|Publication number||US3645650 A|
|Publication date||Feb 29, 1972|
|Filing date||Feb 9, 1970|
|Priority date||Feb 10, 1969|
|Publication number||US 3645650 A, US 3645650A, US-A-3645650, US3645650 A, US3645650A|
|Original Assignee||Laing Nikolaus|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (3), Referenced by (62), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent Laing  MAGNETIC TRANSMISSION  inventor: Nikolaus Laing, l-lofener Weg 35-37, 7141 Aldinger, near Stuttgart, Qermany [22} Filed: Feb. 9, 1970  Appl. No.: 9,916
 Foreign Application Priority Data Feb. 10, 1969 Austria ..A 1319/69 Dec. 30, 1969 Austria ..A 12101/69  US. Cl ..4l7/420, 310/104 1 S I l Int Cl ..F04d 25/06, H02k 49/06 15111 Fieid 01 Search ..310/103. 104; 417/420  References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,171,351 2/1916 Neuland ..3 10/103 51 Feb. 29, 1972 1,894,979 1/1933 Chubb ..3l0/103X 3,378,710 4/1968 Martin...... 1 ..3l0/104 Primary Examiner-D. X. Sliney Attorney-Pennie, Edmonds, Morton, Taylor and Adams [5 7] ABSTRACT A magnetic transmission with two pole rings separated by a conductor pole ring comprising a plurality of conductors with the two pole rings being independently arranged for rotation with respect to one another where the two pole rings each have a plurality of pole faces of alternating polarity with one of the pole rings having more pole faces than vthe other whereby rotation of one of the pole rings with respect to the other pole ring will be at a predetermined ratio.
42 Claims, 34 Drawing Figures PATENTEDFEBZB I972 3,645,650
SHEET OZUF 16 PAIENTQBFEB 29 1972 SHEET CEUF 16 PATENTEDFEBZQ m2 SHEET [NW 16 PAIENTEDFEBZSFHYZ 3,645,650
SHEET lUOF 16 PATENTEDFEBZS [072 3,645,650
sum 13 0F 16 PATENTEDFEBES 1012 3,645,650
ISHEEI 1 4 OF 16 PAIENIEDFEB ZS 1972 36457650 SHEET 15 0F 16 FIG. 72
PATENTEUFEB 29 I972 SHEEI ISOF 16 FIG. 74
MAGNETIC TRANSMISSION BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates to a magnetic transmission with three elements, one of which being arranged between the other two, at least one containing a permanent magnet or an electromagnet and at least two of the three elements being arranged for rotation independently of each other, whereby the two elements between which the third one is arranged are pole rings with permanent or induced poles facing this third element, the number of the poles in the two pole rings corresponding to the transmission ratio and their signs alternating along the circumference of the pole rings, whereby further the third element, which is arranged between the pole rings consists of magnetically relatively practically separated conductors of ferromagnetic material distributed over the circumference, whose direction of magnetization is readily reversible and whose number is larger than the number of poles of the pole ring having the smaller number of poles, the conductors having pole faces facing of the two pole rings, and whereby the centers of the pole faces of adjacent conductors (viewed circumferentially) which face the pole ring with the larger number of poles are relatively spaced at an angle which differs from the angular spacing of the centers of adjacent poles of this pole ring with the larger number of poles, as well as from an integral multiple thereof.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART A magnetic transmission with three relatively coaxially arranged elements, at least two of which are rotatable independently of each other, is known. Two of these elements consist of rings, separated by an airgap, with nonmeshing, magnetically conductive teeth, which form regions of alternately high and low magnetic reluctance, the difference between the number of teeth on the two rings being-small, so that, on one diameter only, two teeth of the outer ring are positioned exactly opposite two teeth of the inner ring. One of these rings may be permanently magnetized or provided with a winding which magnetizes the ring so that a magnetic field is produced which causes alignment of two oppositely positioned teeth of the rings. This transmission constitutes the magnetic analogue of the mechanical hypocycloid gear in which only two teeth of the outer ring mesh at any one time. Whereas extremely high stresses for power transmission can be employed with gears, only very small shear forces can be transmitted by magnetic transmissions with poles on either side of an airgap which enables contactless running. In consequence, only small torques can be transmitted by any known magnetic transmissions, so that they cannot be considered for the transmission of larger powers. Moreover, this kind of transmission is possible only for very high transmission ratios of, for example, lz or 1:50, but not transmission ratios of 1:2 or 1:5, so that this kind of transmission does not present a usable substitute for gears for the transmission of larger powers.
