dial display surface 24, the end portions 37 may be roughened as by etching or sandblasting.
Further modifications of the structure of the dial display device which may be employed within the scope of the invention are shown in FIGS. 8-11. lllustratively, in FIG. 8, a modified light transfer element structure generally designated 36' having improved economy and simplicity of manufacture may be provided for use in the device 10. As shown, alternating light transmitting elements 36 thereofmay be formed as afi integrally associated assembly 62 with a connector portion, or tie bar, 63 which maintains the elements 36 in spaced jux taposed association permitting interfitting, or interleaving, or a generally similar integral assembly 64 of light transmitting elements 36 and tie bar 65 therewith to provide the desired complete series. The assembly portions 62 and 64 may be identical; however, the assembly 64 is turned upside down relative to the assembly'62 to permit the interleaved association. Assemblies 62 and 64 may be economically formed by molding as an unitary structure for effectively maximum economy.
in FIG. 9, a modified form of dial display device generally designated 110 is shown to comprise a dial display device generally similar to device 10 but effectively comprising an upper portion 166 and a lower portion 167 for transmitting different light signals to alternating ones of the series of light transmitting elements 136a and 13Gb. Thus, alternate elements 136a extend from a lower chamber 168a at the rear of the housing portion 129a and alternate elements 136b extend from an upper chamber 168b at the rear of housing portion 12911. The red filter 134 extends across the chamber 168a except for a central opening 147 through which the light transfer member 141 extends and the green filter 135 extends across the chamber 168!) except for an opening 148 through which the lower light transfer member 142 extends. Suitable lamp means 132 and 133 are provided in lamp chambers 130 and 131 respectively, for conducting light through the filters and transfer members respectively. The transfer members are mounted on the rotatable portion 121 of a meter movement 119 as shown.
Thus, in dial display device 110, every other light transmitting element 13Gb provides a low level red background illumination at the front surface 124 when the'lamp 132 is illuminated.
Similarly, alternate every other light transmitting elements 136a present a low level green background at the surface 124 when lamp 133 is illuminated. The higher level illumination conducted through the light transmitting elements 136b from light transfer member 141 emanates only from every other light transmitting element defining surface 124 as it is conducted only through the upper elements 136b. The high level illumination transmitted from transfer member 142 emanates only from the alternate every other element 1360. The transfer members 141 and 142 may be relatively thick so as to assure conduction of light through at least one of the associated light transfer elements which, as indicated above, are spaced apart by the thickness ofa light transmitting element.
A further modified dial display device structure is shown in P16. 10 to comprise a dial display device 210 wherein the background illumination produced through the light transmitting elements 236 is selectively blocked by an opaque element 269 thereby providing a dark line against a generally illuminated background appearing at surface 224. Alternatively, the member 269 may comprise a filter element providing a colored relatively low level emanation from the surface 224 through the registering light transfer element 236 appearing against the higher level general illumination background. As shown in FIG. 11, a further modification of the dial display device may comprise a device 310 wherein illumination of the light transmitting elements 336 is provided through a slit 370 in a light control wall member, such as cylinder 371, rotatably positionable by the meter movement 319 to register the slit devices 110, 210 and 310 comprise a device generally similar to dial display device except as otherwise noted. Cor responding elements of devices 110, 210 and 310 are identified by reference numeral similar to those identifying the elements of device 10 except respectively 100 higher.
