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Publication numberUS3654782 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 11, 1972
Filing dateJul 26, 1968
Priority dateJun 25, 1966
Also published asDE1553365A1, DE1553365B2
Publication numberUS 3654782 A, US 3654782A, US-A-3654782, US3654782 A, US3654782A
InventorsGeorg Heimann
Original AssigneeGeorg Heimann
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Magnetic lock
US 3654782 A
Abstract
A magnetic lock wherein an actuating member is turnable or reciprocable to and from a starting position by means of a key which has magnetic inserts adapted to change the orientation of magnetic tumblers which are rotatable in the actuating member and normally assume positions in which they prevent movement of the actuating member from starting position. The actuating member is adjacent to and is locked by the tumblers to a base member when the key is removed. like poles of the tumblers are adjacent to each other when the key is applied so that such poles repel each other as soon as the key is removed and cause the tumblers to assume positions in which the actuating member is locked to the base member.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Heimann [151 3,654,782 [451 Apr. 11, 1972 [54] MAGNETIC LOCK [72] Inventor: Georg Heimann, Wendelinusstrasse 61,

[30] Foreign Application Priority Data Aug, 1967 Germany ..H 59763 [56] 5 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,416,336 12/1968 Felson ..70/276 3,512,382 5/1970 Check ..70/276 Primary Examiner-Robert L. Wolfe Attorney-Michael S. Striker [57] ABSTRACT A magnetic lock wherein an actuating member is turnable or reciprocable to and from a starting position by means of a key which has magnetic inserts adapted to change the orientation of magnetic tumblers which are rotatable in the actuating member and normally assume positions in which they prevent movement of the actuating member from starting position. The actuating member is adjacent to and is locked by the tumblers to a base member when the key is removed. like poles of the tumblers are adjacent to each other when the key is applied so that such poles repel each other as soon as the key is removed and cause the tumblers to assume positions in which the actuating member is locked to the base member.

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MAGNETIC LOCK I BACKGROUND or THE INVENTION The present invention relates to magnetic locks in general, and more particularly to improvements in magnetic locks of the type wherein magnetic tumblers lock an actuating member to a base member of the lock when the key is removed.

It is already known to employ magnetic tumblers in a cylinder lock wherein a core or plug must be rotated with reference to a cylinder or housing in order to open or close a bolt, latch or the like. The tumblers are shiftable lengthwise in radial passages of the cylinder and plug by means of magnets installed in a key which is insertable into an axially extending hole of the plug. Additional magnets are installed in the passages to hold each tumbler in one of its end positions. Reference may be had to U. S. Pat. No. 3,111,834 which discloses permanent magnets provided in the cylinder to urge the tumblers radially inwardly and against the plug. The tumblers then extend partially into the plug and partially into the cylinder to prevent rotation of the plug. When the key is inserted, its magnets repel the tumblers into the cylinder and permit rotation of the plug. A serious drawback of such magnetic locks is that the key must carry powerful permanent magnets all these magnets have the form of sticks with poles on the ends of these sticks in order to overcome the opposition of permanent magnets in the cylinder and to thus compel the tumblers to move radially outwardly when the key is inserted into its hole. This will be readily understood since the force between two poles is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the poles.

German Pat. No. 750,210 discloses a modified magnetic cylinder lock wherein the tumblers tend to assume their locking positions under the action of gravity. The usefulness of such locks is very limited because the tumblers must be mounted in vertical or nearly vertical positions. This also reduces the number of possible combinations unless the lock is provided with an excessively long row of tumblers.

German Pat. No. 1,036,702 proposes to replace the aforementioned permanent magnets of the cylinder by springs. The springs must be very weak in order to permit movements of tumblers under the action of relatively small magnetic forces. Therefore, such locks are not sufficiently reliable and have failed to gain widespread acceptance.

SUMMARY or THE INVENTION It is an object of my invention to provide a novel and im-' proved magnetic lock which need not rely on special permanent magnets and/or springs in order to maintain the tumblers in locking positions when the key is removed and which can furnish a highly satisfactory locking action irrespective of the inclination of its parts.

Another object of the invention is to provide a magnetic lock wherein the member which actuates a latch, bolt or the like in order to open or close the lock may perform reciprocatory, angular and/or other movements.

A further object of the invention is to provide a magnetic lock wherein a large number of tumblers can be accommodated in a small area and which can effectively prevent opening of a door or the like even if its actuating member is forcibly moved from a normal starting position.

A new object of the invention is that the magnets are magnetized in different directions, vertical to the axis, to obtain a great number of different types of magnets.

An additional object of the invention is to provide a magnetic lock which can be constructed as a cylinder lock or as a flat lock with two relatively turnable or reciprocable members.

A concomitant object of the invention is to provide a novel key for use in a lock of the above outlined character.

Briefly outlined, the improved magnetic lock comprises a first member which may resemble a cylinder, a plate or a disk, a second member which is movable with reference to the first member to and from a starting position and can resemble a plug or core, a plate or a disk, the two members having adjacent surfaces and one of these surfaces (preferably the surface of the second member) being provided with a socket for a magnetic locking element (hereinafter called tumbler) which is turnable in the socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of the second member from starting position, and a key adapted to be applied to one of the members (preferably to the second member) in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of the tumbler to first position in the predetermined position of the key. The tumbler normally assumes its second position, for example, in response to the action of magnet means on the key when the key is moved away from the predetermined position. When the lock comprises two or more tumblers, like poles of the tumblers are adjacent to each other in the predetermined position of the key so that such poles repel each other and cause at least one tumbler to assume its second position in which it prevents movement of the second member from starting position when the key is removed.

If the improved lock is a cylinder lock, the tumbler or tumblers are rotatable about axes which extend radially of or in parallelism with the axis of the plug (second member). The cylinder (first member) is then provided with internal sockets which receive portions of the tumblers, at least when the key is removed. If the tumblers are turnable about axes which are parallel to the axis of the plug, they are fully accommodated in the plug in response to insertion of the key. If the sockets are radial sockets machined into the peripheral surface of the plug, the internal surface of the cylinder is provided with grooves which communicate with internal sockets of the cylinder. The internal sockets receive the outer end portions of the tumblers in starting position of the plug and such outer end portions and the grooves of the cylinder are configurated in such a way that the outer end portions can enter the respective grooves (in order to permit movement of the plug from the starting position) only when the key is inserted into the hole of the plug. The key may be used as a means for applying torque to the plug.

