US 3653587 A
A balloting system, including a special voting machine; ballots, in the form of a data-recording medium for recording data in response to selections of an individual voter and carrying stored program information pertinent to that voter's election district; and data-processing means for tabulating the voting data in accordance with the stored program carried by the ballot. The voting machine is compact; it is adapted to display candidates and issues in conventional, paper ballot format and to receive a ballot of the aforedescribed type and position it in recording relationship with a voter's selections from the display. Data-marking means associated with the voting machine records each voter's selections on his individual ballot in a form susceptible to electronic data processing.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' United States Patent [151 3,653,587 Hammond etal. 1451 Apr. 4, 1972 s41 BALLOTING SYSTEM AND 3,240,409 3/1966 l-larris...... ....23's/s0 x APPARATUS THEREFOR 3,294,424 12/1966 Mathews.. ....2s3/s x 3,460,854 8/1969 Koelling....... ............2s3/s  Inventors: Seymour 8. Hammond, 1381 W11ton Way,
Salt Lake City, Utah 84108; Kenneth M. Larsen, 14473 Abinadi Road, Salt Lake City, Utah 84117  Filed: Jan. 26, [970  Appl. No.: 5,634
 US. Cl. ..235/50 R  Int. Cl ..G07c 13/00  Fleld ofSearch ..235/50, 54,6].12, 5O R,5l; 1 283/5; 34/48 R, 48 A, 48 B, 9 R
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,201,038 8/1965 Harris .;.....23s/s0 3,214,091 10/1965 A Clark ...235/50 3,214,092 10/ l 965 Coyle et al. .235/51 3,227,364 l/l966 Clark .....235/50 3,232,528 2/1966 Crossland et al. .....235/50 3,236,445 2/1966 Shoup ..235/50 PUNCH 0R MARK ONE PREC mgr DUPLICATE OR PRINT BALLOT CARDS GRAM D R PRECINCT INDIVIDUAL VOTORS BALLOT Primary Examiner-Richard B. Wilkinson Assistant Examiner-Stanley A. Wal
Attorney-David V. Trask, C. Harvey Gold and William S. Britt  ABSTRACT A balloting system, including a special voting machine; ballots, in the form of a data-recording medium for recording data in response to selections of an individual voter and carrying stored program information pertinent to that voters election district; and data-processing means for tabulating the voting data in accordance with the stored program carried by the ballot. The voting machine is compact; it is adapted to display candidates and issues in conventional, paper ballot format and 9 Claims, 4 Drawing Figures VOTOR REGISTRATION LIST DISTRIBUTE msERT REVERSE SIDE INSERT LISTING. 7| VOTING WRITE, CANDIDATES STUB AND ISSUES NE CARD I DEPOSIT READER BALLOT srua i BOX .1 PUBLIC E:
DATA COMPUTER (PDC) TRANS I r 2 Sheets-Sheet l KEY PUNCH OR MARK ONE PRECINCT MASTER DUPLICATE OR PRINT BALLOT CARDS VOTOR PROGRAMED STUB REGISTRATION FOR PRECINCT I L I ST DISTRIBUTE INDIVIDUAL VOTORS BALLOT REVERSE SIDE cA u o A T ss INSERT VOT'NG /WR'TE STUB AND ISSUES CHINE EXTRACT CARD -DEPOSIT.
READER BALLOT BOX 1:! I STUB 5 BOX PUBLIC :3
DATA COMPUTER (PDC) PRINT OUT TELE INVENTOR. PROCESS Se mour 8. Hammond TRANSMIT BY enneth M. Larsen M Vim/Z. F/ G. Their Attorney Patented April 4, 1972 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ummmummmmmmmumummum UUUUUUDUUUUUUDUUUUD|D muummmmmnmmmmmmmmnmn mmmmmmmmmmmmunmmmum umumummnmmmmmmmmmmfii mmnmmmmmmmunmmmumnum mmmmumuummnuuummmnm UUDUUUUBUUUUUUUUUUU munnnummmmamuummummi muummmumunuuummmmmmi UUDDUUUDUUUDUUDUDU H |%.\|23 mumwmmmwmm Q CCC CCCCCCCCCCCCCCQ 82 INVENTOR. Seymour 8. Hammond BY K nnefh M. Larsen Their Attorney BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field 1 The present invention relates to data collection, storage, and processing and provides a system, apparatus, and ballot cards particularly adaptable for mechanized voting. The system and ballot cards have many other applications, such as manpower control, inventory control, administrative data processing, and public statistics analysis.
