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Publication numberUS3655282 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 11, 1972
Filing dateDec 31, 1969
Priority dateDec 31, 1969
Also published asCA932787A, CA932787A1, DE2062600A1, DE2062600B2
Publication numberUS 3655282 A, US 3655282A, US-A-3655282, US3655282 A, US3655282A
InventorsTurner Charies L, Zerfahs Arthur S
Original AssigneeAddressograph Multigraph
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
High speed photoelectrostatic copying machine
US 3655282 A
Abstract
A high speed copying machine includes, in combination, a xenon light source for illuminating an original document and providing, via an optical assembly, a light image of the original to an exposure station for imaging copy material as it is transported through the exposure station; a high speed magnetic brush developer for applying toner particles to the imaged copy material at a high rate, and a fusing assembly for fixing the toner particles applied to the copy material thereto by the application of pressure only. Independent transport arrangements are provided to move the copy material through the various copy processing stations of the machine. One of the transport arrangements includes endless belt members each having a piled surface of a non-conductive material to prevent the dissipation of the charge applied to the copy material as the latter is carried by the belt members.
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United States Patent Turner et a1.

QQPYING MACHINE [72] lnventors: Charles L. Turner, Elgin; Arthur S. Zerfahs, Elk Grove, both of 111.

Addressograph-Multigraph Corporation, Mountlrospect, 111.

[22] Filed: Dec.31, 1969 [21] Appl.No.: 889,630

[54] HIGH SPEED PHQTUELECTROSTATHC [73] Assignee:

[52] U.S. Cl ..355/3, 355/13, 355/14 [51] int. Cl. ..G03g 15/00 [58] FieldolSearch ..355/l3, 14,3,25, 75,76, 355/82; 240/1 El, 2 P

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,289,532 12/1966 Baumgarten ..355/65 X 2,976,144 3/1961 Rose ..355/3 X 2,904,000 9/1959 Fisher ..355/3 X 3,501,236 3/1970 Maloney.. ..355/14 3,397,627 8/1968 Bruning ..355/14 X [15] 3,655,282 [451 Apr. 11, 1972 1,941,624 2/1934 Salchow ..355/25 3,560,089 2/1971 Jones ..355/82 Primary ExaminerSamuel S. Matthews Assistant Examiner-Monroe l-l. Hayes Attorney-Sol L. Goldstein ABSTRACT A high speedcopying machine includes, in combination, a

xenon light source for illuminating an original document andv providing, via an optical assembly, a light image of the original to an exposure station for imaging copy material as it is transported through the exposure station; a high speed magnetic brush developer for applying toner particles to the imaged copy material at a high rate, and a fusing assembly for fixing the toner particles applied to the copy material thereto by the application of pressure only. Independent transport arrangements are provided to move the copy material through the various copy processing stations of the machine. One of the transport arrangements includes endless belt members each having a piled surface of a non-conductive material to prevent the dissipation of the charge applied to the copy material as the latter is carried by the belt members.

6 Claims, 5 Drawing Figures PATENTEUAPR 11 I972 3,655,282

. sum 1 [IF 3 PATENTEDAPRH m2 Y 3.655282 SHEET 2 OF 3 eibr 6" 56ml, J/rflfur a. jerfaz s HIGH SPEED PHOTOELECTROSTATIC COPYING MACHINE BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION:

This invention relates generally to copying apparatus and more particularly to high-speed electrostatic copiers.

The technology of making copies of a graphic original electrostatically involves the application of a uniform electrostatic charge in the dark to a photoconductive surface, selectively discharging the surface by exposure to a pattern of light and shadow in accordance with the original being copied to provide a latent electrostatic image, and rendering the latent image visible by applying finely divided electroscopic particles. The latent image can be developed directly on a photoconductive copy sheet or on another surface from which the visible image is subsequently transferred to a plain sheet.

