|Publication number||US3645904 A|
|Publication date||Feb 29, 1972|
|Filing date||Jul 27, 1967|
|Priority date||Jul 27, 1967|
|Publication number||US 3645904 A, US 3645904A, US-A-3645904, US3645904 A, US3645904A|
|Inventors||Willis J Beach|
|Original Assignee||Sugar Beet Products Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (65), Classifications (23)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
United States Patent 3,645,904 SKIN CLEANER Willis J. Beach, Saginaw, Mich., assignor to Sugar Beet Products Company, Saginaw, Mich. N0 Drawing. Filed July 27, 1967, Ser. No. 656,326 Int. Cl. Clld 9/04 US. Cl. 252-89 10 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A skin cleaner of the type having plastic synthetic resin materials in a fine state of comminution included therein so as to impart a scrubbing or mechanical detersive action thereto.
GENERAL DESCRIPTION This invention relates to a novel skin cleaner and more particularly to skin cleaners having plastic synthetic resin material in a fine state of comminution included therein so as to impart a scrubbing or mechanical detersive action thereto. While the concept of utilizing plastic synthetic resin material in a fine state of comminution is also contemplated for use with dry powder, granulated, or bar soap compositions, it is particularly intended for use with skin cleaners of the cream, lotion and liquid types. The plastic synthetic resin materials contemplated herein are relatively soft or resilient at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure.
It has been old in the art to provide'liquid abrasive cleaners or cleansers which are provided with abrasive particles therein. The patent of Gangwich (2,210,286) and Saperstein et al. (3,092,111) are illustrative of such cleaners where it is contemplated that the abrasive utilized in the liquid is comprised of such well known mineral-based materials as aluminum oxide, synthetic alumina, Corundum, volcanic ash, diatomaceous earth, ben tonite, Velspar, humum and mixtures thereof and siliceous abrasives such as silica.
However, it has been found that skin cleaners utilizing mineral based abrasives have problems associated with their use. Such abrasives are inherently comprised of substantially non-resilient particles which are relatively hard and which have sharp surfaces so as to effect macro or micro abrasions of the skin. Such cleaners of the prior art have been found to scratch or otherwise damage other surfaces in connection with which they are used. For instance, such abrasive particles cause excessive wear to plastic or metal dispensers from which cleaners utilizing such abrasive particles are dispensed.
Thus, the use of cleaners or cleansers of the priar art which utilize such abrasive particles not only may irritate or harm the skin being cleansed therewith, but have also been known to damage other surfaces upon which or in connection with which they are used.
In addition, the use of such abrasive cleansers of the prior known art have utilized abrasive particles of mineral or inorganic nature which are relatively heavy and which create maintenance problems in that they are difiicult to be flushed and washed away from surfaces upon which they have been deposited or from plumbing in industrial wash drains into which they have been poured.
It has therefore been an object of this invention to provide a cleaner for skin which has plastic synthetic resin particles provided therein which impart a scrubbing or mechanical detersive action thereto, but which does not irritate the skin or damage the surface upon which it is used.
A further object of this invention is to provide a cleaner for skin which does not cause excessive wear to plastic or metal dispenser containers from which it is dispensed.
Yet another object of this invention is to provide a method of preparing finely comminuted plastic synthetic resin particles and incorporating them into a skin cleaner compos1t1on.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a skin cleaner which utilizes plastic synthetic resin scrubber particles therein but which does not clog drains into which it is poured.
The preferred embodiment of this invention consists of the addition of finely comminuted plastic synthetic resin scrubber particles to 1) skin cleansing creams of soap and non-soap nature, (2) those of the so called waterless type and (3) skin cleaners of liquid or lotion consistency. The plastic synthetic resin scrubber particles are added in amounts and particle sizes suitable to impart a moderate but persistent degree of scrubbing action during use.