A frictionless magnetic transmission is also known, in which ferromagnetic coupling elements are separated by a predetermined distance from a driving and a driven part, the whole assembly being accommodated in a housing which provides a closed magnetic circuit. In this form of transmission, only one coupling element at a time carries the maximum magnetic flux, so that therefore only the principle of the stepping gear is applied, in which only a very small region of the circumference is actively employed for the transmission of torque at any one time. This magnetic transmission also has the disadvantages already mentioned.
Furthermore, a magnetic transmission is known, in which a driven magnetic system is coupled to a driving magnetic system by fields of magnetic force and the transmission ratio is formed by branching of the magnetic flux in a ferromagnetic coupling member. In a simple construction the direction of rotation of the output of this transmission is not defined. Only by means of a plurality of systems which are angularly displaced and axially juxtaposed, can the direction of rotation of such transmissions be predetermined. The latter, however, has the disadvantage that the effective flux is at any one time confined to a region of not more than A; of the axial length and that the magnetic paths become very large; for this reason again they are not suitable for the transmission of large powers.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION By comparison, it is the purpose of the invention to provide a magnetic transmission, capable of transmitting large mechanical powers with minimum material cost and any desired transmission ratio, and particularly at low transmission ratios.
In one embodiment this is accomplished by an arrangement, whereby the conductors are formed in such a manner, that the magnetic flux through one pole of the pole ring with the smaller number of poles is distributed over at least two poles of the pole ring with the larger number of poles. In a practical embodiment according to the invention of this type one conductor has at least two pole faces which face the pole ring with the larger number of poles.
In another embodiment of the invention at least one pole face of the conductor which faces the pole ring with the larger number of poles is at least as wide as the distance between two adjacent pole centers of this pole ring.
Preferably the three elements of a magnetic transmission according to the invention are in the form of three concentric rings. If, with this arrangement, the number of conductors equals twice the number of poles of the inner pole ring rotating at the higher speed, then the alternating magnetic field which the driving pole ring generates in each conductor can be transformed into a two-phase, circular and substantially sinusoidal rotating field with phase symmetry, so that the conditions which apply to the driven pole ring are the same as for the rotor of a three-phase induction motor.
The radial flux, which in an electric motor is provided by windings, is generated by permanent magnets of a rotating pole ring in these magnetic transmissions. By the use of high quality magnetic materials, the same induction as in the case of an electric motor can be provided, so that the transmittable torque correspond to those of electric motors having rotors of the same size. By contrast with simple motors, magnetic transmissions may also be built in synchronous form, if the driven pole ring is not in the form of an induction rotor (squirrel cage rotor) as in the case of an electric motor, but in the form of a permanent magnet rotor. This is not possible in the case of an electric motor, since the rotor would have to be accelerated to its full speed in l/50 (or l /60) of a second, whereas the magnetic transmission is driven and therefore accelerated over a longer period at a lower angular acceleration.
By providing two permanent magnet pole rings for the input and output, all eddy current losses are eliminated; in the case of an electric motor, these usually account for more than 50 percent of all losses. The only source of losses left is the iron loss in the conductors, which however only amounts to a few watts per kilogram of iron. The efficiency of the new magnetic transmission, if both pole rings contain permanent magnets, is therefore nearly unity, which is of decisive importance, having regard to the large powers which are to be transmitted.
The main area of application of the magnetic transmission is the conversion of the speed of mains-fed induction motors whose maximum speed is limited. Since power is the product of torque and speed, the volume of the driven rotor, by comparison with rotors of electric motors of equal rating, will be smaller than that of the electric driving rotor, in inverse proportion to the speed ratio.
If the number of the conductors is three times that of the poles of the fast pole ring with the smaller number of poles, it is also possible to produce a three-phase circular rotating field, which however is of advantage only where the degree of lack of uniformity of rotation which is dependent on the number of poles could be objectionable.
unina: tuna It is emphasized that in a magnetic transmission according to the invention, any of the three elements can be the driving and any of the three elements the driven element. It is further emphasized that one of the three elements must be held stationary or supported by a stationary system, which is usually done by supporting it by a housing element.
Transmissions according to the invention may be built up in the form of a cylinder, superimposed by a hollow cylinder and a further hollow cylinder surrounding them. The inner and outer pole rings may also be arranged relatively eccentrically. The airgaps need, however, not necessarily lie on cylindrical envelopes; they may also lie on conical envelopes, spherical surfaces and planes. In the latter version the arrangement consists of three discs, and it is not necessary for the rotating discs to be geometrically coaxial.
