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Publication numberUS3649157 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 14, 1972
Filing dateJun 12, 1970
Priority dateJun 13, 1969
Publication numberUS 3649157 A, US 3649157A, US-A-3649157, US3649157 A, US3649157A
InventorsKlauer Friedrich W, Mewes Fritz W
Original AssigneeMewes Fritz W, Klauer Friedrich W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gas mantle
US 3649157 A
Abstract
A gas mantle for illumination purposes for gases having a calorific content higher than about 7,000 (K.cal.)/Nm3.
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

@nited States Patent Eilauer et a1.

[54] GAS MANTLE {72] inventors: Friedrich W. Klauer, Bachstelzenweg l5;

Fritz W. Mewes, Braunlager Strasse 24, both of Berlin, Germany Filed: June 12,1970

i121] Appl. No.1 45,627

[4 1 Mar. 14, 1972 [58] Field olseareh ..43l/l00,107, 109

[56] References Cited UNlTED STATES PATENTS 803,835 11/1905 Lungren ..431/100 760,317 5/ 1904 Dickson 43 1/100 Primary ExaminerEdward G. Favors {30] Foreign Application Priority Data Attorney smythe & Moore June 13, 1969 Germany ..P 19 30 249.9 June 26, 1969 Germany... ....P 19 33 209.9 [571 ABSTRACT Oct. 10, 1969 Germany ..P 19 52 178.9 A gas gl for illumination purposes for gases having a calorific content higher than about 7,000 (K.cal.)/Nm. 52 us. Cl ..431/100 [51] Int. Cl ..F21h 1/02 19 Claims, 1 Drawing Figure GAS MANTLE The present invention relates to a gas mantle for gases having a calorific content higher than 7,000 (K,cal.)/Nm more particularly natural and petroleum gas, and specifically to those kinds of gas mantles referred to as preformed (hard inverted) and self-forming(soft inverted") mantles. Thus, the invention does not relate to gas mantles for use with ordinary illuminating or town gas, because the latter has a calorific content ofonly about 4,000 to 5,000 (K.cal.)/Nm

After the knitted fabric has been made and saturated with illuminating salts, generally a mixture of thorium and cerium oxides, preformed gas mantles are burnt off at a relatively high gas pressure by the manufacturer, thereby receiving their typical shape and they are then sent out of the factory. On the other hand, self-forming mantles are sold before they are burnt off, and when they are still in their changeable form, and are first burnt off by the user, generally on the burner on which they then remain permanently mounted.

in hitherto known gas mantles for gases having a calorific content higher than 7,000 (Kcal.)/Nm the area represented by its closed end, does not become illuminated.

It is thus an object of the invention to construct such a gas mantle in such a manner that its closed end area is illuminated as brightly as the other parts thereof.

The invention consists in such a manner that its closed end area is illuminated as brightly as the other parts thereof.

The invention consists in a gas mantle for use with an ignitable gas having a calorific content higher than 7,000 (K.cal.)/Nm such as natural gas and petroleum gas, and comprising a fabric sheath closed at one end, and mounted at its open end on an annular supporting base by a securing means for mounting with respect to a nozzle arrangement for supplying such gas, wherein the area of the said closed end is strengthened to impart thereto a greater resistance to the flow ofsuch gas than the remaining part thereof.

The invention is based on the observation that by strengthening the closed end of the mantle the core of the flame, which is relatively cool, is repressed or pushed back and thus is prevented from touching said closed end.

According to a feature of the invention, the resistance to gas flow is made approximately equal over the whole closed area by inserting an additional portion of fabric in that area. Thereby, no accumulations of mantle material are in the closed area which would have a disadvantageous effect on the luminosity. Moreover, this feature is particularly advantageous for a self-forming gas mantle, because the gas mantle is relatively regularly rounded off in the closed area to form a smooth dome and the mantle is regularly formed as a whole. Consequently, the mantle adapts itself well to the shape of the flame. A further advantage of a gas mantle according to the invention consists in that it can be manufactured in an economically advantageous manner with the aid of tools used for manufacturing inverted gas mantles.