The preferred embodiment of the invention utilizes plastic synthetic resins which are selected from among those known to be neither a primary irritant nor an allergic sensitizer when in contact with the skin. Criteria used in the selection of a suitable plastic resin for forming the plastic resin scrubber particles are primarily 1) safety to the skin (inertness), (2) compatability with ingredients, to products considered, and (3) low abrasion properties. Additional criteria utilized in selecting suitable plastic resin materials are 1) density, and (2) cost. The most suitable plastics found were the relatively soft and inert plastics of the polyolefin family. More particularly, they are polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene. How ever, any plastic resins having the same general overall characteristics would be suitable, provided that the size and configuration of the particles are as described herein.
The particle size of the comminuted plastic resin material should be such that all particles pass a 40 mesh screen, US. Standard Sieve. In some applications, maximum particle sizes are such that about 99% of the particles pass through 60 and mesh screens. All sieve ranges and particle size designations are made with reference to 11.8. Sieve Series, ASTM Specification E-11-61, which is incoroorated herein by reference.
The following Table I sets forth the relative hardness of three of the preferred plastic scrubber materials:
TABLE I.PLASTIC SCRUBBER PROPERTIES As shown in the foregoing Table 1, these plastic scrubber particles have a relatively light density and thus can be more easily and more completely rinsed away from the skin during a conventional Wash with soap and water. Further, they are thus more easily flushed and washed away with water from surfaces on which they have been deposited or from elbows and TS in industrial wash drains than in the case of the heavier scrubber particles or of particles of abrasive mineral or inorganic nature. As shown in Table I, the preferred density range is about 0.900 to about 1.100. The preferred hardness ranges would be about as shown in Table I.
As previously mentioned, another advantage of the scrubber particles formed of relatively soft plastic resin material as against the harder scrubber particles of mineral origin is that the plastic particles do not significantly create abrasive wear to plastic or metal dispenser parts. With over 100,000 cream type dispenser units made of rigid polyvinyl chloride in use today in industry, scrubber particle materials supplied in cream, lotion and liquid hand cleaners must not cause undue or excessive wear to such dispenser parts.
The use of plastic resin material for formation of the scrubber particles is advantageous due to the physical form of the individual particles. The plastic resin particles appear to be amorphous and have relatively fewer of the plane faces and sharp points and edges usually associated with crystals such as found in the abrasive particles of mineral or inorganic origin presently in use. While the plastic scrubber particles utilized in the instant invention are non-uniform in shape, a large amount of the sharp points are fused and blunted by the heat and attrition of the grinding process. The result is plastic particles which impart a moderate but persistent scrubbing action When placed in the cleaner but without having or imparting a coarse, unpleasant feel to the cleaner itself.
Another configuration of plastic particles investigated for incorporation as a scrubber is the so-called microballons made from phenolic resin, urea-formaldehyde or polystyrene, among others. These are the hollow spheres used for making the syntactic foams. Particle size of the phenolic and urea-formaldehyde microballons range, in general, from 20 to 60 microns. This range was found too small for effective scrubber use of spherical particles. However, by screening large samples enough microballon material was collected in the range of 40 to 60 mesh (420 to 250 microns) to offer satisfactory scrubber action.
Field trials have indicated that skin cleansers incorporating plastic resin scrubber particles have been found to offer quicker and more effective removal of a wide variety of industrial soils than do liquid or semi-solid (cream or lotion) cleaners not containing such particles.
Hand cleaners of the waterless type containing plastic scrubber particles in the amounts, types and particle size as disclosed hereinafter can be formulated to be safe to the skin and to be as effective in removing greasy or tenacious soils, such as adhesives and partially cured resins, as are waterless cleaners using more active solvents containing aromatics, kerosenes and chlorinated solvents which are considered as skin hazards by dermatologists.
It is within the concept of this invention to further enhance the stability of the dispersion by the addition of suitable dipsersing agents to prevent flocculation of the individual particles into agglomerates.