As a rule, a substantially sinusoidal rotating field is desired, since this ensures a high degree of uniformity of rotation. By simple, geometric means the characteristics of the rotating field may be influenced in such a way that stepwise rotation results, i.e., that angular oscillations are superimposed on the rotation. The limiting case is the conversion of rotation into a pure oscillation without rotation of the driven pole ring. Irregular and oscillator movements are often desired in mixing, grinding and conveying devices. A preferred field of application of the new magnetic transmissions is in drives for runners for pumps for liquids or gases. These runners must be driven at high speeds and the high speed pole ring of the magnetic transmission is therefore assembled into a unit with the impeller of the pump, the low speed pole ring being driven by the motor. In this way the third element, the conductor ring, is separated from the pump runner by a wall, so that hermetic scaling is effected. I-Iermetically sealed pumps with thin-walled, magnetically permeable separating walls are known. The invention enables the construction of pumps in which the walls through which magnetic forces are fed into the interior of the pump can be made of any desired thickness, so that hermetically sealed pumps made with magnetic transmissions in accordance with the invention can be manufactured for pressures which can be practically as high as desired and at which thin-walled, magnetically permeable separating walls of magnetic couplings would tear. For such pumps also magnetic transmissions with a transmission ratio m=l are meaningful.
Since the torque is transmitted by a rotating magnetic field, the new magnetic transmissions can also be combined with magnetic bearing systems, so that besides contactless transmission of the torque, the bearing can also be contactless, except for a support at the center of a spherical section.
The magnetic transmission in accordance with the invention may be classified according to their geometric parameters; these include the number of poles of the low speed and high speed pole ring, the number of conductors, the number of pole areas of the conductors, as well as the spacing of the pole areas of adjacent conductors. Accordingly, let, by definition:
p-Number of poles of the low speed pole ring (large number of poles) q Number of poles of the high speed pole ring (small number of poles) m-Transmission ratio of the transmission, where m always r-Number of conductors r,,=Number of pole areas of the conductor facing the low speed pole ring r =Number of pole areas of the conductor facing the high speed pole ring j=Spacing of the pole centers of the pole areas facing the low speed pole ring, of different adjacent conductors, relative to the spacing of the centers of adjacent poles of the low speed pole ring.
The highest transmission ratio is always given by the ratio In this case the conductor ring formed by conductors l7 is held stationary. If, instead of the conductor ring, the low speed pole ring is held stationary, then, for the same embodiment, we get the lower transmission ratio of the conductor ring to the high speed pole ring,
Using the same transmission, we get the lowest transmission ratio when the high speed pole ring is held stationary. We then get between the low speed pole ring (11) and the conductor ring, the transmission ratio All the transmissions in accordance with the invention thus enable three transmission ratios to be obtained, the direction of rotation for the transmission ratio m changing in the case of the ratio m These speed ratios are exactly true only where two pole rings are magnetized by permanent or electromagnets. If one of the pole rings is in the form of a hysteresis magnet or a short-circuited rotor like the rotor of an electric motor, then the slip of such a pole ring is superimposed on the transmission ratio. In magnetic transmissions according to the invention, it is not necessary for the driving portion to be provided with permanent or electromagnets. It is also permissible for the driven pole ring only to effect the magnetization. According to a preferred feature of the invention, a claw pole construction is provided for the magnetic material, in which adjacent poles of the same polarity are short-circuited together by soft magnet rings, so that a large portion of the entire magnetic material is operative at all times.
As a result of the particular arrangement of the conductors conducting the magnetic flux between the pole rings the active magnetic material of the pole ring with the larger number of poles is almost completely utilized. This has the effect that the torque transmitted by the magnetic transmission is much higher than the torque transmitted in the known magnetic transmission, in which only that portion of the active magnetic material, which corresponds to the transmission ratio, contributes to the torque transmission.
Some advantageous forms of the magnetic transmissions will now be described with reference to the drawings, as well as some typical applications of such magnetic transmissions, and these will also be described in combination with a magnetic bearing arrangement for one of the pole rings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 shows a preferred form of the magnetic transmission with odd series cascading of the transmission ratio m, in the same direction of rotation.
FIG. 2 shows another preferred form with odd series cascading of the transmission ratio m, in the opposite direction of rotation.
FIG. 3 shows a further preferred form with even series cascading of the transmission ratio m, in the same direction of rotation.
