US 3645478 A
A jet stream dispersion takeoff and landing platform for vertical takeoff and landing airplanes including a flat plate member having an upper jet stream inlet side and a lower jet stream outlet side, supporting legs therefor, the plate member further having a plurality of circular openings therethrough with a downwardly opening circular closure for each of the openings and U-shaped brackets on the outlet side supporting and limiting the downward opening of each circular closure.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Modelling Stats tet  TAKEGFlF AND LANDING PLATFGRMI FUR VERTICAL TAKIEGFF AND lLANNllNG PLANES  Inventor: Gero Otto Madelung, Munich, Germany  Assignee: Entwiclllungsring Sued Gmbll-ll, Munich,
Germany  Filed: Nov. 19, 1968  App1.No.: 793,631
Related 111.5. Application Data  Division of Ser. No. 586,478, Oct. 13, 1966, Pat. No.
 Foreign Application Priority Data Dec. 23, 1965 Germany ..E 30725  ILLS. Cl ..244/114  lot. Cl. ..B64li l/00  l ieldofSear-ch ..244/114, 63; 114/16; 181/33,
[ Feb, 29,1972
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,798,446 7/1957 Endrezze ..114/16 3,016,214 1/1962 Jackes 3,081,970 3/1963 Einarsson .244/1 14 Primary Examiner--Milton Buchlezr Assistant Examiner-Paul E. Sauberer AttorneyRobillard 8L Byrne [5 7] ABSTRACT A jet stream dispersion takeoff and! landing platform for vertical takeoffrand landing airplanes including a flat plate member having an upper jet stream inlet side and a lower jet stream outlet side, supporting legs therefor, the plate member further having a plurality of circular openings therethrough with a downwardly opening circular closure for each of the openings and U-shaped brackets on the outlet side supporting and limiting the downward opening of each circular closure.
9 Claims, 6 Drawing Figures Patented Feb. 29, 1972 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 MMKXQQ QQNMWMQQ IV- IV INVENTOR.
GERO OTTO MADELUNG' Patented Feb. 29, 1972 3,645,478
2 Sheets-Sheet 8 uvvuvroa GERO 07'7'0 MADELUNG TAIKEUFIF AND LANDING PLATFORM FUR VERTICAL TAIIEQFF AND LANDING PLANES This is a division of application Ser. No. 586,478, filed Oct. 13, l966,now US. Pat. No. 3,436,036.
The invention relates to takeoff and landing platforms for vertical takeoff and landing planes. Such platforms have customarily been equipped with means deflecting hot gases from the propulsion unit to prevent the hot gases from being drawn into the inflows of the propulsion units. Heretofore fixed guide vanes or channels to deflect the hot gases laterally have been used, and the prior art is exemplified by British Pat. No. 867,944 and U.S. Pat. No. 3,016,214.
Platforms with fixed guide vanes have two disadvantages;
during landing or hovering beside the platform, the gases are redeflected upwards through the guide vanes, and relatively heavy vanes have been required. The invention herein eliminates the disadvantages through simple means which do not permit upward reflection of the gas stream. Herein the gases are deflected into various planes below the platform, and deflecting means preventing a reflection of the gases back to the power source. Generally, the foregoing result is obtained through the use of flaps or valves so disposed that the gases are divided into a plurality of streams and wherein adjustability of the reflectors obtains greatly improved results, and disposal of the flaps permits maximum dispersion over a wide area.
Additionally, to transfer the reaction forces to the ground, occurring particularly in the case of closed valves, special moorings are provided, which provide a force-locking and a form-locking connection of the platform with the ground, the moorings being connected at the intersection of three structural members, thus providing maximum strength and holding power.
The invention will be fully understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, and the more detailed description herein:
FIG. I shows a vertical takeoff and landing plane shortly before lifting from a platform or shortly before setting down on the platform disclosed herein;
FIG. 2 shows a platform with parallel flaps but swinging in opposite directions to divide and direct the gas stream in opposite directions;
FIG. 3 shows a platform with the flaps directing the gas stream in four directions;
FIG. 4 shows a platform with round flaps or valves;
FIG. 5 is a section on line Il-Il of FIG. 2; and
FIG. 6 is a section on Line IV-IV of FIG. 4.
Referring to FIG. I, the hot gases of the propulsion lifting power units II, l2, 13 of the vertical takeoff and landing aircraft designated by I0, which are directed downwardly and by the means disclosed herein are deflected to prevent a reverse flow. As seen in the device 2]; of FIG. I, the gases from lifter power unit Ill are directed to the platform 30, and the gases of the power unit I2 are directed to the platform 31, the latter platform being stepped down so that the platforms are in different but parallel horizontal planes, although the desired result is obtained with a single level platform, as shown in FIGS. 2 through 4.