These dispersing agents have the property of dispersing particles and droplets. They are used in the low viscosity liquid compositions to disperse the plastic resin particles throughout the cleaning compositions. Such dispersing agents are not necessary in the heavier viscosity cream compositions. The stability of the dispersion can also be enhanced by addition of a thickening agent to increase the viscosity of the suspending medium.
In order to avoid skin irritation, hand cleaners of the waterless type can be formuated with a low index of skin irritation as determined by standard dermatologic tests with animals. Such :hand cleaners have an oil base of mineral oil and/or highly purified hydrocarbons such as isoparaffin mixtures from the alkylate process of the petroleum industry. Formulated as above, these cleaners are not as effective against greasy or tenacious soils, such as adhesives, coatings, and partially cured resins as are the waterless cleaners previously described as using more reactive solvents containing aromatics, kerosenes, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of waterless hand cleaners with mineral oil and/ or alkylate base are held to be substantially improved against the above-named soils, without sacrifice of skin safety, by the incorporation of cfinely comminuted plastic resin scrubber particles therein as taught by the instant invention.
In the selection of ingredients in the makeup if the final cleaner product, it is contemplated that materials will be utilized that are compatable, both chemically and physically, with the above-mentioned plastic resin scrubber particles.
The following examples of formulations provide cleaners in which the comminuted plastic resin material is utilized so as to enhance soil removal by offering a scrubbing action. The formulas in the following examples are merely used to illustrate the teachings of this invention.
EXAMPLE I A waterless skin cleaner which has the following compositions:
Ingredients Parts Function 1. Mixed isopropanolamine 1. 50 2. Tergitol NPX 1. 50 Secondary emulsifier and wetting agent.
3. Tricthanolamlne 1.36 4. Lanolln (anhy.) 3 Emollient. 5. Isoparaifenic oil base 53. 42 il base. 6. Tallow base fatty acid- 8.00 7. Polystyrene (60 mesh) 4. 00 Plastic scrubber. 8. Methyl para hydroxy benzoate 30 Preservative. 9. Scent .20 Scent. 10. Water 29.42
In the foregoing example, Items 1, 3 and 6 form a soap which is the primary emulsifier.
EXAMPLE II A skin cleaner which has the following composition:
Ingredients Parts Function 1. Potash cocoanut oil soap 15. Soap. 2. Alkyl Napthalene potassium sulfonate 0. 4 Dlspersing agent.
3. Scent 0.5 Scent. 4. Polyethylene particles 10.0 Scrubber. 5. Water 74. 1
EXAMPLE III A lotion skin cleaner having the following composition:
Ingredients Parts Function 1. Ethanol amine salts of saturated fatty 30. 0 Soap and primary acids of the roup havin 012 to C18- emulsifier. 2. Coco diethano amine con ensate 2.0 Secondary emulsifier and Wetting agent. 3. Sodium carboxymethylcellulose thick- .2 Thickener.
ener. 4. Lanolin. 1. 0 Emollient. 5. Bacteriostat .3 Bactexiostat. 6. Dispersant alkyl napthalene potassium 2 Dispersing agent.
sulfonate polymer dispersant. 7. Scent 0.6 Scent. 8. Polyethylene particle scrubbers 10.0 Scrubber. 9. Water 55.8
EXAMPLE IV A liquid skin cleaner having the following composition:
Ingredients Parts Function 1. Sodium cocoamid of protein hydrolyzate 6. 0 Detergent. 2. Ethoxylated alkyl phenols or ethoxylated pri- 0.5 Do.
mary and secondary alcohols. 3. Linear alkylate sulionate 11. 0 Do. 4. Ethylene glycol mono stearate 2. 0 Emulsifier. 5. Coco diethanolamine condensate-.. 1.0 Thickener. 6. arm 'n 1. 0 Emollient. 7. Alkyl napthalene potassium sulfonate polymer- 0. 2 Dispersant. 8. 0.3 Scent. 9. 8.0 Scrubber. 10. Wat 70.0
EXAMPLE V A lotion skin cleaner having the following composition:
Ingredients Parts Function 1. Sodium coco amide of protein hydrolyzate 6. 9 Detergent. 2. Ethoxylated alkyl phenols or ethoxylated 2.0 Do.