A wide range of copying machines are available to carry out the foregoing operations. Many copiers of the type which develop the latent image directly on a photoconductive copy sheet employ a liquid developing technique. The use of such a technique makes it necessary to wet the copy sheet so as to apply the electroscopic particles, and subsequently to dry the copy sheet with electrical heating equipment provided in the machine, thereby to evaporate the wetness on the sheet and produce ultimately a dry copy.

While the above is a satisfactory developing technique, it is time consuming and tends to limit the number of copies produced in a given period of time. Furthermore, a great amount of heat is required to dry the wet copies. This, in turn requires a considerable consumption of electrical energy, making it necessary to provide high voltage wiring for the machine.

Other machines use, instead of a liquid developer, a dry toner or developer powder. Development through the use of such toner, however, normally requires a fuser which provides heat to the copy sheet causing the toner to melt and adhere or become fixed to the sheet. Such a fusing device uses a considerable amount of electrical energy to produce the heat necessary to melt and fix the toner. Also, a warm-up time is required to bring the fuser to a high enough temperature to begin making copies. Once warmed up, the fuser must be maintained at least somewhat heated to be able to make copies without a further waiting time.

In addition to the above, many of the electrostatic copying machines discharge the photoconductive surfaces of the copy sheets by exposure to incandescent lighting means. The incandescent light provides good exposure of the photoconductive surface, however, the copy sheet must be held in a stationary condition in the illuminating area and exposed for a given length of time in order that the photoconductive surface is adequately discharged by the light source. This too, increases the time cycle for making copies in the machine.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION:

Accordingly, it is a primary object of the present invention to provide a new and improved high-speed copying machine.

lt is another object of this invention to provide a copying machine of the above-described type which can be operated on common 1 -volt AC household current.

It is a more specific object of the present invention to provide a high volume electrostatic copying machine which utilizes zinc oxide or the like, coated photoconductive sheets.

It is another object of the invention to provide a copying machine of the type described which uses in combination a high intensity gas discharge source for illuminating an original document, a high speed developing device for applying electroscopic toner particles to the imaged copy material and a fusing assembly for fixing the toner to the copy material with pressure only, thereby to provide in a rapid and efiicient manner a high volume of copies at a relatively high rate.

Briefly, a preferred embodiment of a high-speed copying machine according to the invention comprises a housing with a generally uniplanar upper surface. An illuminating station is provided at one end of the housing along a raised upper surface thereof and it includes a transparent glass platen. An integral hinged cover portion and door arrangement is provided along the top wall to permit pages from bound volumes, as well as sheets of original material to be copied easily and accurately on the glass platen. A pair of xenon flash lamps mounted beneath the glass platen within the housing in a specially designed light box configuration provides the light source for a reflected light image which is supplied through an optical system including a reflecting assembly and a lens assembly, to an exposure station disposed in a substantially vertical plane within the housing. Because of the high intensity light given off from the xenon lamp, it need only be operated for a fraction of the time required with an incandescent light source. Furthermore, the copy sheet need not be stopped at the exposure station while being exposed as in the case where an incandescent light source is used.

The exposure station comprises one of the stations along the copy sheet path provided within the housing of the copying machine. Initially, the copy sheet makes up a portion of a roll of photoconductive paper, preferably zinc-oxide coated, mounted for rotation within the housing. The roll of photoconductive paper is passed through a series of rollers and a cutting assembly, and past a movable sensor which selects the length of a copy sheet.

A charging station, including a corona type charging unit, is provided downstream of the cutter assembly and upstream of the exposure station. Thus prior to exposure, the sheet is charged by the corona unit. While continually moving through the exposure station, the severed copy sheet is selectively discharged.

From the exposure station, the copy sheet passes to a developing station. The developing station in a preferred embodiment of the copying machine according to the invention includes a high speed developer of the dry magnetic brush type wherein electroscopic toner particles are transferred from the brush to the imaged areas of the copy sheet. It is to be understood, however, that other types of developers such as, for example, cascade, etc. may be used if desired.