FIG. 4 shows even series cascading of the transmission ratio m, in the opposite direction of rotation, analogous to FIG. 2.
FIG. 5 shows a spherical construction of the magnetic transmission according to the invention, preferably for pumps.
FIG. 6 shows a developed view of a metallic strip for producing the conductors according to the invention.
FIG. 7 shows different forms of a magnetic transmission according to the invention, in which the magnetic flux from the permanent magnets is conducted to the airgap by magnetically conductive pole shoes.
FIG. 8 shows an example of the system of motion in a magnetic transmission according to the invention, in accordance with FIG. 1.
FIG. 9 shows the construction according to the invention of the magnetic transmission for a transmission ratio of 1:1 and FIG. shows further forms of the magnetic transmissions according to the invention.
FIG. 11 shows a short-circuited rotor in a magnetic transmission according to the invention with a special construction of conductor ring.
FIG. 12 shows a stirring device with a stepdown magnetic transmission according to the invention.
FIG. 13 shows a borehole pump with a step-up magnetic transmission according to the invention.
FIG. 14 shows a pump with a magnetic transmission according to the invention.
- FIG. 15 shows a turbocompressor drive with a magnetic transmission according to the invention.
DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS FIGS. la-ld show forms of the magnetic transmission according to the invention, to which the mathematical law applies, where k is zero or any desired natural number. Moreover, for all the transmissions shown in this figure r=4 and were chosen.
Then we get for FIG. 1a with Fl m=5 FIG. lb with k=2 m=9 FIG. It with k=3 m=l 3 Reference numeral 1 designates the low speed pole ring with the salient north poles 12, which, in FIGS. la, b, c are m in number, and the salient south poles 13 which, in FIGS. la, b, c are also m in number. Reference numeral 14 designates, in FIGS. la-d, the high speed pole ring, the reference numeral 15 in each case designating the north pole and 16 the south pole.
In FIGS. la-lc was selected, i.e., the lowest possible value. Then, in accordance with the invention, the number of conductors 17 is preferably twice this value, viz 4.
In the embodiments shown in FIGS. lald each particular conductor has a plurality of pole faces facing the outer pole ring, i.e., in the embodiments shown in FIGS. 1a and 1d two each, in those shown in FIG. lb three and in those shown in FIG. 1c four.
For the example in which the transmission ratio FIG. 1d shows an arrangement which, compared with FIG. la, is characterized by twice the number of elements l2, l3, 15, 17, the transmission ratio m being the same.
In accordance with the invention, any desired integral'multiple can be selected instead of the doubling described. It will be seen that the 4-pole arrangement of FIG. 1d has arisen from developing the circumference of FIG. la twice, so that the same laws must apply to the aforesaid multiples as to the simplest arrangement, i.e., the 2-pole arrangement, whose operation will be described in greater detail with reference to FIG. 8.
FIGS. 2a-2c show other preferred arrangements of the magnetic transmission according to the invention, which follow the mathematical law where k is any desired natural number, but not zero. Furthermore, in this figure,
were selected for all the transmissions shown.
Then we get for FIG. 2a with k--I m='3 FIG. 2b with k=2 m=-7 FIG. 20 with k=3 m= l I In FIGS. Za-Zc the same reference numerals are used for parts performing the same functions, as in FIGS. la-ld.
FIGS. 3a-3d show further preferred forms of the magnetic transmission according to the invention, which follow the mathematical law where k is zero or any desired natural number. Furthermore, in these figures,
Then we get for FIG. 3a with k=0 m=2 FIG. 3b with k=l m=4 FIG. 3c with k=2 m=6 FIG. 3d with k=3 m=8 In FIGS. 3a-3d the same reference numerals are used for parts performing the same functions, as in FIGS. la-ld.
FIGS. 4a-4d show further preferred forms of the magnetic transmission according to the invention, which follow the mathematical law where k is any desired natural number, but not zero.
Furthermore, in these figures,
j=l .5 andj =3.5
were chosen Then we get for FIG. 4a with k=l m=-4 FIG. 4b with k=2 m=6 FIG. 40 with k=3 m =8 FIG. M with k=4 m =l 0 In FIGS. 4a-4d the same reference numerals are used for pans performing the same functions, as in FIGS. la-ld.
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|U.S. Classification||417/420, 310/104|
|International Classification||H02K5/128, H02K49/06, H02K5/12, H02K49/00|
|Cooperative Classification||H02K49/06, H02K5/128|