primary and secondary alcohols 3. Linear alkylate sulfonate- 11. 0 Do. 4. Sodium carboxy methyl cc 0.2 Thickener. 5. Coco diethyl amine oxide 2.0 Viscosiy control agen 6. Lanoliu 1. 0 Emollient.- 7. Scout 0.3 Scent. 8. Polyethylene particles- 8.0 Scrubber. 9. Water 69.5
5 EXAMPLE VI A semi-solid skin cleaner having the following composition:
Ingredients Parts Function 1. Ethanolamine salts of saturated fatty acids of 25.0 Soap.
the group having Gil-C18. 2. Coco diethanol amine condensate 2.0 Detergent. 3. Sodium carboxy methyl cellulose. 0.2 Thickener. 4. Lanolin 1.0 Emoll1 ent. 5. Para chloro meta xylenol 0. 3 Bacteriostat. 6. Scent 0.6 Scent. 7. Polyethylene particles 10.0 Scrubber. 8. Water 61.0
EXAMPLE VII A waterless cleaner of semi-solid the following composition:
consistency having A waterless skin cleaner of lotion consistency having the following composition:
Ingredients Parts Function 1. Coco diethanol amine condensate 1. Neutralizing agent.
2. Ethoxylated alkyl phenols or ethoxy- 1. Emulsiiying agent.
lated primary and secondary aldohols.
3. Oleyl sarcosine 0.3 Anti-corrosion agent.
4. Polyoxyethylene coco amine- 0. 46 Emuls iy ng agent.
5. Carboxy vinyl polymer 0.5 Emulsiiylng agent and thlckener.
6. Odorless mineral spirits 30. 0 Oil base.
7. Lanolin 1. 0 Emolhent 8. Para chloro meta xylen 0. 3 Preservative.
9. Scen 0. 4 Scent.
10. Polyethylene plastic particles 8.0 Scrubber.
11. Water 56.6
In the foregoing examples, it is contemplated that the plastic scrubber particles can be replaced in each composition by particles formed from any of the plastic materials set forth in Table I or any other plastic resin material having the same general properties. Thus, the plastic scrubber particles which are utilized could be of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene or any other plastic resin materials having the density and hardness characteristics set forth in the foregoing Table I.
It has been found that the range limit of 40 mesh screen, U.S. Standard Sieve is critical. In fact, about 99% of the plastic resin scrubber particles should pass through a 40 mesh screen. Thus, the particles should be substantially about 420 microns or less in size, depending on the particular application involved, i.e. cream, lotion, or liquid cleaners.
Further, it has been found that any particles below 200 mesh screen, U.S. Standard Sieve (about 74 microns) are not effective for use in skin cleaners.
Tests have shown that an optimum performance for use in waterless skin cleaners is obtained with resin or plastic scrubber particles which pass through 80 mesh screen, U.S. Standard Sieve. For use in semi-solid soap, optimum performance is obtained by use of plastic scrubber particles which pass through a 60 mesh screen, U.S. Standard Sieve.
Generally, particles which pass through 80 mesh, U.S. Standard Sieve (177 microns) and stay on 200 mesh, U.S. Standard Sieve (74 microns) fall in the desirable range of particle size for use in skin cleaners.
Particles which pass through 60 mesh, U.S. Standard Sieve (250 mircrons) and stay on 100 mesh, U.S. Standard Sieve (149 microns), or even on 200 mesh, U.S.
Standard Sieve (74 microns), are permissible to impart a noticeable scrub feel for thick lather product.
While several skin cleaner formulations have been set forth by way of example, it is pointed out that the broad generic invention consists of mixing into any skin cleaning composition finely divided particles of a resilient plastic resin material. The particle size, particle configuration and amount of the plastic particles being such that the cleaning composition with the plastic scrubber particles therein leaves the skin surface free from scratches or abrasions from cleaning while imparting a scrubbing or mechanical detersive action thereto.