Immediately downstream of the developing station there is provided a fusing station which causes the electroscopic toner particles applied to the copy sheet by the developer to be permanently affixed to the sheet. The fuser station includes a pressure fusing device which without the use of heat, and only by the application of a uniform pressure to the copy sheet causes the toner particles to adhere permanently to the paper. The pressure fuser is extremely fast in fixing the toner and because no heating is required as in the case of conventional heat fusers or dryers, no great power consumption is necessary. Consequently, the copying machine according to the invention is operable on common ll5-volt AC household current.

In addition to the instrumentalities described there is pro vided in the copying machine according to the invention, jam detecting sensors and associated circuitry which is effective to indicate copy paper jams occurring during the copying process. Furthermore, interlock safety switches are provided at various locations about the copying machine housing to disable the operation of the machine in the event cabinet doors are open, the instrumentalities of the machine are out of normal operating position, etc. 1

The copying machine according to the invention is further equipped to handle pre -cut copy sheets if desired. Circuitry provided in the machine disables the copy paper roll feeding mechanism upon insertion of a pre-cut copy sheet into the machine. The copy sheet is processed in the same manner as a sheet cut from the roll.

DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS:

A better understanding of the present invention and its organization and construction may be had by referring to the description below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings wherein:

FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a preferred embodiment of a high-speed electrostatic copying machine according to the invention;

FIG. 2 and FIG. 3 are enlarged fragmentary perspective views of the original receiving glass platen of the copying machine of FIG. 1 illustrating in greater detail the hinged door and cover arrangement used in copying single sheets or bound volumes and the like, respectively;

FIG. 4 is a longitudinal cross sectional view of the copying machine of FIG. 1 taken along the line 4- 4; and,

FIG. 5 comprises a schematic diagram of the electrical circuitry of a preferred embodiment of a high-speed copying machine according to the invention.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION:

Referring now to the drawings more in detail, FIGS. 1-3, thereof illustrate a high-speed electrostatic copying machine according to the invention. The machine includes a base support 12, a housing portion 14 mounted on the base support 12, including a pair of end walls 16, 18 (18 not shown) and a front and back wall 28, 22, respectively (22 not shown). Front wall includes a pair of hinged door s 24, 26 which can be opened for access to the instrumentalities of the machine.

The top or upper wall 28 of the copying machine 10 includes a raised original sheet illuminating station or table 30 (FIG. 3). The raised illuminating table 30 includes three vertically oriented side walls, 32,34, 36 (34, 36 not being shown in FIG. 3), and an inclined side wall 38. The side walls support a top wall 40 which includes an original receiving window or glass platen 42 (FIG. 3). One edge 44 of the glass platen 42 is coextensive with the upper edge 46 of wall 38 to accommodate a book or bound volume original 48 as shown in FIG. 3.

Attached along edge 50 of upper wall 40 by a hinge 52 (FIG. 3) is a cover portion and door assembly 54 for covering an original being copied on the glass platen 42 to suppress the flash effects of the light and to hold the original against the glass platen.

The assembly 54 includes a cover portion 56 having opposite side walls, 58, 60 an inclined wall 62 attached therebetween and a top wall 64 interconnecting the aforementioned walls. The cover portion 56 is of a size large enough to be closed over raised original sheet receiving table 30 with the walls 58, 60,62 extending along side respective walls 32 36 and 38 of the table 30 (FIG. 2). An aperture 66 is provided in the top wall 64 of the cover portion 56 and a hinged door member 68 is provided therein for closing off the aperture. A latch mechanism 70 serves to lock door member 68 in a closed position if desired.

In the case wherein a book or bound volume such as 48 is to be copied, the door 68 is latched and the cover portion is pivoted about hinge 52 to an open position. The book is placed on the glass platen and the other half of the book extending over inclined wall 38. The cover portion 56 is then closed over the book 48 to eliminate light other than that of the illuminating source of the machine.