1 The novel features which are considered as characteristic of the invention are set forth in particular in the appended claims. The improved magnetic lock itself, however, both as to its construction and its mode of operation, together with additional advantages and features thereof, will be best understood upon perusal of the following detailed description of certain specific embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawing.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING FIG. 1 is a transverse sectional view of a magnetic lock which embodies one form of my invention and is provided with two rows of radially extending tumblers, the section being taken in the direction of arrows as seen from the line 1-1 of FIG. 2;

FIG. 2 is a fragmentary axial sectional view of the lock as seen in the direction of arrows from the line 11-11 of FIG. 1;

FIG. 3 is an elevational view of a tumbler in the lock of FIGS. 1 and 2;

FIG. 4 is another elevational view of the tumbler as seen from the right-hand side of FIG. 3;

FIG. 5 is a plan view of a magnetic insert in the key of the lock shown in FIGS. 1 and 2;

FIG. 6 is an elevational view of a modified tumbler only a portion of which consists of magnetic material;

FIG. 7 is another elevational view of the modified tumbler as seen from the right-hand side of FIG. 6;

FIG. 8 is a partly elevational and partly sectional view of a tumbler which can be used as a substitute for the tumbler of FIGS. 6 and 7;

FIG. 9 is a bottom plan view of the tumbler shown in FIG. 8;

FIG. is a partly elevational and partly sectional view of a tumbler which constitutes a modification of the tumbler shown in FIGS. 8and 9;

FIG. 11 is a bottom plan view of the tumbler shown in FIG. 10;

FIG. 12 is a fragmentary axial sectional view of a second magnetic lock which comprises a single row of tumblers;

FIG. 13 is a larger-scale view of a detail in the structure of FIG. 12;

FIG. 14 isa fragmentary axial sectional view of a third magnetic lock which constitutes a modification of the lock shown in FIGS. 12 and 13;

FIG. 15 is a bottom plan view of thetumbler shown in FIG. 3;

FIG. 16 is a similar bottom plan view of a tumbler which constitutes a modification of the tumbler shown in FIG. 15;

FIG. 17 is a transverse sectional view of a fourth magnetic lock which comprises a row of conical tumblers;

,.FIG. 18 is a transverse sectional view of a fifth magnetic lock which constitutes a modification of the lock shown in FIG. 17 and comprises two rows of bolt-like tumblers, the section being taken in the direction of arrows as seen from the line XVIIIXVIII of FIG. 19;

FIG. 19 is a fragmentary axial sectional view as seen in the direction of arrows from the line XIX-XIX of FIG. 18;

FIG. 20 is an elevational view of a tumbler which can be utilized in the lock of FIG. 17;

FIG. 21 is another elevational view as seen from the righthand side of FIG. 20;

FIG. 22 is an elevational view of a tumbler which can be used, with slight modifications, in the lock of FIGS. 18 and 19;

FIG. 23 is another elevational view of the tumbler shown in FIG. 22;

FIG. 24 is an elevational view of another tumbler which can be used in a lock similar to that shown in FIGS. 18 and 19; W

FIG. 25 is a similar elevational view of a tumbler which can replace the tumblers in the lock of FIGS. 18 and 19;

FIG. 26 illustrates the arrangement of magnetic poles in a row of tumblers;

FIG. 27 is a transverse sectional view of a magnetic lock with a group of four equidistant radially extending coplanar tumblers;

FIG. 28 is a transverse sectional view of a magnetic lock which constitutes a modification of the lock shown in FIG. 27;

FIG. 29 is a fragmentary axial sectional view of a magnetic lock which comprises a two-piece base member;

FIG. 30 is a transverse sectional view as seen in the direction of arrows from the line XXX-XXX of FIG. 29;

FIG. 31 is a transverse sectional view as seen in the direction of arrows from the line XXXI-XXXI of FIG. 29;

FIG. 32 is a fragmentary axial sectional view of a magnetic lock with two rows of axially parallel tumblers, the section being taken in the direction of arrows as seen from the line XXXII-XXXII of FIG. 33;

FIG. 33 is a transverse sectional view as seen in the direction of arrows from the line XXXlII-XXXIII of FIG. 32;

FIG. 34 is a similar transverse sectional view but showing the tumblers in different angular positions which they assume in response to insertion of the key;

FIG. 35 illustrates several arrangements of magnetic poles in tumblers for use in the lock of FIGS. 32-34;

FIG. 36 is a fragmentary plan view of a key which can be utilized in the lock of FIGS. 32-34;

FIG. 37 is a sectional view as seen in the direction of arrows from the line XXXVlI-XXXVII of FIG. 36;

FIG. 38 is an axial sectional view of a magnetic lock wherein the tumblers are disposed between the two disk-shaped members, the section being taken in the direction of arrows as seen from the line XXXVIII-XXXVIII of FIG. 39;

FIG. 39 is a horizontal sectional view as seen in the direction of arrows from the line XXXIX-XXXIX of FIG. 38;

FIG. 40 is a plan view of a further lock wherein the tumblers permit or block reciprocatory movements of an actuating member;

FIG. 41 is a sectional view as seen in the direction of arrows from the line XXXXI-XXXXI of FIG. 40, and further showing a key which serves to change the orientation of tumblers; and

