US 3655138 A
A machine for comminuting glassware or the like into small, rather uniform particles, which employs an upstanding disintegration chamber having an entrance in the upper portion for receiving the material to be comminuted. Within the lower portion of the chamber and extending transversely thereof is mounted a high speed rotary comminutor mechanism which comprises a plurality of sets of rigid comminuting elements or bars disposed radially and sequentially on a common axis of revolution. The elements of each set extend in axially spaced relation and are successively angled differentially. Adjacent elements of each set preferably are of somewhat different lengths so that their disintegrating tips or extremities lie in different orbits of revolution. The said rotary comminuting mechanism per se disintegrates the bottles, containers, glassware or stiff plastic without the use of statinary grate bars or other shearing elements, and the disintegrated particles with preferably the assistance of a deflection medium are dropped by gravity and collected in a drawer or other collection medium which is readily removable from the machine for periodic dumping of the collected particles. With my improved structure, material such as frangible bottles and other containers may be comminuted into particles of average size of less than one half inch in longest dimensions.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Luscombe [54} MACHINE FOR COMMINUTING GLASSWARE AND THE LIKE  Inventor:
Iowa 50531  Filed: Aug. 8, 1969  Appl.No.: 848,617
Primary Examiner-Andrew R. Juhasz Assistant ExaminerGary L. Smith Attorney-Williamson, Palmatier & Bains Gene A. .Luscombe, Route #1. Dolliver.
 3,655,138 [4 1 Apr.1l,1972
[5 7] ABSTRACT A machine for comminuting glassware or the like into small, rather uniform particles, which employs an upstanding disintegration chamber having an entrance in the upper portion for receiving the material to be comminuted. Within the lower portion of the chamber and extending transversely thereof is mounted a high speed rotary comminutor mechanism which comprises a plurality of sets of rigid comminuting elements or bars disposed radially and sequentially on a common axis of revolution. The elements of each set extend in axially spaced relation and are successively angled differentially. Adjacent elements of each set preferably are of somewhat different lengths so that their disintegrating tips or extremities lie in different orbits of revolution. The said rotary comminuting mechanism per se disintegrates the bottles, containers, glassware or stiff plastic without the use of statinary grate bars or other shearing elements, and the disintegrated particles with preferably the assistance of a deflection medium are dropped by gravity and collected in a drawer or other collection medi um which is readily removable from the machine for periodic dumping of the collected particles. With my improved structure, material such as frangible bottles and other containers may be comminuted into particles of average size of less than one half inch in longest dimensions.
3 Claims, 3 Drawing Figures MACHINE FOR COMMINUTING GLASSWARE AND THE LIKE This invention relates to a machine or device for quite finely comminuting glassware and brittle plastics, such as glass bottles of all types and broken plastic dining ware and containers.
The problem of disposing of the many millions of glass bottles and other containers, which are originally used for containing liquor, soft drinks, cosmetics and other liquid materials, has become a very serious one in the United States, where in restaurants and bars along several million liquor and beer bottles per month must be disposed of.
The prior art includes a number of impact devices where bottles are broken into relatively large fragments by being dropped upon sharp impact means. The prior art also shows a few rotary devices for very coarsely breaking bottles and other glassware into fragments. All of said prior art devices, however, result only in the production of relatively large and jagged glass fractions which occupy substantial volumetric space in hauling to dumps and the like or in otherwise disposing thereof, not to mention the dangerous aspects of handling jagged pieces of glass.
It is an object of my invention to provide a high capacity comminuting device or machine for finely disintegrating glassware, including bottles, broken dishes and glassware, as well as substantially rigid plastic containers and table and kitchen ware, and which will comminute the material into particles having average largest dimensions of less than half an inch in size. The new and improved results obtained by the embodiments of my invention provide for a condensed mass of small particles occupying relatively little space and capable of being readily and safely handled at little cost.