Further, a color effect may be obtained by coloring the end portions 37, or lightreceiving end portions 38, as desired. Al-
ternatively, color may be provided by suitably coloring the end portions 43, 44, 45, or 46 of the light transfer members as desired. 7
While I have shown and described certain embodiments of my invention, it is to be understood that it is capable of many modifications. Changes, therefore, in the arrangement and constructions may be made within the spirit and scope of the invention asdefined in the appended claims.
l. A dial display device comprising: a plurality of fixed light transmitting elements each having a light emitting front portion and a light receiving portion spaced from said front portion; means supporting said elements to dispose said front portions in a preselected juxtaposed series; a light source; a light transmitting transfer member having a light emitting portion and a light receiving portion spaced from said light emitting portion; means for supporting said transfer member to receive light from said light source and move said light emitting por? tion thereof selectively in registry with different ones of said light receiving portions of said elements, whereby light is emitted from different ones of said light transmitting element front portions as a function of the movement of said transfer member; and means for providing a relatively low level light emission from a substantial number of said light emitting portions of said light transmitting elements concurrently with a relatively high level light emission from the light transmitting element receiving light from said transfer member.
2. The dial display device of claim 1 wherein said low level light emission comprises light of a color differing from that of said high level light emission.
3. The dial display device of claim 1 wherein said means for providing said low level light emission comprises color filter means for transmitting colored light from said light source to said light receiving portions of said light transmitting elements.
4. The dial display device of claim I wherein said means for supporting said transfer member comprises a selectively rotatable device.
S. The dial display device of claim 1 wherein said light emitting portions of said light transmitting elements comprise light diffusing surfaces thereof.
6. The dial display device of claim 1 wherein said transfer member comprises a filter element having a small transverse size movable adjacent said light receiving portions ofsaid light transmitting elements for causing only the light transmitting elements in registry with said filter element to show a color corresponding thereto.
7. The dial display device of claim 1 wherein said transfer member comprises a light control element having a small transverse size movably adjacent said light receiving portions of said light transmitting elements for causing the light transmitting elements in registry with said transfer member to produce a different visual effect from the other light transmitting elements.
8. The dial display device of claim 1 wherein said transfer member comprises an opaque member provided with an aperture causing only the light transmitting elements in registry member to receive light from said second light source and move the light emitting portion of said second transfer member selectively in registry with different ones of said light receiving portions of said elements and means for selectively energizing said first and second light sources.
11. A dial display device comprising:
a plurality of fixed light transmitting elements each having a light emitting front portion and a light receiving portion spaced from said front portion;
means supporting said elements to dispose said front portions in a preselected juxtaposed series;
a single light source; and
means for providing from said single light source a general low level light emission from substantially all of said light emitting front portions and a localized high level light emission from selected one of said light emitting portions.
12. The dial display device of claim 11 wherein said providing means includes means for causing said low level light emission to be different in color from the high level light emission.
13. The dial display device of claim 11 wherein said providing means includes means for conducting light directly from said light source to said light transmitting elements and me ans for filtering the light from the light source and transmitting the filtered light to said light transmitting elements.
14. A display device for presenting a visual output indicative of the value of a given variable comprising: a plurality of fixed light transmitting elements, each having a light emitting surface and a light receiving surface spaced from said emitting surface; means supporting said elements to dispose said light emitting and receiving surfaces in separate preselected juxtaposed series; means for establishing a first general state of illumination on said juxtaposed series of light receiving surfaces; means for establishing a second different state of illumination of limited width on said juxtaposed series of light receiving surfaces; and means for positioning said second state of illumination on said juxtaposed series of light receiving surfaces in accordance with the value of said variable, said means for establishing a first state of illumination comprising a source of illumination consisting of a plurality of wavelengths for illuminating said light receiving surfaces of said elements and said means for establishing said second state of illumination comprising a plurality of filter means selectably movable adjacent to and in registry with the light receiving surfaces of said elements in accordance with said variable, said filter means being opaque to at least one of said plurality of wavelengths whereby said element in registry with said filter is illuminated with a different-color light than the other of said elements.
15. The apparatus of claim 14 wherein said means for establishing a second state of illumination comprises means opaque to the illumination of said first state.
16. The dial display device of claim 1 wherein said low level illumination means comprises means for providing said low level light emission from substantially all of said light emitting portions.
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|U.S. Classification||362/23.15, 116/247, 455/159.2, 455/195.1, 362/23.1|
|International Classification||H03J1/00, H03J1/04|