FIG. 42 is a sectional view as seen in the direction of arrows from the line XXXXII-XXXXII of FIG. 40, with the key applied to the reciprocable actuating member.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS FIGS. 1 and 2 illustrate a magnetic cylinder lock which comprises a hollow cylindrical base member or housing 1 adapted to be mounted in a door or the like, a cylindrical actuating member or plug (also called core) 2 which is coaxial with and is rotatably mounted in the housing 1 for angular movement to and from the starting position shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, and two axially parallel rows of locking elements or tumblers 3 which normally prevent rotation of the plug with reference to the housing. The plug 2 has a cam or an analogous motion transmitting portion (not shown) which can displace a locking bolt or the like in a well-known manner to thereby unlock or lock the door which carries the housing 1. The invention resides in a novel design and mounting of the tumblers 3, in a novel configuration of the housing 1 and plug 2, and in the provision of a novel key 6 which can change the orientation of tumblers 3 in such a way that the plug can be rotated with reference to the housing.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 1 and 2, the tumblers 3 are rotatable in circular blind bores or sockets 8 provided in the peripheral surface and extending in two rows radially inwardly toward the axis of the plug 2. Each tumbler 3 of one row is coaxial with and is located diametrically opposite a tumbler of the other row. The internal surface of the housing 1 is formed with a series of axially spaced profiled annular grooves 5, one for each pair of coaxial tumblers 3. Each groove 5 is provided with two enlarged cylindrical portions or sockets 4 which are located diametrically opposite each other and can receive the outer end portions 13 of respective tumblers. The inner end portion of each tumbler 3 is a cylinder and each tumbler (or at least the inner end portion of each tumbler) is a permanent magnet with a predetermined orientation of its poles. As shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, the outer end portion 13 of each tumbler 3 is roof-shaped. The internal grooves 5 of the housing 1 have a cross-sectional outline which matches the profiles of the outer end portions 13 in predetermined angular positions of the tumblers. In other words, an outer end portion 13 can leave the associated cylindrical portion or socket 4 and can travel in the corresponding groove 5 only when the respective tumbler 3 assumes a predetermined angular position. Such orientation of tumblers 3 can be brought about in response to insertion of a flat key 6 which can be fitted into a centrally located longitudinally extending matching key hole or slot 9 provided in the plug 2. The key 6 resembles a flat bar of rectangular cross-section and has a series of longitudinally spaced inserts 7 each of which constitutes a permanent magnet. The inserts 7 preferably resemble short cylinders which are non-rotatably installed in the key 6 and each of which is located between the cylindrical inner end portions of two coaxial tumblers 3 when the key is fully inserted into the hole 9. The position of poles on the inserts 7 (see FIG. 5) is such that each insert causes rotation of adjoining tumblers 3 and thereupon maintains the tumblers in angular positions in which the outer end portions 13 are in proper orientation with reference to the grooves 5 so that the key can be turned by hand in order to turn the plug 2 and to thereby unlock a door or the like.

The inner end portions of coaxial tumblers 3 are preferably sufficiently close to each other to insure that at least one of these tumblers turns upon withdrawal of key 6 from the hole 9 whereby the tumblers efiectively prevent unauthorized rotation of the plug 2. In other words, the polarization of coaxial tumblers 3 is such that like poles of the tumblers are adjacent to each other when the key 6 is inserted into the hole 9 so that at least one tumbler of each pair turns automatically upon lengthwise displacement of the key 6 from fully inserted position and thereby moves its outer end portion 13 to an angular position in which the tumbler cannot leave the corresponding socket 4 and cannot enter the profiled arcuate part of the respective groove 5.

It is clear that the key 6 can be provided with two rows of discrete inserts 7, one for each of the tumblers 3.

In the embodiment of FIGS. 1-5, each of the tumblers 3 is a single piece of ferromagnetic material. FIGS. 6 and 7 show a less expensive two-piece tumbler 3A which comprises a nonmagnetic outer portion 13A which can enter the corresponding groove 5 and a disk-shaped inner end portion which is a permanent magnet and is permanently affixed to the portion 13A. An advantage of the tumbler 3A is that its outer end portion 13A can be made of a material which is much more resistant to breakage (less brittle) and to other stresses than the magnetic material of the inner end portion 10. The outer end portions 13A may consist of NE-material or Austenite, both of which substances exhibit a high resistance to shearing and other stresses.

In order to provide a stronger connection between the nonmagnetic and magnetic portions, the two-piece tumbler 3B of FIGS. 8 and 9 comprises an outer end portion 13B having a centrally located projection 12 of polygonal outline which is press-fitted into a complementary recess or through bore of the annular magnetic inner end portion 105. FIGS. 10 and 11 show a tumbler 3C whose outer end portion 13C has a cylindrical projection or stub 12C received in a bore of the annular magnetic portion 10C. It is also possible to provide the outer end portion 13A, 133 or 13C with a cupped recess which receives the magnetic inner end portions 10, 10B or 10C.

The tip of the outer end portion 13, 13A, 1313 or 13C is preferably unsymmetric to provide for a greater number of combinations.

The operation of the lock shown in FIGS. 1-5 (with tumblers 3, 3A, 3B or 3C) is as follows:

When the key 6 is withdrawn from the hole 9 of the plug 2, the tumblers automatically change their orientation so that the outer end portions 13, 13A, 13B or 13C cannot enter the profiled arcuate portions of the respective grooves 5. It is assumed that the key is withdrawn when the door is locked, i.e., when the outer end portions 13 of tumblers 3 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 extend into the sockets 4 of the grooves 5. Such reorientation of tumblers 3 can be brought about by the key 6 while the latter moves lengthwise of the hole 9 or for the reasons which were explained above, i.e., because the inner end portions of each pair of coaxial tumblers are sufficiently close to each other and are polarized in such a way that at least one thereof is compelled to turn when the key 6 is removed. The magnetic forces acting between such pairs of coaxial tumblers should be strong .enough to prevent accidental angular displacement of tumblers in response to vibration of the lock.

When the operator inserts the key 6 all the way to the position shown in FIG. 2 in which an insert 7 is located centrally and midway between the adjoining tumbler 3, the tumblers change their orientation and move their roof-shaped tips into registry with the profiled arcuate portions of the respective grooves 5. The user then applies torque to the plug 2 by tuming the key 6 so that the outer end portions 13 of tumblers 3 travel in the grooves 5 and allow the plug to turn in the housing 1. If the user employs a wrong key which fits into the hole 9 but is provided with differently distributed and/or polarized inserts, the orientation of at least one tumbler 3 remains or becomes such that its outer end portion 13 cannot leave the corresponding socket 4, i.e., the wrong key cannot change the angular position of the plug 2.

It is evident that the lock of FIGS. l-5 can comprise a single tumblers. Moreover, the grooves 5 need not be circumferentially complete grooves if a relatively small angular displacement of the plug 2 suffices to open the door. For example, the lock can be designed to open in response to clockwise or autoclockwise rotation of the plug 2 through beyond the position shown in FIG. 1.

If the plug 2 can open the lock in response to a simple angular displacement with reference to the housing 1, the internal surface of the housing is provided with circumferentially complete annular grooves 5. However, if the plug must perform a composite (axial and angular) movement, the grooves 5 are replaced by helical grooves.