More specifically, it is an object to provide in a machine of the class described a high-speed rotor having a great multiplicity of disintegrating blades arranged to assure maximum disintegration of the bottles or the glassware into very small fragments, and excluding possibility of long or jagged particles.
In its preferred form, my invention combines with a comminuting rotor, of the type previously referred to, a sliding or dropping action wherein gravity assists with a disintegrating rotor to produce improved and new results.
A further object of the invention is to provide an economical and highly efficient comminuting machine of the class described which occupies little space and can be conveniently mounted much like a short filing cabinet in a bar, restaurant or home. The finely comminuted glass, plastic or other material is collected in a removable drawer at the bottom of the machine and cabinet and, because of the high bulk density of the particles, a large number of bottles may be comminuted before emptying of the collecting drawer is necessary.
My invention employs a unique rotary comminuting device in the form of a high-speed, multi-bladed rotor wherein a great multiplicity of breaker elements or blades are axially spaced and arranged successively at variable angles, and preferably are of at least a plurality of varying lengths. Exhaustive tests have proven that with the comminutor mechanism of my invention, and without the use of shearing action, grate bars or stationary breaker elements, rather uniform small particles may be broken from glass bottles, containers, sheets, and also from stiff plastic containers.
In a device for comminuting where the maximum diameter of the orbit of the longest blade is in the nature of 7 inches, I find that for requisite speed the rotor should be driven within a range from 1,000 to 1,500 rpm.
The foregoing and other objects of my invention will be more apparent from the accompanying drawings in which like reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views and in which:
FIG. 1 is a vertical cross section taken substantially centrally from the front through the back of an embodiment of my machine, and in fact along approximately the section line 1--1 of FIG. 2;
FIG. 2 is a vertical cross section taken near the back wall of the machine along the line 22 of F IG. 1; and
FIG. 3 is a diagrammatical perspective view showing successive application and securing of two similar sets of comminuting blades applied to the shaft 19, it being noticed that when the second set of four blades are applied the first blade is angled at an angle of 22% from the first blade R-l of the first set.
Referring now in detail to the embodiment of the invention illustrated, the working parts, chute and removable collection drawer are mounted within an upright rectangular cabinet indicated as an entirety by the letter C, having vertical side walls 10 and a removable back wall 11, and a top 12. The structure of the cabinet may be substantially conventional, made of heavy sheet steel or other metal and, if desired, reinforced at corners and overlapping of certain edges. The front wall of the cabinet 15 has a large rectangular receiving opening 15a through its upper portion which is defined at its lower edge by an inwardly extending, relatively wide flange 16.
As shown, a depending hinge door 17 at its lower edge is spring-actuated to normally engage against the flange 16. A depending flexible guard curtain S is secured at its upper edge back of door 17 and is weighted at its lower edge.
In the embodiment illustrated, an elongated removable chute, indicated as an entirety by the letter X, is rigidly affixed within cabinet C and has a front wall X-l rearwardly declined from the upper portion thereof, and a pair of parallel side walls X2 which may be integrally constructed with front wall X-l if desired, and which together serve to support my novel comminuting rotor R at the lower portions thereof. The chute X, as shown, is mounted by suitable means (not shown) for limited lateral adjustment within cabinet C.
The rotor R is provided with a heavy rigid shaft 19 to which is affixed in predetermined, axially spaced relation a multiplicity of radially extending comminuting bars or blades (later to be described in detail). The end portions of the shaft 19 are joumaled in efficient roller bearings 20 which are enclosed within enlarged bearing cases 21, having annular attachment flanges 21a which are rigidly secured as by three nutted bolts 22 which clamp the attachment flanges 21a firmly to the respective side walls X2 of the heavy chute.
To facilitate mounting and replacement of the comminuting roller R, wide horizontal slots 23 are provided in the two sides X2 of the chute, extending from the rearward longitudinal edges thereof inwardly to central apertures formed for reception of the bearing cases.