State of the Art In many parts of the United States, as well as in other regiOns of'the world, the conduct of elections involves the marking of individual paper ballots. Such election procedures have 7 many disadvantages, including susceptibility to voter fraud and the time-consuming, laborious effort (fraught with opportunities for errors), required for the tabulation of results. Nevertheless, the paper ballot format is desirable from a voter's standpoint because of the orderly and established fashion in which candidates and issues are presented. Moreover, a paper ballot is conveniently marked with a familiar type of writing implement, a pen or pencil.
The need for, and the advantages of, mechanized systems for conducting elections have long been apparent, and many efforts have been made to satisfy this need. The mechanized systems proposed heretofore offer many advantages but fail to preserve the desirable features of paper balloting. The rules of elections vary among voting jurisdictions and among particular districts (precincts) within a single jurisdiction (due to the inclusion of local, state, and federal issues and candidates on a single ballot). Such variations are easily accommodated in paper ballot voting systems by corresponding modificationsto 'the paper ballots used in each precinct. These modifications do not involve modification of the general ballot format. Comparable flexibility in mechanized voting systems is difficult to I achieve and generally involves changing the ballot format presented to the voter and/or the manner in which the ballot is marked. Such changes are often confusing to voters.
No voting machine is presently accepted by all voting jurisdictions within the United States. The only voting machine which has presently gained broad acceptance is the lever-type mechanical voting machine. This machine preserves the general format of a paper ballot but it requires a substantial initial capital investment for each precinct and does not provide appropriate output for direct input to computer processing.
Precinct voting machines capable of recording votes in computer language have been suggested, and some such units have been made commercially available. Presently available machines of this type have certain limitations which prevent their satisfying many local and state regulations however. For example, many states require that the balloting system employed permit manual checking at the precinct level. The
computer language output of machines presently in use is notv susceptible to manual checkingData processing is done on expensive, centrally located, general purposecomputers and requiresthe use of an elaborate stored logic program (software). General purpose computers are not readily available to the administration of many election. jurisdictions and are too costly for purchase by most such administrations. Rental of general purpose computers represents a considerable election expense. The aforementioned precinct voting machines also present candidates and issues in a format which departs appreciably from that of the traditional paper ballot.
It is projected thatin the future it will become technically and economically feasible to record votes on-line to a computer. A voter's selections will then be immediately recorded and tabulated in a remote computer center, via telephone lines, at the time the vote is cast. Accordingly, it is desirable that new voting machines provided in the interim period be compatible with such projected computer hookups.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION The present invention provides a balloting system which requires a relatively small investment for the purchase of precinct-contained voting equipment. The output from the precinct voting equipment is suitable for direct processing by computer but is also capable of manual checking, either at the precinct or subsequently. The precinct-contained voting equipment includes one or more voting machines, preferably of the type described hereinafter which presents issues and candidates in the format conventional to paper ballots. Each precinct may also be provided with a special purpose public data computer (PDC) to process the data recorded on the ballots cast in that precinct; in some instances, several precincts may share a PDC. Balloting is done on a data-recording medium preferably in the form of a conventional computer data entry card adapted for insertion in the voting machine for the recording of a voters selections and for processing by the PDC (after appropriate translation by an associated card reader or equivalent device).
The system and apparatus of this invention are adaptable for use in substantially any election regardless of diversity of ballot format or rules of election among the several jurisdictions and/or precincts involved in the elemention. Unlike sug-' gestions of the prior art, the voting machines, data processing equipment, and ballots of the present invention may be used in either primary or general elections; the special ballots provided by this invention are adapted to carry stored program information concerning the rules of the particular election involved as well as data recorded by a voter concerning his selections; moreover, the logic and circuitry of the PDC is sufficiently flexible to permit processing of voter-selection data according to several mutually exclusive sets of election rules in the same election.
