|Publication number||US3640832 A|
|Publication date||Feb 8, 1972|
|Filing date||Feb 6, 1969|
|Priority date||Feb 6, 1969|
|Publication number||US 3640832 A, US 3640832A, US-A-3640832, US3640832 A, US3640832A|
|Inventors||Kurz Otmar J G|
|Original Assignee||Verolme Vacuumtechnik Ag|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (5), Referenced by (30), Classifications (20)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
D United States Patent 1151 3,640,832 Kurz Feb. 8, 1972  HEAT-INSULATING MATERIAL  References Cited  Inventor: Otmar J. G. Kurz, Eltville, Germany UNITED STATES PATENTS [731 Assignw Vmme Vacuumlechnik Aklien- 3,076,206 2/1963 Shaw et a1 ..2/s2 gesellschaft, Eltville, Germany 3,308,004 3/1967 Rouault 1 61/214 Feb. 3,051,598 8/1962 Ch1pman et al.. 1 61/409  Appl.No.: 797,025 3,467,569 9/1969 Weber et al. ..l61/160 1 E 52] u.s.c1 ..16l/l60,16l/l6l, 161/165, jjjg'igjg'f fg flg van Bale 161/214, 161/216, 161/218, 161/408  Int. Cl. ..B32b 3/26, B32b 7/02, B32b 15/02  ABSTRACT  Field ofSearch ..16l/408,409, 410,160,161,
161/165, 214 216, 218 A carrier sheet of heat-reslstmg plastics matenal 1s permanently secured to a heat-insulating backing. A vapordeposited, reflecting metal layer is carried by said carrier sheet on the side thereof which is remote from said backing. A wear-resisting coating, which is permeable to radiant heat, covers said metal layer on the side thereof which is remote from said carrier sheet.
17 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure HEAT-INSULATING MATERIAL This invention relates generally to heat-insulating material which comprises a heat-insulating backing and a metal coating. Specifically, the invention relates to a heat-insulating manufacture of heat-insulating upper garments, such as anoraks.
It is known to provide heat-insulating backings with a metal surface layer in that a mixture of metal powder with a binder or adhesive is applied to the surface of the backing. Altematively, a self-supporting metal foil may be firmly adhered to the surface of the backing. Both practices have the disadvantage that the metal coating forms a relatively thick layer, which has a high thermal conductivity. If the backing is flexible or resilient, its flexibility or resiliency is much reduced by the coating, or a deformation of the backing may cause cracks to appear in the coating. It is virtually impossible to provide a useful, highly reflecting layer in the manner which has been described. In the previously known metallized backings, the metal layer served to increase the resistance of the surface to external influences and to provide special optical efiects. Depending on the material which was used to make the metal layer, mechanical action may result in wear or scratching of the metal layer; or chemical action, such as atmospheric action, may cause the metal layer to become dull in the course of time. For all these reasons, such layers do, not afford a adequate reflection of electromagnetic waves.
it is an object of the invention to provide a heat-insulating material which can be used for the purposes mentioned first hereinbefore and is distinguished durable heat-insulating properties and resistance to mechanical and chemical influences.
A heat-insulating material according to the invention comprises a heat-insulating backing and a carrier sheet of heat-resisting plastics material, which is permanently bonded to a backing and on its side remote from the backing carries a vapor-deposited, reflecting metal layer, which is protected by a wear-resisting coating permeable to radiant heat.
"Because the coating is permeable to radiant heat, the latter can be reflected by the metal layer and cannot heat the heatinsulating material. When the material according to the invention is used for heat-insulating purposes, a loss of heat or refrigeration by an emission or absorption of radiant heat is precluded to a large extent. An additional advantage resides in that water of condensation and the like cannot deposit on the metal layer and the metal layer may have only such a small thickness that it has little conductivity for heat. Because the metal layer has only a smallthickness and is protected on both sides by the carrier sheet and the coating, the invention can be applied also to a flexible heat-insulating material and the reflecting action of the metal layer cannot be lost in this case because the metal layer will not be torn or creased and the like. In the building industry, hard foams may be used, e.g., as a heat-insulating backing. A flexible backing may consist of compacted foam webs, particularly of polyurethane, and these webs may be laminated with textile fabrics. The metal layer is preferably vapor-deposited in a vacuum of to 10 millimeters mercury. Depending on the intended purpose, the thickness of the layer may amount to 30-400 Angstroms. A layer having a thickness between 30 and 100 Angstroms is partly permeable. It is thus apparent that there will be a selective reflection and absorption in dependence on the thickness of the layer and on the selection of the metal of such layer.
The vapor-deposited metal layer consists preferably of aluminum. Aluminum has approximately uniform, good reflecting properties throughout the frequency spectrum of electromagnetic radiation. Other metals, such as copper, silver or tin, may also be used. Layers of the last-mentioned metals, particularly copper, have a highly selective reflectivity. It is preferred to apply the coating immediately after the metal layer has been vapor deposited so that oxidation will be avoided; it is also preferred to secure the carrier sheet to the heat-insulating backing immediately thereafter.