One end of the rotor shaft 19 (the right end as viewed from the front of the cabinet) is extended beyond its adjacent chute side X2 for drive connection with a motor and, as shown, carries a V-belt pulley 24. A compact electric motor M is mounted on a heavy angle platform 27 or the like from the right side wall of cabinet C, disposed between said side wall and the adjacent wall X2 of the chute. The armature shaft of motor M is provided with a driving V-belt pulley 25 which is connected by V-belt 26 with the pulley 24 attached to shaft 19.
A preferred form of comminuting rotor will now be described in detail, essentially carrying a great multiplicity of radially disposed, axially spaced blades or breaker bars which are successively differentially angled with respect to a vertical center line of the rotor, and which further vary in their lengths from the axis of shaft 19 to which they are affixed. For economy of manufacture and simplicity of assembly, several sets of longitudinal breaker bars are employed, centrally affixed to the rotor shaft 19, to provide for each bar a pair of comminuting blades.
Referring now particularly to FIG. 3, and in the positions of the breaker bars shown therein, each set comprises an elongate bar (shown in vertical position) R-l, anext successive bar R2 centrally afiixed to the shaft 19 and disposed axially at an angle of approximately 45 from the first bar R-l. Bar R2 is somewhat shorter in length than the bar Rl, as for example, in the present illustrations where the bar R-l is 7 inches in length having comminuting blades equal to one half thereof, then the next sequential bar R2 is approximately 1 inch shorter in overall length. The next bar R-3 is centrally disposed upon the shaft 19 and rigidly affixed thereto, with its face in abutment with the adjacent face of the bar R-2, and the bar R-3 is preferably of the same length as bar R-l, extending when the rotor is viewed from one end, at right angles to the bar R-Z. The fourth bar of the sequence identified as R-4 is of the shorter length like bar R2, and extends perpendicularly to the first bar R-1 of the sequence. The sequence of bars is then repeated on the same common shaft 19 and will again be repeated for elongated comminuting rotors.
In repeating the sequence of the bars R-l through R-4 respectively, I dispose the second sequence preferably at an angle of 22% from the relative bars of the first sequence. As best shown in FIG. 3, the first bar R-l of the second sequence is disposed inwardly of the bar R-l of the first sequence at an angle of 22% thereto. With such variation of angles in second and third series, it will of course be apparent that a very wide variation in the disposal of the actual breaker tips is accomplished.
Directly below the bottom of comminuting rotor R a deflecting medium is rigidly mounted for causing deflection of some of the comminuted particles forwardly and downwardly, and for distribution of approximately half of the particles comminuted in a forward direction and downward. This deflecting medium prevents the accumulation of the small particles in a conical pile and facilitates quite complete filling of the removable collection drawer below the rotor. As shown, said deflection medium includes a rigid upstanding lip 28 which extends transversely the full distance across chute X and has its ends secured to said chute, particularly to the sides X-2 thereof. This lip terminates substantially along a vertical plane passing through the axis of the rotor shaft 19.
Additional deflection means, in the form of forwardly declined slide plates 29, is widely spaced apart and tend to guide comminuted material passing by lip 28 forwardly as shown in FIG. 1.
It will be noted that the orbit, indicated as -2, of the longer blades is disposed very closely above in working relation to the forward declined bottom X-l of the chute X.
The collection tray, indicated as an entirety by the letter T, is slidably mounted in the lowermost portion of cabinet C and is preferably relatively deep and traverses the entire interior of the cabinet. It is specially mounted for smooth horizontal sliding action and bodily removable from the cabinet. The tray T preferably has handles at each end thereof so that it may be conveniently carried and the comminuted or the uniform particles therein poured or otherwise dispensed into a trash receiver.
OPERATION In operation, the material to be comminuted is dumped through the receiving opening 150 of the upper cabinet; and
weight of the materials, such as bottles, plastic containers, broken glass, and so forth push the door 17 rearwardly away from the flange 16. With the assistance of gravity, the bottles and other material drop and slide downwardly against the high-speed revolving comminuting rotor R.