FIG. 12 illustrates a portion of a second magnetic lock wherein the parts corresponding to those shown in FIGS. 1 and 2 are denoted by similar reference numerals each raised by 100. The inner end portions of tumblers 103 (only one shown) are provided with aligning or orienting channels 114 (see also FIG. 13) which accommodate projections or ribs '1 15 provided in the sockets 108 of the plug 102 when the tumblers are oriented in such a way that they permit rotation of the plug with reference to the housing 101, i.e., when the key 106 is properly inserted into the hole 109. It is to mention that by evaporation of the orienting channel 114 and the rib 115, near the end position of the tumbler 103, the drawing power of the magnets exceeds the turning power and gives a good fixed position to the tumbler 103. The depth of enlarged portions or sockets 104 of grooves 105 in the housing 101 is sufficient to allow for turning of tumblers 103 in their sockets 108 in response to the action of magnetic inserts 107 in the key 106.

The projection shown in FIG. 13 resembles a straight knife edge and the channel 114 of the tumbler 103 is of V- shaped cross-sectional outline, i.e., it is bounded by two flat internal surfaces of the inner end portion of the tumbler. FIG. 14 illustrates a plug 102A having a socket 108A accommodating a projection or rib 117 having a rounded head which is received in a complementary channel 116 of the tumbler 103A when the tumbler is properly oriented to permit rotation of the plug 102A with reference to the housing (not shown). The channel 116 is bounded by a concave internal surface in the inner end portion of the tumbler 103A.

FIG. 15 shows the channel 114 in the tumbler 103 of FIGS. 12 and 13. This channel 114 is of constant width and extends diametrically across the end face of the inner end portion of the tumbler 103. FIG. 16 illustrates a tumbler 1038 whose channel 114B flares outwardly at its ends to facilitate proper orientation of the tumbler in response to insertion of the key.

The purpose of the channels and projections shown in FIGS. 12 to 16 is to insure accurate orientation of tumblers in response to insertion of the key. When the key 106 is inserted into the hole 109 of the plug 102 shown in FIG. 12, its insert 107 causes the tumbler 103 to turn in a sense to move its roofshaped outer end portion into registry with the groove 105 of the housing 101. The magnetic force acting upon the tumbler 103 decreases as the tumbler turns toward the angular position of proper orientation with reference to the groove 105. The reduction in such magnetic force is compensated for by the projection 115 and channel 114, i.e., the projection enters the channel when the reorientation of the tumbler 103 is nearly completed and assists the tumbler to move to an optimum angular position for travel in the groove 105. The arrangement may be such that the projection 115 effects final angular displacement of the tumbler 103 through a relatively small angle just before the reorientation under the action of the insert 107 is completed. The magnitude of the angle through which the tumbler 103 can be turned by the projection 115 depends on the width of the channel 114 and on the slope of surfaces which surround this channel. The effect of a projection which cooperates with the channel 1148 of the tumbler 103B shown in FIG. 16 will be felt sooner because the end portions of the channel 114B flare outwardly. In order to reduce friction, the projection 115 or 117 is preferably dimensioned in such a way that it can be accommodated in the channel of the respective tumbler with at least some clearance (see tumbler, a single pair of coaxial tumblers or a single row of 75 particularly FIGS. 13 and 14).

The lock of FIG. 12 has a single row of tumblers 103 and each groove 105 of the housing 101 is a circumferentially complete groove. Since the lock has a single row of tumblers 103, the number of inserts 107 in the key 106 equals the number of tumblers.

The magnetic lock of FIG. 17 comprises a housing 201, a plug 202 having a key hole 209 and a row of sockets 208 (only one shown), and a row of tumblers 203 which are received in the sockets 208 and whose outer end portions extend into the enlarged portions or sockets 204 of respective grooves 205 when lock is in closed position. The numeral 210 denotes the magnetic inner end portion of the tumbler 203. The cross-sectional area of the tumbler 203 increases radially outwardly toward the respective socket 204. The configuration of the socket 208 is complementary to that of the tumbler 203, i.e., the surface surrounding the socket 208 resembles the frustum of a cone.

An important feature of the lock shown in FIG. 17 is that a burglar is unable to open it even if he succeeds to remove the web 202a of the plug 202, i.e., that portion of the plug which separates the key hole 209 from the inner end portions of the sockets 208. Since the cross-sectional area of each tumbler 203 increases radially outwardly, such tumblers cannot enter the hole 209 upon removal of the web 202a so that the outer end portions of tumblers 203 invariably extend into the corresponding sockets 204 of the grooves 205 and prevent unauthorized rotation of plug 202 with reference to the housing 101, unless, by some extremely unlikely coincidence, the

burglar succeeds to effect proper orientation of the entire row of tumblers upon removal of the web 202a. By comparing FIG. 17 with FIG. 1, one notes that the tumblers 3 of FIG. 1 could leave the respective sockets 4 in response to removal of webs 2a between the sockets 8 and the key hole 9.

FIGS. 18 and 19 illustrate a lock which constitutes a modification of the magnetic lock shown in FIG. 17. This modified lock comprises two rows of tumblers 203A each having a smaller-diameter cylindrical inner end portion 210A rotatable in the respective socket 208A of the plug 202A and a largerdiameter cylindrical outer end portion 218 rotatable in the corresponding enlarged portion or socket 204A of the associated groove 205A in the housing 201A. The tumblers 203A resemble headed bolts and, therefore, their outer end portions 218 cannot leave the sockets 204A if an unauthorized person removes the webs 202a. The outer end portions 218 are provided with offset slits 219 which receive portions of arcuate guide rails 220 provided in the grooves 205A (but not in the sockets 204A) of the housing 201A. The numerals 206A, 207A, 209A of FIGS. 18, 19 respectively denote parts corresponding to parts 6, 7, 9 shown in FIGS. 1 and 2.

FIGS. 20 and 21 illustrate a tumbler 2038 which can be used as a substitute for the tumbler 203 of FIG. 17. This tumbler has a non-symmetrical roof-shaped outer end portion 2138.

FIG. 22 and 23 show a tumbler 203C which can be used as a substitute for the tumblers 203A of FIGS. 18 and 19 if the grooves 205A of the housing 201A are without guide rails 220. The outer end portion 218C of the tumbler 203C is roofsha ed.

FIG. 24 shows a tumbler 203D which can replace the tumblers 203A of FIGS. l8, 19 if the guide rails 220 are located centrally in the respective grooves 205A. The slit 219D extends diametrically across the outer end portion 218D. The inner end portion 210D of the tumbler 203D consists of ferromagnetic material.

FIG. 25 shows a tumbler 203E which can be used as a substitute for the tumblers 203A of FIGS. 18, 19 without any changes in the position of guide rails 219. The slit 219E of the tumbler 203E is of trapeziforrn cross-sectional outline (it flares outwardly) so that the end portion of the respective guide rail 220 can readily find its way into such slit. The inner end portion 210E of the tumbler 203E consists of ferromagnetic material.