An important aspect of this invention is the novel voting machine preferred for use at the precincts. Voting machines such as, j or similar to, those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,201,038 and 3,240,409 which present issues and candidates on a plurality of leafs may be used; however, this invention provides a voting machine specifically adapted to present issues and candidates in conventional paper ballot format. In any event, the votingmachinesused in the practice of this invention are adapted'to record voter selections on conventional data-recording media (of the types commonly used to provide input data to computers) in a form suitable for electronic data processing. Punch marks may be used for recording voter selections, but it is generally preferred that the voter indicate his selections by marking the ballot in black line.
The voting machine of this invention is sufficiently compact to be readily portable and includes: case means as a housing for the remainder of the device; display means mounted in the case means to display a plurality of voting sites in columns, preferably in paper ballot format, on a visible panel surface; guide means adapted to receive data-recording media and operably associated with the display means to position selected data sites of the data-recording media in recording relationship with selected columns of voting sites; and marking means for recording data on the data-recording medium in a form suitable for computer (electronic data) processing. Each voting site of the display means includes indicia means for identifying an issue or candidate and access means (such as a hole) through the display means to permit marking on the ballot. Each of the aforementionedselected data sites of the data-recording media corresponds to the issue or candidates identified by the voting site with which it is brought into recording relationship.
Another significant feature of the balloting system of this invention is the claim preprogrammed ballot. According to certain suggestions of the prior art, a computer data entry card is marked by a voter in a voting machine, and the recorded voter selection data is then processed in a computer according to a program stored in the computer. Such techniques are useful for a particular election but they have the disadvantage that the computer requires reprogramming before each election. According to this invention, novel ballots are used which are preprogrammed in accordance with the circumstances of the voter (e. g., party affiliation) and election (e.g., general or primary). The PDC then processes the voter selection data in accordance with the program stored on the ballot itself; the PDC may be used from election to election without reprogramming. The ballot card may be used for many other public data processing purposes by proper preprograming, without altering the program of the PDC. In this way, the PDC can be used for a variety of public purposes in addition to elections without the expense or skills required for programming a general purpose computer.
A general purpose computer may function as the PDC for one or more precincts, but the PDC is preferably embodied as a special purpose computer with logic circuitry'capable of rejecting improper ballots and tabulating properly cast votes in accordance with various rules of election. Usually, the PDCis cable connected to an optical mark reader, adapted to scan the ballots, and a recording device, such as a printer. The PDC should have logic capabilities to reject votes cast in a ballot column not authorized to the voter in a primary election (ticket column logic); reject votes for more than one partys candidate in a general election for an office to be filled by a single candidate (cross column logic); reject votes for more than the authorized number of candidates for an office to be filled by a prescribed number of candidates (X/N logic); distinguish between yes votes and no votes on propositions (yes/no logic); and, preferably, to recognize straight party votes (straight ticket logic).
The PDC may comprise a single unit containing the aforedescribed read logic," storage capacity, and binary to digital translating capacities, but it is often convenient for the read logic circuitry to be housed in one unit together with conventional buffer circuitry, and for storageand binary-to-digital circuitry to be housed in a second unit. In any event, the binary to digital circuitry of the PDC is conveniently connected to conventional recording devices, and the read logic circuitry of the PDC is conveniently connected to conventional card reading devices. According to ya highly preferred embodiment of the invention the card reader is mounted in the ballot box such that each ballot is read as it is deposited in the box. The card reader (ideally an optical scanner) may be cable connected to the PDC which may itself be mounted in the ballot box.
DESCRIPTION OF TI-IE DRAWING5 DESCRIPTION or THE ILLUSTRATED EMBODIMENTS A typical balloting system, as illustrated by the flow chart of FIG. 1, involves producing a quantity of blank ballots preprogrammed in accordance with the election rules for the precinct in. which they are to be used. In a primary election, different ballots are required for voters of different party affiliation. In most elections, different programs are required for various precincts within an election jurisdiction, e.g., a county. As illustrated, one master ballot of each required program is prepared by key punching or marking, the requisite quantity of each type is duplicated or printed. This procedure is usually most conveniently accomplished at the county or state level along with the preparation of voter registration lists and the listing of candidates and issues in appropriate display on the voting machines for each precinct.
The voting machines, ballots and registration lists are placed in the appropriate precincts prior to the election. During the election, the preprogrammed ballots are distributed to individual voters who insert them in the voting machines and mark their selections. In the illustrated instance, each ballot includes a stub portion which corresponds to the stub of a conventional paper ballot. Provision is also made, e.g.. on the back of the ballot for write in votes. Themarked ballots are deposited in a ballot box and the stubs may be discarded or deposited in a special box provided for that purpose.