A further feature of the invention resides in the fact that the mantle is shaped to suit the shape of the flame, more particularly in regard to its length (a natural gas flame is longer than an illuminating or town gas flame). By means of both measures, i.e., the increased length of the mantle compared with ordinary mantles for use with town or an illuminating gas, and the increase in resistance to gas flow in the domed area, a gas mantle is obtained which, on the one hand, is illuminated equally brightly throughout its area, since its domed area is as bright as the rest and, on the other hand, is very strong. (By

only increasing the flow resistance in a too large closed area,

an accumulation of material arises which has a vantageous effect on the luminosity; tle long, this may be too long in whereby its stability suffers.)

in a particular embodiment of the invention, the length of the strengthened dome is approximately 1/20 to l/3 of the distance between the securing means and the apex. This signifies approximately that the diameter of the area of high resistance to gas flow in the unburnt state of the gas mantle is between mm, and approximately 60 mm. Preferably, the diameter is between approximately 45 mm. and 55 mm.

disadby only making the mancertain circumstances,

the ma n P It is advantageous for self-formed gas mantles if the yarn of the mantle has a thickness which is between about 240 den and about 500 den for artificial silk, more particularly about 300 den, and which corresponds to this thickness for other yarn material. Accordingly, a relatively thick yarn is used. The mesh number in the main part of the gas mantle in the crude state of the knitted fabric is between approximately 5 and I0, more particularly 7 or 8 meshes, per four cm.: the mesh number of the reinforced portion is 10 to l7 meshes per four cm., more particularly [3 meshes per four cm. In this way, the gas streaming out of the mantle meets with a relatively high flow resistance in the mantle wall, whereby the pressure within the gas mantle is increased. The higher the pressure within the mantle the better shape it assumes.

When the invention is practised for the manufacture of a self-formed gas mantle, it is particularly suitable even if the gas with which it is used, is at a pressure less than 500 mm. water column, measured at the burner input, i.e. it is more suitable for use with gases in the low pressure range.

in order that the invention may be more clearly understood, reference now be made to the accompanying drawing which shows one embodiment thereof by way of example, in side elevation.

In the drawing, a gas mantle is shown at 1 as generally having an approximately elliptical longitudinal section and is secured to an annular supporting base or ring 2. inserted into the mantle at its closed end which is formed into a domed area, is an additional portion of textile fabric material shown at 3. The presence of this additional material increases the resistance to gas flow in the domed area and this increase may be 1 V2 to three times the resistance afforded by the remainder of the mantle fabric. In a particular case, the resistance is twice as high in the area 3 than that in the remainder of the mamls-wT elen th Llpt r r sths t Q Q pp ets:

mats si/JQQ tel th gth 2 between sszu insms nstin the form of a tie thread 4, attaching the mantle sheath to the bass lnslandths ant s aP if The additional textile portion 3 may be of the same or a similar type as the remainder of the fabric of the mantle.

For use with a normal gas pressure of to mm. water column, the outer diameter D of the inner part of the supporting base or ring is 25 mm. and its length L2 is between 27 mm. and 34 mm. Generally, however, the length L2 may be between 25 mm. and 30 mm.

In an alternative construction, the resistance to flow may be varied by varying the type of knitted fabric used and/or the thickness of the threads may be varied as may the strength of saturation of the resultant fabric with the conventional illu minating salts that are used for this purpose. These variations in the structure and finishing may be arranged to suit differing circumstances of proposed use.

The yarn of the mantle fabric is preferably artificial silk of between 240 den and 500 den and a yarn of 300 den has been found very suitable.

In the case where the domed area 3 comprises an inserted portion of fabric, this portion is impregnated with the appropriate illuminating salts with which the main part of the mantle is conventionally impregnated, before insertion into the mantle Among appropriate illuminating salts is a mixture of thorium oxide (ThO and cerium oxide (C603) in the proportions 99 to l respectively. Before burning the mantle, the inserted portion may be attached to the fabric in any desired fashion, e.g. by adhesion or by the hot sealing method, which is well-known in the art, and consists in interposing an adhesive foil between the insert and 15 itself provided with a protective foil which is first remoyed and the insert, together with its adhesive foil thereon, is pressed under application of heat upon the body of the mantle. When the heat source is removed, the insert adheres firmly to the mantle. The adhesive is one that burns without leaving a residue, such as a dispersion adhesive or an ester of methacrylic acid.

In every case, the insert portion is secured in place by being burnt off together with the mantle, whereby the two parts become sintered together.

of the mantle. Before use, the adhesive foil In a modification, the mantle is strengthened by means of a variation in the fabric, or by sewing into the domed area 3 an additional thread or threads. The threads may run in a zigzag or spiral pattern.

In another modification, the reinforced area may comprise artificial silk in the form of threads saturated with illuminating salts and an adhesive that burns without leaving a residue.

Gas mantles according to the invention may be used also with gases formed from liquids, for example, propane or butane.