Locks utilizing tumblers 203A-203E of the type shown in FIGS. 18-25 exhibit the same advantages as the lock of FIG. 17, i.e., the outer end portions of these tumblers cannot leave the sockets of the respective grooves even if a burglar succeeds to remove the web or webs between the key hole and the sockets of the plug.

An advantage of the lock shown in FIGS. 18-19 over that shown in FIG. 17 is that the cylindrical inner end portions of the tumblers 203A are less likely to jam in the sockets 2 FIG. 26 illustrates three tumblers 203F, 203G, 203H of a row of tumblers in a magnetic lock and the positions of their magnetic poles. It will be seen that the positions of poles in the second tumbler 203G are angularly offset by 30 with reference to those of poles in the tumblers 203F and 203H. The positions of tumblers 203F-203G correspond to those when their outer end portions are free to enter the corresponding grooves of the housing. At the present time, I prefer to magnetize the tumblers of a row in such a way that the directions of magnetization of successive tumblers make an identical angle, preferably an angle of 30 as shown in FIG. 26.

Referring now to FIG. 27, there is shown a portion of a magnetic lock which comprises at least one group of tumblers 303 located in a plane which is normal to the common axis of the housing 301 and plug 302. The hole 309 of the plug 302 can receive a key 306 of square cross-sectional outline which is provided with four magnetic inserts 307 each of which is adjacent to the inner end portion of a tumbler 303 when the key is properly inserted into the plug. The sockets 308 for a group of four tumblers 303 are equidistant from each other and extend radially of the plug 302. The annular groove of the housing 301 is shown at 305 and its enlarged portions or sockets at 304. As stated before, the lock of FIG. 27 may comprise a single group or two or more groups of tumblers 303. The number of inserts 307 in the key 306 corresponds to the total number of tumblers 303.

FIG. 28 illustrates a portion of a magnetic lock which comprises one or more groups of tumblers 303A whereby each such group comprises three equidistant tumblers. The remaining parts of this lock are denoted by numerals used in FIG. 27 but each followed by the latter A. The key 206A is of substantially triangular cross-sectional outline and carries at least one group of three magnetic inserts 307A. It is clear, however, that the cross-sectional outline of the key 306 or 306A may be changed without departing from the spirit of my invention. For example, the lock of FIG. 28 can be opened by an elongated cylindrical key having three equidistant inserts corresponding to the inserts 307A and provided with an axially parallel flute for an internal spline in the key hole of the plug.

FIGS. 29 to 31 illustrate a further magnetic lock wherein the housing or base member comprises two coaxial annular portions including an outer annular portion or cylinder 401a and an inner annular portion or sleeve 401b. The core or plug 402 of the lock extends through the sleeve 401b and the latter is formed with two axially parallel internal grooves 405 having enlarged portions or sockets 404 for the outer end portions of tumblers 403. The inner end portions of such tumblers are received in radial blind bores or sockets 408 formed in the plug 402. A coupling is provided between the plug 402 and cylinder 4010 to normally hold the plug against rotation. This coupling comprises a toothed flange or gear 421 at one axial end of the plug 402 and a complementary internal gear 423 in the cylinder 401a. The teeth 422 of the flange 421 normally mesh with the teeth of the gear 423. It suffices if the flange 421 has a single tooth which enters a suitable tooth space in the cylinder 401a or vice versa. A resilient element here shown as helical spring 424 operates between an internal shoulder of the cylinder 401a and the other end of the plug 402 to bias the flange 421 to the position shown in FIG. 29 in which the teeth 422 mesh with the teeth of the internal gear 423. This is the starting position of the plug 402. A rod-like motion-transmitting extension 425 of the plug 402 is surrounded by the spring 424 and extends outwardly beyond the cylinder 401a. This extension 425 can displace a locking bolt or the like (not shown).

The cylinder 401a has a conical internal surface 426 surrounding a seat whose diameter diminishes in a direction away from the flange 421. This internal surface is separated from the cylindrical main chamber of the cylinder 401a by an internal annular partition or ring 427. The sleeve 40lb has a conical end portion 428 whose conicity is the same as that of the internal surface 426 in the cylinder 401a. The sleeve 40112 is further provided with an axially extending slot which is not shown in FIGS. 2931. The purpose of the slot is to render the sleeve 401b elastic so that its end portion 428 can be wedged into and non-rotatably held in the socket of the cylinder 401a.

As stated before, the grooves 405 extend in parallelism with the axis of the sleeve 401b. The configuration of grooves 405 and of outer end portions of the tumblers 403 is shown in FIG. 31. In order to leave the respective socket 404 and to be able to enter the profiled part of the corresponding groove 405, each tumblers 403 must turn in its socket 408 to assume a predetermined angular position which is shown in FIG. 31. This is achieved in response to insertion of a key 406 having magnetic inserts 407. The operator then applies axial pressure against the key 406 to displace the plug 402 lengthwise from starting position against the opposition of the spring 424 until the flange 421 moves beyond the internal gear 423 so as to thus uncouple the plug 402 from the cylinder 401a. The operator is then free to rotate the key 406 with the plug 402 and sleeve 401b whereby the extension 425 transmits motion to a latch, bolt or the like (not shown) in order to open a door.

If one attempts to break open the lock of FIGS. 29-31 by forcibly rotating the plug 402, torque applied to the plug is not taken up by the tumblers 403 but rather by the outer annular portion or cylinder 401a of the housing. This is due to the provision of the flange 421 and gear 423. These parts can be readily designed to withstand very high torque and to thus prevent unauthorized opening of the lock in response to rotation of the plug 402.

If one attempts to forcibly open the lock of FIGS. 29-31 by moving the plug 402 axially toward the ring 427 while the outer end portions of the tumblers 403 do not register with the grooves 405, the sleeve 401b bears against and breaks this ring so that the conical end portion 428 can penetrate into the seat surrounded by the conical internal surface 426. The end portion 428 is thereby wedged into the cylinder 401a so that the manipulator is again unable to rotate the plug 402. This is due to aforementioned elasticity of the sleeve 401b.

The flange 421 can be replaced by a polygonal plate which is non-rotatably received in a matching recess of the cylinder 401a in the starting position of the plug 402.