It has been found that skin cleaning compositions of the liquid, lotion, semi-solid cream, and cream types are provided utilizing between about 3 and 15 percent of the finely divided plastic resin particles therein. These percentages may vary slightly depending on the particle size and density of the plastic material utilized to form the particles.
Thus, the basic concept embodied in this invention is the provision of a skin cleaning composition having mechanical or detersive scrubbing action or ability without the use of common mineral or other inorganic abrasive particles therein as has been the practice in the prior known art.
Further, this invention teaches a method for preparation of cleaning compositions for the removal of soils from skin surfaces to be cleaned by contact of the cleaning composition with the skin surface to be cleaned and with the soils thereon. The method consists of blending finely divided particles of a resilient plastic resin material into the cleaning composition, the particle size, particle configuration and amount of plastic material being such that the cleaning composition imparts a scrubbing or mechanical detersive action so as to remove soil from the skin surfaces being cleaned while leaving the surface substantially free of scratches or abrasions from cleaning.
The preceding description and examples serve to teach how this invention is practiced and applied. Modifications and equivalents will be obvious to those skilled in the art. The invention is therefore to be limited only by the following claims.
1. A skin cleaning composition which comprises: in admixture with a conventional skin cleaning composition which is substantially free of non-resilient abrasive materials, finely divided particles of a resilient synthetic plastic material having a density between about 0.900 and 1.100, a particle size substantially in the range of from about 74 microns to about 420 microns, a particle configuration which is substantially free of non-resilient sharp points and edges, where the particles of the synthetic plastic material leave the skin surface substantially free of abrasion, sensitization or irritation from cleaning and wherein the composition contains between 3 and 15 percent of plastic particles.
2. The composition of claim 1 wherein the synthetic plastic material is a polyolefin.
3. The skin cleaning composition of claim 1 which is a liquid wherein said plastic particles are dispersed in suspension in the liquid.
4. The skin cleaning composition of claim 1 which is a semi-solid skin cleaning cream wherein said plastic particles are dispersed in the cream.
5. The skin cleaning composition of claim 1 which is a waterless type skin cleaner wherein said plastic particles are dispersed in the cleaner.
6. The method of soil removal with skin cleaning compositions which comprises: cleaning the skin surface with a conventional skin cleaning composition which is substantially free of non-resilient abrasive materials and which is in admixture with finely divided particles of a resilient synthetic plastic material having a density between about 0.900 and 1.100, a particle size substantially in the range of from about 74 microns to about 420 microns, a particle configuration which is substantially free of non-resilient sharp points and edges, where the particles of the synthetic plastic material leave the skin surface substantially free of abrasion, sensitization or irritation from cleaning and wherein the composition contains between 3 and 15 percent of plastic particles.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein the synthetic plastic material is a polyolefin.
8. The method of claim 6 wherein the skin cleaning composition is a liquid wherein said particles are disperse in suspension in the liquid.
9. The method of claim 6 wherein the skin cleaning composition is a semi-solid skin cleaning cream wherein said particles are dispersed in the cream.
10. The method of claim 6 wherein the skin cleaning composition is a waterless type skin cleaner wherein said particles are dispersed in the cleaner.
References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS LEON D. ROSDOL, Primary Examiner W. E. SCHULZ, Assistant Examiner US. Cl. X.R.
13440; 252120*, 130, Digest 5
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|U.S. Classification||510/139, 510/159, 510/157, 510/418, 510/158, 134/40, 510/475, 510/417|
|International Classification||A61Q19/10, C11D3/37, A61K8/81, A61Q1/14|
|Cooperative Classification||A61Q19/10, C11D3/3749, A61K2800/28, C11D3/37, A61Q1/14, A61K8/8111|
|European Classification||A61Q19/10, C11D3/37C2, A61K8/81C2, C11D3/37, A61Q1/14|