The ballots may be removed from the ballot box and checked manually, if required by the applicable election laws. In any event, the selections recorded by the voters-on the ballot cards are processed by a PDC in accordance with the preprogrammed instructions carried by the ballot cards. As illustrated the data carried by the ballots is read by a card reader which converted the punch and/or ink marks carried thereon into an electronic-form appropriatefor input to the PDC. The card reader may be manual or'automatic; it is desirably installed to read ballots as they are deposited in the ballot box but it may be installed remote from the ballot box to read the ballots after they are removed from the ballot box. Reading may be done with either brushes, photoelectric cells, or both, depending upon whether ink or punch marks are used for programing and/or balloting.
Output from the PDC may be printed out at the precinct level (or wherever the PDC may be physically located) and transmitted by any convenient means to the administrative officials of the voting jurisdiction and the news media. Alternatively, the PDC output may be connected on line to a central computer for tabulation of the votes from several precincts.
FIG. 2 illustrates a typical ballot card for use by this invention. The ballot is amodified IBM column'dataentry card containing 120 voting rectangles 1'] arranged in rows A through F and columns Cl through C20. Because the ballot cards may be scanned serially, cards longer or shorter than the 80 column card may be used. The voting rectangles are centered at the intersections of alternate Hollerth coding rows HRs 0,2,4,6,8 and 12 and the Hollerth coding columns divisible by 4; i.e., HCs 4, 8, 12,...80. Each voting rectangle is thus associated with a total of eight Hollerth coding punch positions 12 which may be used for logic storage. Logic is most conveniently stored in Hollerth rows HRs 1,3,5,7,9, and II. The two Hollerth rows HR: 13 and 14 at the extreme edges of the ballot card are usually used for optical timing marks 14. The ballot includes a stub portion 15 to identify the ballot when it is issued to a voter. This stub is usually'removed by the voter. i
A ballot card format for a typical electiori utilizes as many of the rows A through F of voting rectangles 11 as are required for candidates of different parties. All or a portion of one or more rows may -be required for balloting on propositions. Usually, rowv F is reserved for propositions, for convenience from the standpoint of the logic requirements of the ballot. Column C1 may be reservedfor straight party voting in a general election so that a mark, punch, or other appropriate indication in any of the rows A through E (assuming that row F is reserved for propositions), located also in column C1, will signify afstraight ticket vote. Usually, a straight ticket vote in rows reserved for the major'pa'rties (typically A and B) will include all of the candidatesrepresented by all of the voting rectanglesll in the row. A straight party .voteinany remaining rows might be limited to relatively few voting rectangles 11 since minor parties and their candidates will ordinarily occupy these locations. Accordingly, several different parties might occupy portions of rows C, D and E.
In primary elections, straight party voting is inapplicable. Because elections ger terally do notrequire more than the remaining voting rectangles on the ballot card, an, of the rectangles 11 in column Cl may be held in reserve for general elections only. The l'ogic requiredfor the total voting system is thereby somewhatsimplified. Of course, the'ballot may be organized with greater 'or fewer voting rectangles. The ballot card illustrated by FIG. 3, for example, contains 100 voting rectangles.
ln primary elections, a voter is permitted to vote only for candidates of that party for which he has expressed preference. In this instance, the ballot may be precoded by an appropriate marking 16 ina specified Hollerth column (e.g., HCl abovea voting rectangle 11 of the row A through E) assigned to the party of preference. An optical reader or equivalent device used in connection with the public data computer (PDC) to process the voter-applied data on the ballot is preprogrammed to instruct-the computer to ignore votes in any row except that identified by the straight ticket coding mark 16. Many other special circumstances may be provided for by incorporating logic marks (ink or holes) at appropriate locations on the ballot card. Y
Table llists the Hollerth card column-rowutilization of the ballot card illustrated by FIG. 3. The ballot of FIG. 3 is organized generally as that of F 16. 2, but has only 5 voting rows A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Hollerth rows HRs 1,3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 12 are reserved for ballot card preprogramming. Punches or marks placed on the card in these rows before it is handed to a voter predetermine the fashion in which the data applied to the card during voting will be processed. A public data computer can thus, without modifying its program in any way, process ballots fromdifferent elections (or primary elections, from voters of different parties) operating under dif- ,ferent rules. Each ballot card itself carries the program according to which the voter-applied data on the ballot will be processed.