Contrary to the design of heretofore described magnetic locks, the lock of FIGS. 32 to 34 comprises tumblers 503 which are rotatable about axes extending in parallelism with the common axis of the housing 501 and plug 502. The sockets 508 in the peripheral surface of the plug 502 are bounded by substantially semicylindrical surfaces and the internal surface of the housing 501 is provided with complementary sockets 504 which replace the enlarged portions or sockets 4, etc. of the previously described locks. Each socket forms with the associated socket 504 a cylindrical chamber when the plug 402 assumes the angular position shown in FIG. 33 or 34. The tumblers 503 resemble studs or pins each of which can be fully accommodated in the corresponding socket 508 (see FIG. 34) to thereby permit rotation of the plug 502 with reference to the housing 501 or vice versa. The key is shown at 506 (FIG. 34); it has a configuration which is other than round so that it cannot rotate in the hole 509 of the plug 502. It can be said that each tumbler 503 comprises a flat" or facet 503a and a cylindrical peripheral surface portion whose axis coincides with the axis of the corresponding chamber including a socket 504 and a socket 508. The facets 503a are convex and their radii of curvature correspond to the radius of the peripheral surface of the plug 502. Therefore, the magnet or magnets of the key 506 can turn the tumblers 503 to the angular positions shown in FIG. 34 in which the facets 503a face the respective sockets 504 but do not extend into the housing 501. In this embodiment of my invention, the entire key 506 consists of ferromagnetic material. Altemately, only that portion of the key 506 which extends into the hole 509 may consist of magnetic material. When the key 506 is fully inserted into the hole 509, it forms with the plug 502 and tumblers 503 a solid cylindrical body which is rotatable in the bore of the housing 501. The arrangement of poles on the tumblers is such that the north pole of each tumbler in the upper row is adjacent to the north pole of the adjoining tumbler in the lower row when the key 506 is properly inserted into the hole 509. Thus, when the key is withdrawn, like poles of tranversely aligned tumblers 503 repel each other and cause the tumblers to assume the angular positions shown in FIG. 33 in which a portion of each tumbler extends into the adjoining socket 504 of the housing 501 and thus prevents rotation of the plug 502. FIG. 33 shows clearly that the tumblers 503 shown therein are mirror symmetrical with reference to a horizontal plane which passes through the axis of the plug 502 whereby the latter is held against rotation without any play.

FIG. 35 shows several other acceptable arrangements of magnetic poles on the tumblers which can be utilized in the lock of FIGS. 32 to 34.

The key 506A belongs to the locks shown in FIGS. 1, 2, 18, 19 and 29. The key which can be used in the lock corresponding to FIGS. 32, 33, 34 is not shown.

This key comprises magnetic inserts 507 which are held against angular movement by projections 529 (only one shown). The directions of magnetization of adjoining inserts 507 make an angle which is preferably n times 30 wherein n is a whole number (including 1). It is clear that the key 506A of FIGS. 36 and 37 may comprise pairs of inserts as a substitute for each of the inserts 507.

The insert or inserts of the key 506 are preferably provided with concave faces (see FIG. 34) so that the poles of such inserts can be located very close to the respective tumblers 503 when the key is fully inserted into the hole 509.

Referring to FIGS. 38 and 39, there is shown a magnetic lock wherein the housing and plug of previously described locks are replaced by two substantially disk-shaped members 631, 630. The member 631 is a base member and the member 630 is an actuating member. Tumblers 603 are provided to normally hold the actuating member 630 against rotation with reference to the base member 631 and to thus prevent rotation of a motion transmitting rod 637 which is rigid or integral with the actuating member 630 and extends through and beyond an axial bore 635 in the hub of the base member 631. The rod 637 may actuate a latch or the like, not shown. Each tumbler 603 comprises an enlarged end portion or head having a slit 619 adapted to receive a guide rail 620 in the concentric groove 605 of the base member 631 when the tumbler assumes a predetermined angular position in response to application of a special key 606. The guide rails 620 are best shown in FIG. 39. The groove 605 of the member 631 has enlarged cylindrical portions or sockets 604 which can accommodate the heads of tumblers 603 and are not provided with guide rails 620 so that the respective tumblers are free to turn about their own axes in response to application of the key 606. The axes of the tumblers 603 are parallel to the common axis of the members 630, 631. An O-ring 633 is inserted into an annular groove 632 machined into that end face of the actuating member 630 which is adjacent to the base member 631 to prevent entry of dirt or moisture into the sockets 608, enlarged portions or sockets 604, and groove 605. A second 0- ring 636 is inserted into an annular internal groove 634 provided in the hub of the member 631 to surround the motion transmitting extension 637.

The outer surface of the actuating member 630 has blind bores or recesses 638 which can accommodate torque transmitting and centering studs 639 of the key 606. The magnetic inserts 607 of the key then change the orientation of tumblers 603 so that each slit 619 registers with the rails 620 and allows the actuating member 630 to turn with reference to the base member 63 or vice versa. The key 606 is provided with a yokelike handle 640 which is pivotably connected thereto at 640a,

640b and enables the operator to turn the actuating member 630. If desired, the key 606 may be provided with two sets of magnetic inserts 607 so that it can be used to open the lock of FIGS. 38, 39 and a similar second lock. Also, the handle 640 can be omitted if the. key 606 is provided with a milled, knurled or otherwise roughened surface so that it resembles a knob or wheel which can be employed to transmit torque to the actuating member 630.

The members 630,631 can be embedded in a door in such a way that the door exposes only a portion of the outer side of the actuating member 630, Le, just enough to permit application of the key 606. It will be noted that the sockets 604, 608 are machined into two substantially flat surfaces of the members 631, 632.

Referring finally to FIGS. 40-42, there is shown a magnetic lock which comprises a first member or base member 742, a second member or lock actuating member 741 which is reciprocable with reference to the base member 742, three tumblers 703 which normally prevent reciprocation of the actuating member 741, and a detachable key 706. The actuating member 741 is reciprocable up and down, as viewed in FIG. 40, Le, in parallelism with guide rails 720 provided in the elongated straight grooves 705 of the base member 742. These grooves are machined into a flat surface of the member 742. Each groove 705 has an enlarged portion or socket 704 for the enlarged end portion or head of the respective tumblers 703. Each such head has a slit 719 which must register with the respective rail 720 before the actuating member 741 can be removed with reference to the base member 742.

It will be noted that the axes of the tumblers 703 are not located in a common plane; these axes are disposed at the corners of an isosceles triangle.