If a single sheet original, such as 72, is to be copied, the cover portion 56 is positioned over the table 30, and the door 68 is opened as shown in FIG. 2. After the sheet is placed on the glass platen, the door 68 is closed to shield the operator against the flash generated during the copy cycle, and the copy process can begin. A white or reflective center portion 74 of an area similar to that of the glass platen 42, is provided on the inside surface 67 of door member 68 to aid in illuminating original documents to be copied by reflecting the light from the light source of the machine. The white center portion 74 is especially useful when copying translucent or transparent originals.

Adjacent table 30 along upper wall 28 of the copying machine is an operator control panel 75, best seen in FIG. 2 of the drawings, comprising a first control dial 76 for selecting the copy sheet length desired, an exposure selector control dial 78 for varying the energy provided to the illumination source of the copy machine, an on-off control button 80, a copy number selector dial 82, a print switch or button 84 and a service lamp 86 which indicates the need for attention to the machine. I

The last-mentioned service lamp 86 indicates that one of three conditions has occurred in the machine to prevent further operation thereof. In order for the operator to determine which malfunction condition exists, door 24 of machine 10 is opened to reveal another control panel 90, shown in the cut away portion of door 24 in FIG. 1, On control panel 90 there are provided three lamps, 92, 94, 96 and corresponding indicia indicating the function of the lamp. Lamp 92 when lighted indicates the need for additional paper in the machine' Thus, paper must be added before the machine again functions. Lamp 94 indicates the need for the replenishment of toner in the developer of the machine, and lamp 96 when lighted, indicates that a jam has occurred in the machine.

With the jam detection arrangement of the copying machine 10 when a jam occurs, the lamp is lighted. However, after the cause of the jam is corrected, the machine remains inoperative until a jam reset button 98 is depressed. Thereafter the machine is returned to normal operation. The reset button has been provided as a safety measure which requires a positive action by the machine operator subsequent to the curing of a jam to cause the machine to function properly. Another button 99 is provided to manually add toner to the developer of the machine in the event copies are showing less contrast.

Below the panel 90 there is provided a bias control dial 100 which permits an operator to increase or decrease the bias potential in the developer of the machine. The abovedescribed controls will be discussed in greater detail hereinafter when a full description of the operation of the machine 10 is given.

Moving to the right side of top or upper wall 28 of the copying machine 10 as seen in FIG. I there is provided a copy sheet outlet or exit, station 102 whereat a completed copy emerges from the machine to be stacked on the top wall 28 in the space 104. A stacking guide 106 is provided in space 104 to aid in stacking completed copies.

Referring now to FIG. 4 of the drawings there is shown the interior of the machine 10, revealing the instrumentalities used in carrying out the copy making process.

At the upper left of the copying machine 10 there is shown the illuminating station 30 including glass platen 42 for receiving an original document to be copied, along with the cover portion and door assembly 54 used to block out external light as well as to shield the operator from the pair of xenon light sources 108, 110 used to illuminate the original. A light box 112 designed for efficient illumination of the original document is provided below platen 42 in the interior of the machine. An optical system including a lens assembly 114 communicating with the interior 116 of the light box is provided for projecting an image of the original to a copy sheet exposure station 118. A mirror included in the optical system mounted at approximately a 45 angle beneath lens system 114 and in optical alignment between the lens system and exposure station 118 is employed to reflect an image of the original projected by the lens assembly to sensitized copy material 1 19 moving past exposure station 118.

A roll 120 of sensitized copy material 119 is positioned in container 122 on a spindle 123 provided thereon at the upper right hand comer of the machine just beneath upper wall 28, as seen in FIG. 4. Copy material 119 from the roll passes from container 122 via feed rollers 124, 126 along copy paper path 127 through cutter station 128 whereat there is included a rotary cutter assembly 130 used to sever selected lengths of copy sheets from the roll 120.

Downstream of cutter station 128 along the copy paper path is a pair of feed rollers, 132, 134, used to carry sensitized copy material 119 through charging station 136. Charging station 136 includes a double corona charging unit 138 which effectively charges the sensitized copy material as it is moved therepast prior to the selective discharging thereof in exposure station 118.