As used in Table l, X/N logic carried by the ballot prevents counting of the votes cast for an office on a particular ballot which carries more votes than are authorized for that office. This logic is needed for primary elections and for certain races, such as for the State Board of Education, in general elections. X" refers to the number of votes to which the voter is entitled for the office in question and N" refers to the total number of candidates for the office in question. Crosscolumn logic" rejects all votes cast for an officeon a ballot where a voter casts votes for candidates of more than one party in races in which he is entitled to only one vote; e.g., President or Governor. The stored program logic of the rows A through D is determined by the specific organization of the ballot and applicable rules of election.
TABLE I Row Balloting Coding Hollerth Coding Function Major Party No. l
' Cross Column logic timing marks timing marks The voting machine illustrated by FIG. 4 is representative of the apparatus preferred for use in accordance with this invention. The illustrated voting'machineincludes case means 20, which functions both as a carrying case and a housing for the assembled parts of the machine. Thus, the case means 20 comprises a component-housing portion 200 and a cover portion 20b hingedly connected in the fashion of conventional luggage. The case 20 is illustrated in open condition in FIG. 3. in closed condition (not illustrated) it forms a compact package about the size of a conventional attache case and may be conveniently carried by hand or by its handle 21. Latches 22 are provided for securing the cover portion 20b to the housing portion 20a when the case is closed.
When the case is open, privacy shields 23 may be positioned as shown. Usually, shields 23 will be provided at each side of the open case 20; for clarity of illustration, only one such shield 23 is illustrated. The shield 23 is connected to the housing portion 20a of the case 20 by a suitable hinge 24 (in the illustrated instance, by a polypropylene living hinge" arrangement). It is held to the cover portion 20b of the case 20 by any suitable fastener 25 (in the illustrated instance, a magnetic fastener).
With the case 20 in its open condition, there is exposed to view, and in readily accessible position, panel display means 26. These means 26 include a visible panel surface 27 displaying a plurality of columns 28-1 through 28-5 of voting sites. Each voting site 28 includes a hole 29 through the panel display means 26 and an indicia-receiving space 30 to identify each hole 29 with a specific candidate, proposition, test answer, poll response, or other choice.
The surface 27 of the panel display means 26 is organized generally in the format of a ballot. Adjacent columns are isolated to avoid confusion. Thus, the columns 28-1 and 28-2 are arranged with the individual holes 29 comprising column 28-1 adjacent corresponding holes of column 28-2. Columns 28-3 and 284 are similarly arranged. Column 28-2 is separated from column 28-3 by a rib 31. Columns 28-4 and 28-5 are separated by a similar rib 31. In this fashion, each indiciareceiving space 30 is separated from the indicia-receiving spaces of adjacent columns, either by a double row of holes 29 or by a rib 31.
The panel display means 26 is provided at its front 26a with a slot 32 which accommodates guide means 33, as illustrated. The guide means is adapted to receive a ballot such as that illustrated by FIG. 3 and is mounted to slide beneath the panel display surface 27 of the panel display means 26 with the ballot held in marking position directly beneath the holes 29. The guide means may be positioned in any of three voting positions, the first of which locates rows A and B of the ballot beneath the holes 29 of columns 28-1 and 28-2, the second of which locates rows C and D beneath holes 29 of columns 28- 3 and 28-4, and the third of which locates row E beneath the holes 29 of column 28-5. An entry guide 34 is mounted on the portion of the guide means 33 extending from the panel-display means 26 to facilitate the insertion of ballot cards.
A series of switches (not shown) corresponding to the aforedescribed three voting positions of the guide means 33 may be mounted inside the case means 20 beneath the panel display means 26. Such switches are activated by the guide means 33 as it is moved, thereby activating indicating means associated with the several voting positions. In the illustrated instance, windows 35-1, 35-2, 35-3, 35-4, and 35-5, in the panel display means 26 are illuminated when a ballot is properly positioned for voting in the column 28-1, 28-2, 28-3, 28-4, and 28-5, respectively, associated therewith.