The carrier sheet has preferably a thickness of 10-20 microns and is preferably made from heat-resisting polyphthalic ester. Other plastic sheets having a smooth surface may be used, e.g., sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride and polyvinyl acetate.
The wear-resisting coating consists preferably of a polyester which transmits radiant heat having a wavelength of 3-15 microns substantially without absorption. This polyester may be applied by a varnishing process or as a thin coating film. The thickness of the coating will be smaller in most cases than that of the carrier sheeting and may be between 1 micron and 5 microns. if a selective reflection is desired, the selected thickness will be one-fourth of the wavelength of those electromagnetic waves for which the strongest reflection is desired.
The carrier sheet is preferably laminated to the heat-insulating backing. If a polyurethane backing is used, the carrier sheet may be adhered to the heat-insulating backing. The backing itself will preferably consist of a web or plate of foamed plastics material, which may be precompacted, if desired. The foamed plastics material may be provided with reinforcements in the form of textile fabrics, such as woven of knit fabric or nonwoven fabrics laminated to the rear side of the foamed plastics material, or with nettings embedded in the foamed plastics material. Alternatively, the heat-insulating backing for the sheet may consist of a nonwoven fabric, provided that it is sufficiently thick.
The drawing is a sectional view showing a heat-insulating material according to the invention. The thickness of the metal layer is exaggerated in the drawing to enable a representation of said layer.
A carrier sheet 2 of polyphthalic ester is laminated onto a heat-insulating backing l, which may consist of a hard foamed plastics material or a compacted, flexible polyurethane foam. On its side remote from the backing 1, the carrier sheet 2 is provided with a vapor-deposited aluminum layer 3, which is covered by a wear-resisting coating 4 of synthetic resin, such as polyester. The coating 4 is permeable to radiant heat. The insulating material is applied so that the coating 4 faces the source of heat or refrigeration.
To manufacture the insulating material, an aluminum layer in a thickness of 30-400 Angstroms is vapor deposited on the carrier sheet 2 in a high vacuum. The coating 4 is subsequently applied, e.g., by spraying. When the coating has set and adheres firmly to the metal layer, the carrier sheet is laminated to the backing 1. Alternatively, a comparatively thin backing consisting, e.g., of compacted polyurethane foam in a thickness of l-2 millimeters, may be applied first and may be subsequently laminated to single or multi ply insulating backings, depending on the intended purpose. The backings may preferably consist of layers of foamed plastics material, which are combined to form composites in which each foam layer is separated from the adjacent one by an interlayer. Alternatively, the coated sheet may be shaped together with a relatively thin backing by pressing, vacuum forming or like processes. For instance, hollow bodies can be made in this way from sheeting and may then be stabilized by reinforcements, such as layers of foamed plastics material, which are applied to the backing.
What is claimed is:
l. A heat-insulating material consisting essentially of a heat-insulating backing,
a carrier sheet of heat-resisting plastics material permanently secured to said backing,
a reflecting metal layer, 30 to 400 Angstrom thick, carried by said carrier sheet on the side thereof which is remote from said backing, and
a wear-resisting coating, which is permeable to radiant heat and covers said metal layer on the side thereof which is remote from said carrier sheet.
2. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said backing, carrier sheet, metal layer and coating are flexible.
3. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said metal layer consists of a metal selected from the class consisting of aluminum, copper, silver, and tin.
4. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said carrier sheet consists of a material selected from the class consisting of polyphthalic ester, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinylchloride, and polyvinyl acetate.
5. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which the thickness of the coating is smaller than that of the carrier sheet.
6. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said metal layer has a thickness below 100 Angstroms and is partly permeable to radiant heat and adapted to partly reflect and partly absorb radiant heat.
7. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said metal layer consists of aluminum.
8. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said carrier sheet consists of heat-resisting polyphthalic ester and has a thickness of -20 microns.
9. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said coating consists of a polyester which is permeable to radiant heat having a wavelength of 3-15 microns substantially without absorption.
10. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in
which said carrier sheet is laminated to said backing.
11. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said carrier sheet is adhered to said backing.
12. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said backing consists of foamed plastics material.
13. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 12, in which said backing has the form of a web.
14. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 12, in which said backing has the form of a slab.
15. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 12, in which said foamed plastics material consists of a compacted polyurethane foam.
16. A heat-insulating material as set forth in claim 1, in which said coating has a thickness of 1-5 microns.
17. A heat-insulating material, consisting essentially of a backing consisting of a web of compacted foamed plastics material,
a carrier sheet of heabresisting material laminated to said backing,
a heat-reflecting aluminum layer, 30 to 400 Angstroms thick, which is carried by said carrier sheet on the side thereof which is remote from said backing, and
a wear-resisting coating of a polyester which is permeable to radiant heat, said coating covering said aluminum layer on the side thereof which is remote from said carrier sheet.
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|U.S. Classification||428/319.1, 428/319.3, 428/328, 428/458, 976/DIG.330, 428/480, 428/319.7, 428/215, 428/213, 428/333|
|International Classification||G21F1/00, E04B1/76, A41D31/00, G21F1/10|
|Cooperative Classification||E04B1/76, G21F1/10, A41D31/0038|
|European Classification||A41D31/00C6L, E04B1/76, G21F1/10|