The actuating member 74 has a border or ledge 743 which confines the key 706 when the latter is properly applied to the member 741. The key 706 is of rectangular outline so that it can be fitted into the area within the ledge 743 and can transmit motion to member 74 by way of the ledge 743. The magnetic inserts of the key 706 are shown at 707. The ends of grooves 705 are closed by fixed stops 744 which are preferably integral with the base member 742.

The members 741, 742 are installed in a door (not shown) in such a way that only one side of the actuating member 741 remains exposed for application of the key 706 and that the member 741 can be moved back and forth to the extent determined by stops 744. The actuating member 741 has a motion transmitting portion (not shown) which actuates a latch or the like when the member 741 is caused to move with reference to the base member 742.

The ledge 743 forms a frame which accommodates the key 706 when the user wishes to open or close the lock. The inserts 707 effect proper angular displacement of tumblers 703 in response to insertion of the key 706 into such frame.

A very important advantage of my improved magnetic lock is that the distance between the tumblers and the key does not change when the key is properly applied so that it assumes a predetermined position with reference to the base member and actuating member. This is in contrast to the design of previously described conventional magnetic locks wherein the magnets of the key serve to shift the tumblers axially against the opposition of auxiliary magnets, against the opposition of springs and/or against the action of gravity so that the influence of the magnets in the key decreases very rapidly when the tumblers are caused to move away from the key. In other words, movements of tumblers in my lock do not result in changed distance from the key but rather in changed angular positions of tumblers to thereby permit movements of the actuating member from starting position. Due to the fact that the outer end portions of the tumblers may assume any desired shape and also due to the fact that the polarization of tumblers in the lock may be different from tumbler to tumbler, it is possible to achieve a practically infinite number of combinations with a relatively small number of tumblers.

it normally sufiices to move the tumblers to lock-ing positions in response to withdrawal or removal of the key. The aforediscussed feature of moving like poles of adjoining tumblers adjacent to each other in response to the action of magnetic inserts of the key when the latter is properly inserted into or applied to the actuating member is a safety feature to insure that like poles repel each other and cause at least one of the tumblers to assume its locking position in response to withdrawal or detachment of the key and to remain in such locking position irrespective of eventual vibrations or other shocks which might be transmitted to the lock while the key is removed.

Without further analysis, the foregoing will so fully reveal the gist of the present invention that others can, by applying current knowledge, readily adapt it for various applications without omitting features which fairly constitute essential characteristics of the generic or specific aspects of my contribution to the art and, therefore, such adaptations should and are intended to be comprehended within the meaning and range of equivalence of the claims.

What is claimed as new and desired to be protected by Letters Patent is set forth in the appended claims:

1. A magnetic lock comprising a first member; a second member movable with reference to said first member to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent surfaces and one of said surfaces being provided with a first socket; a magnetic locking element tumable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from said starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces having a second socket which receives a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking element assumes said second position, the other surface further having a groove which communicates with said second socket, said portion of said locking element and said groove being of such a configuration that said portion can enter' into and travel along said groove in response to movement of said second member from said starting position only when said locking element assumes said first position and said portion of said locking element being free to turn in said second socket in the starting position of said second member; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

2. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 1, wherein said portion of said locking element is roof-shaped.

3. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 1, wherein said portion of said locking element is unsymmetric.

4. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 1, wherein said portion of said locking element has a slit and said groove has a guide member which registers with said slit in the first position of said locking element so that the guide member can enter the slit in response to movement of the second member from starting position.

5. A magnetic lock comprising a first member; a second member movable with reference to said first member to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent surfaces and one of said surfaces being provided with a first socket; a magnetic locking element tumable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from said starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces having a second socket which receives a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking member as sumes said second position, said locking element further having an end portion located in said first socket and having a channel therein, said one surface being provided with a projection located in said first socket and extending into said channel in the first position of said locking element; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

6. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 5, wherein said channel has outwardly flaring end portions.

7. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 5, wherein said projection is a rib which is receivable in said channel with at least some clearance.

8. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 5, wherein said projection and said channel are bounded by rounded surfaces.

9. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 5, wherein said projection and said channel have polygonal cross-sectional outlines.

10. A magnetic lock comprising a first member; a second member movable with reference to said first member to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent surfaces and one of said surfaces being provided with a first socket, said first socket being bounded by a conical surface whose diameter increases in a direction towards the other surface; a magnetic locking element turnable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces having a second socket which receives a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking element assumes said second position, said locking element comprises a conical portion rotatably received in said first socket; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

11. A magnetic lock comprising a first member; a second member movable with reference to said first member to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent surfaces and one of said surfaces being provided with a first socket; a magnetic locking element turnable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces having a second socket which receives a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking element assumes said second position, said locking element further comprising a first portion of smaller cross-section which is rotatably received in said first socket and a second portion of larger cross-section which is outwardly adjacent to said first socket; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

12. A magnetic lock comprising a first member, a second member movable with reference to said first member to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent surfaces and one of said surfaces being provided with a first socket; a magnetic locking element turnable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces having a second socket which receives a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking element assumes said second position, said locking element comprising a further portion constituting a permanent magnet and being located in said first socket, said permanent magnet having a recess and said locking element having an additional portion having a projection received in said recess; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

13. A magnetic lock comprising a first member in form of a cylinder; a second member in form of a plug rotatable in said cylinder to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent surfaces, one of said surfaces being the peripheral surface of said plug and being provided with a first socket extending radially inwardly from said peripheral surface; a magnetic locking element tumable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces being the internal surface of said cylinder and having a second socket which receives a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking element assumes said second position, said internal surface having an arcuate groove extending in the circumferential direction of said plug and communicating with said second socket, the configuration of said groove and of said portion of said locking element being such that said portion can enter said groove to permit angular movement of said plug from starting position in the first position of said locking element; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

14. A magnetic lock comprising a first member comprising a cylinder and a coaxial sleeve rotatable in said cylinder; a second member movable with reference to said first member to and from a starting position and comprising a plug coaxially extending into said sleeve, said members having adjacent surfaces, one of said surfaces being the peripheral surface of said plug and being provided with a first socket extending radially inwardly from said peripheral surface; a magnetic locking element turnable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces being the internal surface of said sleeve and having a second socket which receives a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking element assumes said second position, said other surface having further a groove extending in parallelism with the axis of said sleeve, the configuration of said groove and of said portion of said locking element being such that said portion can enter said groove to permit axial movement of said plug in said sleeve when said locking element assumes said first position; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

15. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 14, further comprising coupling means connecting said plug with said cylinder in the starting position of said plug.

16. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 15, wherein said coupling means comprises a tooth provided on said plug and extending into a tooth space of said cylinder in the starting position of said plug.

17. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 15, wherein said sleeve has a conical portion at one end thereof and said cylinder has a conical seat snugly receiving said conical portion in response to forcible axial displacement of said plug in the second position of said locking element.

18. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 17 wherein said cylinder has an internal partition separating said seat from said conical portion in the starting position of said plug.

19. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 17, wherein said sleeve is elastically deformable in response to entry of said conical portion into said seat to thus prevent rotation of said sleeve and said plug with reference to said cylinder.

20. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 15, further comprising resilient means for biasing said plug to starting position.

21. A magnetic lock comprising a first member in form of a cylinder; a second member in form of a plug rotatable in said cylinder to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent surfaces, one of said surfaces being the peripheral surfaces of said plug and being provided with a first socket; a magnetic locking element in form of a cylindrical pin tumable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces being the internal surface of said cylinder and having a second socket defining with said first socket a cylindrical chamber for the locking element in the starting position of said plug while said locking element assumes said second position, said locking element being fully accommodated in said first socket in the first position thereof, and having a facet which faces in said first position of said locking member said second socket; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

22. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 21, wherein said facet is of convex shape and has a radius of curvature corresponding to the radius of said peripheral surface.

23. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 22, wherein said facet is flush with said peripheral surface so that the locking element fills said first socket in the first position thereof.

24. A magnetic lock comprising a first member; a second member movable with reference to said first member to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent surfaces and one of said surfaces being provided with a first socket; a magnetic locking element tumable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces having a second socket which receives a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking element assumes said second position; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key, said magnet means being an insert in said key and having a notch and said key having a projection received in said notch.

25. A magnetic lock comprising a first member; a second member rotatable with reference to said first member to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent substantially flat surfaces and one of said surfaces being provided with a first socket substantially parallel to the axis of said second member; a magnetic locking element turnable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position, said first member having a second socket rotatably receiving a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking element assumes said second position and an arcuate groove communicating with said second socket, the configuration of said portion of said locking element and of said groove being such that said portion can enter said groove in the first position of said locking element to thereby perrnrt movement of said second member from starting position; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

26. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 25, wherein the center of curvature of said groove is located on the axis of said second member.

27. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 25, wherein said second memberhas a second surface facing away from said first member and wherein said key is adapted to be applied against said second surface to thereby move said locking element from second to first position.

28. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 26, further comprising torque transmitting means provided on said key for rotating said second member to and from starting position.

29. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 25, wherein said second member comprises an axial motion transmitting extension passing through a bore provided in said first member.

30. A magnetic lock comprising a first member, a second member reciprocable with reference to said first member to and from a starting position, said members having adjacent surfaces and one of said surfaces being provided with a first socket; a magnetic locking element tumable in said first socket between at least one first position and at least one second position in which it respectively permits and prevents movement of said second member from starting position, said locking element normally assuming said second position and the other of said surfaces having a second socket which receives a portion of said locking element in said starting position of said second member while said locking element assumes said second position; and a key adapted to be applied to one of said members in at least one predetermined position and having magnet means arranged to effect angular displacement of said locking element to said first position in said predetermined position of said key.

31. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 30, wherein said surfaces are substantially flat and wherein the surface of said first member has an elongated straight groove communicating with said second socket, the configuration of said portion of said locking element and of said groove being such that said portion can enter said groove to permit movement of said second member from starting position in the first position of said locking element.

32. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 31, wherein said second member has a frame adapted to accommodate said key in the applied position of the key so that the second member is movable to and from starting position by way of said key.

33. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 13, wherein said groove is a circumferentially complete groove located in a plane which is normal to the axis of said cylinder.

34. A magnetic lock as defined in claim 13, wherein said groove forms a helix.

Patent Citations
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US3512382 *Apr 17, 1968May 19, 1970Liquidonics IncHybrid lock
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3797288 *Feb 8, 1973Mar 19, 1974Hallmann HMagnetically-operated locking and control device
US3935720 *Oct 24, 1974Feb 3, 1976Egon BovingRotatable cylinder lock
US4022038 *Feb 20, 1976May 10, 1977Engineering Systems CorporationMagnetically operated locking device and key
US4084416 *Jun 28, 1976Apr 18, 1978Evva Werk Spezialerzeugung Von Zylinder- Und Sicherheitsschlossern Gesellschaft M.B.H. & Co. KommanditgesellschaftMagnetic-type lock
US4250725 *Feb 5, 1979Feb 17, 1981Evva Werk Spezialerzeugung von Zylinder- und Sicherheitsschlossern Gesellschaft m.b.H. & Co.Control device
US4287733 *Mar 27, 1979Sep 8, 1981Gomez Olea MarianoMagnet-electronic lock system
US4294091 *Feb 16, 1979Oct 13, 1981Evva Werk Spezialerzeugung Von Zylinder- Und Sicherheitsschlossern Gesellschaft M.B.H. & Co. KommanditgesellschaftControl device for cylinder locks
US4333327 *Feb 7, 1980Jun 8, 1982Miwa Lock Co., Ltd.Magnetic tumbler lock
US4440007 *Mar 2, 1981Apr 3, 1984EVVA-Werk Specialerzeugung von Zylinder-und-Sicherheitsschlossern GmbH & Co. KGControl device for cylinder locks
US4686841 *Oct 7, 1985Aug 18, 1987Evva-Werk Spezialerzeugung Von Zylinder- Und Sicherheitsschlossern Gesellschaft Mbh & Co. KommanditgesellschaftRotatable magnetic tumbler and magnetic lock containing same
US4748834 *Mar 25, 1983Jun 7, 1988Lowe & Fletcher LimitedKey made of magnetic material
US5193371 *Dec 24, 1991Mar 16, 1993Kabushiki-KaishaMagnet card type lock
US8166783Jan 23, 2008May 1, 2012Master Lock Company LlcAnti-tampering arrangements for pin tumbler cylinder locks
US8739588Mar 27, 2012Jun 3, 2014Master Lock Company LlcAnti-tampering arrangements for pin tumbler cylinder locks
US20110225890 *Mar 17, 2010Sep 22, 2011Mark GreenwoodGate with foot-operated latching mechanism
Classifications
U.S. Classification70/276, 70/365, 70/413
International ClassificationE05B47/00
Cooperative ClassificationE05B47/0042, E05B47/0044
European ClassificationE05B47/00B7, E05B47/00B4