The visible surface 27 of the panel display means 26 may be illuminated by a fluorescent lamp 36 mounted in the cover portion 20b of the case means 20.
Voting is preferably done by a marking pen 37 of conventional type. This pen 37 may be stored in an appropriate receptacle 38 when not in use. To vote, the tip of the pen 37 is merely inserted through any appropriate hole 29 (any hole corresponding to a candidate or proposition for which a voter desiresto cast a vote) to contact the ballot. If desired, voting may be done by punching the ballot with a stylus.
Reference herein to details of certain preferred embodiments is not intended to restrict the scope of the appended sential to the invention. It is recognized that those skilled in the art, after reading this disclosure, will be capable of producing many modifications of the ballots, voting machines, and voting system specifically described herein without departing from the scope of the inventions defined by the claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A balloting system comprising:
at least one voting machine for placement in each precinct display means mounted in said case means to display a plurality of voting sites arranged in columns in paper ballot format, each said voting site including indicia means and access means through said display means; and
guide means operably associated with said display means adapted to receive a data-recording medium and to position said medium in recording relationship with the access means of selected said columns of voting sites.
5. A balloting system according to claim 1, wherein said votadapted to record on individual ballots constructed of 10 ing machine comprises;
data-recording media markings indicative of the selections made by each voter in a form susceptible to electronic processing; ballots in the form of data-recording media for distribution to individual voters of the precinct in which said voting machine is placed for insertion in said machine by said individual voters to record their individual votes, carrying stored program information consistent with the election rules of the precinct in which said machine is placed; and
data-processing means for tabulating the votes recorded on said ballots, including read logic circuit means responsive to the stored program information carried by each said ballot.
2. A balloting system according to claim 1, wherein a precinct contains a plurality of voting machines; a ballot box for depositing ballots; and data processing means, including reading means operably associated with said ballot box to read each ballot as it is deposited therein.
3. A balloting system according to claim 1, wherein the ballots are data-entry cards with the general format of a conventional IBM data-entry card,but with selected Hollerthcoding rows reserved for the entry of data and other selected Hollerth coding rows carrying logic marks corresponding to a preselected program for the processing of said data.
4. A balloting system according to claim 1, wherein the voting machine for each precinct comprises:
display means mounted in said case means to display a plurality of voting sites arranged in columns in paper ballot format, each said voting site including indicia means and access means through said display means; and
guide means operably associated with said display means adapted to receive a data-recording medium and to position said medium in recording relationship with the access means of selected said columns of voting sites.
6. A balloting system according to claim 5, wherein the display means is mounted in said case means to form a hollow enclosure with the voting sites stationary and'visible from the outside; and the guide means is slidably mounted with respect to said columns of voting sites to carry said data-recording medium substantially within said hollow enclosure.
7. A balloting system according to claim 6, wherein the guide means is adapted to receive a data entry card of the type conventionally used with electronic data processing equipment.
8. A balloting system according to claim 5, wherein the access means of said voting machine are holes through the display means adapted to accommodate a marking implement such that the data recording medium may be marked by inserting said implement through said holes.
9. A balloting system according to claim 8, wherein said holes through said panel-display means are specifically adapted to accommodate a marking pen.
Y UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION Patent NO. 0 a Dsted April Ifi Seymour B. Hammond, e't a1 It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 2, line 24; change "elemention" to-election--;
line 49, change 'line" to---ink--;
Column 3, line 9, change "preprograming" to-preprogra:mming--;
Signed and sealed this 8th day of August 1972.
EDWARD M.FLETCHER,JR. ROBERT GO'ITSCHALK Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents FORM PO-1OS0 (10-69) USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 d u.s GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: I969 0-366-334 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE- CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION iatent No. 3, 653,581 Dated p 4 972 l Seymour B. Hammond, et a1 It is certified that error appears in the above-identified patent and that said Letters Patent are hereby corrected as shown below:
Column 2, line 24, change "elemention" to-elect'1on--;
line 49, change "line" to-'1nk-;
Column 3, line 9, change p1"eprograrning" to--preprogra:m.ming--;
Signed and sealed this 8th day of August 1972..
EDWARD M.FLETCHBR,JR. ROBERT GOTTSCHALK Attesting Officer Commissioner of Patents FORM F'O-1050 (10-69) USCOMM-DC 60376-P69 t u.s. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1969 o-36633a