The individual and variably angled tips of the blade members R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4 individually bite and cut out very small fragments of the glassware or other material striking thereagainst through action of gravity. The great multiplicity of blade tips extending generally radially from the shaft 19 of the rotor and variably spaced apart and differentially angled, produces an exceedingly efficient and fast disintegration of the glassware and plastic material into very fine particles. Furthermore, because of the individual bite action of the breaker tips of the multiplicity of blades, particles are relatively uniform in size and in actual practice have been found to have an average size in longest dimension of from one-fourth to three-eighths of an inch. 5
The particles are centrifugally thrown off in a generally downward direction from the comminutor rotor, a substantial proportion, by estimation one-half thereof, being deflected rearwardly by the deflection lip 28 to fall in variable trajectories into the rearward area of the tray T. A proportion of the particles, approximating one-half, which will leave the rotor on the lowered and forward portions thereof fall upon the plate slide 29 which is declined and angled forwardly and, through gravity, slide down said plate and are dropped into the forward area of the tray. With such deflection, accumulation of a central pile of conical form is prevented as the tray is quite unifonnly filled with continuous use of my device, and when approximately full, may be removed from the cabinet and the contents dumped into a trash receiver, such as a large container or garbage truck.
From the foregoing description it will be seen that l have provided an economical machine for very rapidly and efficiently comminuting glassware or the like into very small, rather uniform particles which may be easily collected and handled without danger or difficult collection means. The comminuting rotor, having differentially angled axially spaced blades with tips disposed in spaced and variably angled positions, produces, to my knowledge, new and improved results as contrasted with any glassware comminutors of the prior act. The rotor is driven at relatively high speed in the embodiment shown where the longer blade elements, such as R-1 and R-3, are of approximately 7 inches in length, being from 1,000 to 1,500 rpm.
The comminution of the glass and other materials is brought about without the use of grate bars or other shearing action. Of course the gravity and the guiding of chute X contributes to the successive comminution bites of the blade tips against the glass and other material to be comminuted.
In operation, some small accumulation of large particles takes place at the delivery end of chute X between the orbits 0-1 and 0-2 of the respective double blades and the lower delivery bottom X-l of the chute, and keeping in mind the effect of the rigid upstanding lip 28, thus larger particles are comminuted before they can drop down into the tray T.
While it is preferable to toss in bottles neck foremost, nevertheless they will be well disintegrated if thrown or deposited at random. In this connection, some beverage bottles at this time are provided with screw-on caps of thin sheet metal constructions. These caps, with the action of my multiplicity of comminutor bars, are bent and usually flattened so that they fall with the comminuted glass or other frangible material into the tray.
To reduce the noise produced by the very rapid comminution of the glass or other material, it is to be understood that the entire housing and, if desired, also the chute X of my structure may be lined with acoustical insulation material of substantial depth.
What is claimed is:
1. A machine for rather uniformly comminuting frangible material such as bottles, glassware and plastic, having in combination,
an upstanding, disintegrating chamber with a receiving opening in its upper portion and having a discharge area I at its lower end for directing comminuted particles with the aid of gravity to a collecting medium,
a high-speed rotary comminuting mechanism mounted transversely in the lower portion of said chamber above said discharge area and substantially traversing said discharge area and comprised solely of a multiplicity of generally radial rigid comminuting elements disposed in circumferentially and axially spaced relation on a common axis of revolution,
said comminuting elements being of at least two different lengths and terminating in interspaced, individual bite tips, the tips of the shorter lengths being interspersed substantially uniformly with the tips of the longer elements to provide a generally cylindrical assembly for comminuting said materials,
said tips being axially angled in succession at acute angles to the adjacent tips thereof,
said chamber having a side declined from the vertical to form a chute for guiding frangible material downwardly,
said chamber being completely unobstructed in the portion above said rotary mechanism, and
means for revolving said comminuting mechanism at high speed in a direction where said elements move from the upper portion of their orbits towards and downwardly of said chute-forming side, thereby biting out substantially uniform particles without using shearing action or