All of the platforms 21, 22, 23 and 24 of FIGS. 1 through 4 are provided with a plurality of openings to permit the gas to flow therethrough.
The openings 411i (see FIG. 5) in the platforms of FIGS. I through 4 are rectangular, being relatively narrow compared to their length. Each opening 41 is normally closed by alike shaped closure 40 which is hinged along one length of the closure, adjacent a platform portion, for opening in a downwardly direction. Each platform portion thus becomes a cross-slat member of lesser width than the closures so that a minimum volume of gas will impinge and be deflected thereby.
Associated with each closure or deflector is a stop member 42, d2, 42", etc., for limiting the downwardly opening of the closure, the stop member shown being an arcuate arm secured forwardly of closure hinge and extending rearwardly of the hinge to engage the adjacent platform and limit the opening of the closure. I
The dark outer ends of the stops 42 are removable tips which may be interchanged for longer ones whereby the closure may be adjusted to open at different angles, thereby changing the angles of the deflectors. The stop members 42 are also weighted at their outer ends to act as counter balances to return the closures to closed position, or spring means associated with the hinge may be provided.
As indicated in FIG. 5, the closures 40 are each at an acute angle to the platform 30, the angle increasing with each successive closure. This stream of gas flowing through the platform is thus subdivided into a plurality of streams deflected in the same direction but in overlying paths with minimum intermingling and reflection, as each deflector also constitutes a baffle, preventing reversal of the stream passing under it.
In the embodiment shown in FIG. 2, approximately half the closures 40 relative to the transverse centerline of plate 32 swing counterclockwise and the other half clockwise. In FIG. 3, the plate is divided into quadrants and the closures open to deflect the gases to the four quadrants.
Referring now to FIG. 6, the surface plate 34 is provided with a plurality of circular openings 51 normally closed by circular closures or valve SI, beveled edges on the periphery .of the openings and closures preventing the latter from passing through the openings. The closures 52 are disposed centrally of a guide member slidably mounted in an opening provided in a U guide stop member 52 depending from the plate 34. The valves are normally urged to closed position by the spring 53 interposed between the valve and stop member on the valve guide. I-lerein the gases will flow through the opening SI and the valves 50 will deflect them in all directions.
The platforms are anchored in position by means of moorings 61), secured to the supporting plates 67 at the foot of each leg or supporting column 65 which depends from the respective plates of the platforms. To add further strength,
diagonals 66 extend between the bottom of eachleg-tothe top of an adjacent leg. In this manner, the juncture 67 of the bottom of the legs with the diagonals, plates 67 and anchor tit) constitute an interlocking connection. The anchors may include flukes or barbs 61.
ll. A jet stream dispersion apparatus of the character described, comprising a flat plate member'having aijet stream inlet side and a jet stream outlet side, supporting means therefor, said plate member having a plurality of openings therethrough, a closure for each of the openings, means for slidably mounting said closures for reciprocal movement from an opened to a closed position, said mounting means including a substantially U-shaped bracket attachedto the outlet side of said plate and having means for slidably supporting said clo sure, said bracket being positioned relative to said closure such that when said closure is in the open position, a substantially unrestricted passageway is defined for @flow of the jet stream past said closure and said bracket, and biasing means normally holdingthe closures in closed position.
2. A jet stream dispersion apparatus as defined in claim I wherein the openings in said plate memberarecircular and said closures are similarly shaped.
3. A jet stream dispersion apparatus as defined in claim I wherein said biasing means comprises spring means.
4. A jet stream dispersion apparatus as defined in claim I wherein the sidewalls of said openings are flared radially outwardly toward said outlet side and the sidewallsof said closures are correspondingly flared to mate with the sidewalls of said opening.
5. The combination of a landingplatform and jet stream dispersing means for vertical takeoff and landing airplanes, said platform comprising a plate memberhaving an upper jet stream inlet side and a lower jet stream outlet side, rigid means for spacing said plate member from and. supporting said plate member above the. ground, said means lbeing of a strength to withstand the forces of the jet stream, said plate member havclosures are biased to the closed position in said openings.
8. The combination as defined in claim 5 wherein the sidewalls of said openings are flared radially outwardly toward said outlet side and the sidewalls of said closures are correspondingly flared to mate with the sidewalls of said opening.
9. The combination of claim 1 wherein said limiting means includes a U-shaped bracket attached to the outlet side of said plate and having means in its bight portion for slidably supporting said closure.