What is claimed is:

l. A gas mantle for use with an ignitable gas having a calorific content higher than 7,000 (K.cal.)/Nm, such as natural gas and petroleum gas, comprising a fabric sheath closed at one end, said mantle being adapted to be mounted at its open end on a supporting base by a securing means so that the mantle is positioned with respect to a nozzle arrangement for supplying said gas, a generally dome-shaped fabric insert arranged within said closed end and bonded thereto by an adhesive, said insert being sintered to said fabric sheath, wherein the closed end of the gas mantle is strengthened to impart thereto a greater resistance to the flow of such gas than the remaining part thereof, and whereby said closed end is illuminated as bright as the remainder of said fabric sheath.

2. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 1, wherein said resistance to flow is made approximately equal over the whole closed area.

3. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 1, which is approximately adapted to the shape of the flame with which it is to be used.

4. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 1, wherein the longitudinal section of the mantle is approximately elliptical.

5. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 4, for use with a gas pressure of 165-180 mm. water column, wherein the length of the mantle between the securing means and the closed end is between 27 mm. and 34 mm., and the outer diameter of the inner part of the supporting base is 25 mm 6. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 5, whose length lies between 25 and 30 mm.

7. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 1, wherein the resistance to the gas flow in the closed area amounts to approximately 1 /2 times to three times the flow resistance of the remainder of the mantle fabric.

8. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 7, wherein the resistance to flow in the closed area is twice that of the resistance in the remainder of the mantle fabric.

9. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 1, wherein the length of the strengthened closed area is approximately one-twentieth to Vathe distance from the tie thread to the apex.

10. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 1, wherein the yarn of the mantle has a thickness which lies between about 240 den and about 500 den for artificial silk and which corresponds to this thickness for other yarn material.

11. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 10, wherein the thickness is about 300 den.

12. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 1, wherein the mesh number of the main part of the gas mantle in the crude state of the knitted fabric is between approximately 5 and I0 meshes per four cm.

13. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 12, wherein the mesh number is seven or eight meshes per four cm.

14. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 1, wherein said insert in a woven fabric portion impregnated with illuminating salts is inserted into the closed area thereof.

15. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 14, wherein said fabric insert is adhered to the fabric of the closed area by means of an adhesive that burns without leaving a residue.

16. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 15, wherein said inserted portion is secured in the gas mantle by being burnt off together therewith, whereby the tow parts become sintered together.

17. A gas mantle as claimed in claim 14, wherein the mesh number of the said inserted portion is 10 to 17 meshes per four cm.

18. A gas mantle as claimed in claim [7, wherein the mesh number of the inserted ortion is 13 meshes per four cm.

19. A gas mantle as c aimed in claim 15, wherein said fabric insert consists of impregnated artificial silk threads and an adhesive that burns without leaving a residue is inserted into said domed area.

UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE t; CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTI-(PN Patent 2,64%157 -March 14. 1972 Inventofls) Friedrich. Klauel and Fritz W. Mew es It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:

Column 1, lines 26 and 27, "The invention consists in such a manner that its closed end area. is illuminated as brightly as the other parts thereof." should be deleted. Column 4 line 22, "in" should be -is-. Column 14, line 29, "tow should be --two--.

Signed and sealed this 17th day of December 1.974.

(SEAL) Attest:

McCOY M. GIBSON JR. c. MARSHALL DANN Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents FORM powso H0459) I uscoMM-oc 60376-P69 [1.5. GOVIRNIENT PRN'HNG OFFICE '99 O 8 33

Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US760317 *Jun 24, 1901May 17, 1904William Kennedy-Laurie DicksonIncandescent mantle and art of manufacturing same.
US803835 *Aug 12, 1904Nov 7, 1905Safety Car Heating & LightingIncandescent gas-mantle.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3796534 *Nov 6, 1972Mar 12, 1974Steatite And Porcelain Prod LtGas mantle rings
US4883619 *Feb 24, 1986Nov 28, 1989Tpv Energy Systems, Inc.Refractory metal oxide processes
US4975044 *Jul 20, 1983Dec 4, 1990Tpv Energy Systems, Inc.Gas mantle technology
US5033203 *Feb 23, 1990Jul 23, 1991Hughes Aircraft CompanyCuring oven using Wellsbach conversion
US5240407 *Jun 10, 1988Aug 31, 1993Tpv Energy Systems, Inc.Process for producing a sturdy refractory metal oxide article
US5639231 *Aug 9, 1995Jun 17, 1997The Coleman Company, Inc.Mantle and spring clip assembly
Classifications
U.S. Classification431/100
International ClassificationF21V19/06, F21H1/00, F21V19/00
Cooperative ClassificationF21H1/00, F21V19/06
European ClassificationF21H1/00, F21V19/06