A sensitized copy sheet 121 aft r being severed from the roll of copy material 119 is carried through exposure station 118 by means of belts 140 which are carried in an anticlockwise direction as shown in FIG. 4 about rollers 144, 149. A vacuum plenum 148 provided behind the moving belts, 140, serves to cause a reduction in pressure along the surface of the belts in exposure station 118 so that the now severed sensitized copy sheet 121 is held flat against belts 140 as it is imaged. The copy sheet is imaged while being moved through exposure station 118 without stopping.

As the imaged copy sheet leaves exposure station 118 its direction is changed by means of belt arrangement 150, to be carried past the developer station 152 of the copying machine. The belt arrangement 150 includes belt member 151, so that the charged surface is engaged by the surfaces of the belt members. At developer station 152 there is provided a high speed magnetic brush developer assembly 154, capable of developing copy sheets at the speed of approximately 60 70 feet per minute. Feeder roller pairs 156, 158 are employed to carry the imaged copy sheet past the developer whereat toner particles are attracted to charged areas thereon.

After the toner particles have been applied to the imaged copy sheet paper at developer station 152, the developed copy sheet is carried through fuser station 160. At fuser station 160 there is provided a highly efficient, extremely fast fixing, fuser device 162 which uses only pressure (no heat) to fix the loose toner particles adhering to the charged areas of the copy paper. The fuser device includes a pair of roller members, 163, 165, mounted in relatively high pressure driving engagement with respect to each other. The pressure is applied by means of coil spring member 167. A developed copy sheet 121 is transported between the roller members, the pressure applied by the rollers rapidly and efficiently causes the fixing of thetoner particles to the surface of the sheet.

The use of such a fuser device plays an important part in the speed at which copies can be made in the copying machine according to the invention. Furthermore, because there is no heat requirement, the machine consumes far less energy and can operate on conventional household current. For a more detailed description of a fuser device of the type shown in FIG. 4, reference should be made to copending patent application, Ser. No. 694,515 assigned to the same assignee.

Subsequent to passing through the pressure fuser device 162 in fuser station 160, the completed copy sheet is channeled via guide member 164, 166 to the nip 168, of a pair of endless belt feeders 170, 172 mounted for movement about respective rollers 174, 176, and 178, 180. The completed copy sheet is sandwiched between the moving belts and is carried upwards in the direction of arrow 182, to the exit 184 of exit station 102 whereat the sheets are delivered to area 104 provided to receive completed copies, along top wall 28 of the copying machine 10.

It should be noted that the copy material is transported along the copy paper path 127, through the copying machine at slightly increasing speeds as it-passes from station to station. The progressive, slight increase in speed of the paper prevents buckling as the latter passes to a subsequent processing station. A single drive motor 185 supplies the power to the rollers and belts transporting the copy material along the copy path. Gear arrangements (not shown) are provided to alter the speeds as described. Belts 140, belt arrangement 150 and belts 170, 172 are operated continually. The operation of feeder rollers 124, 126 and 132, 134, however, is controlled through circuitry to be described hereafter.

There are provided in copying machine 10, along copy paper path 127 sensors for monitoring the paper as it passes therealong to ensure efficient operation of the machine.

Just prior to feed rollers 124, 126, upstream of cutter station 128, whereat the leading edge of the roll of sensitized copy paper 119 is normally positioned, there is provided a sensor 186 for indicating the presence of copy material. In the event the paper is depleted from roll 120, the sensor 186 causes lamp 92 (FIG. 1) as well as lamp 86 (FIG. 2) to be lighted. Furthermore, the operation of the instrumentalities of the machine are inhibited until such time as the replaced.

Downstream of the charging station 136 there is provided a copy sheet length sensor 188 which is manually movable in a predetermined vertical path 190, adjacent exposure station 118, by means of control knob 76 discussed heretofore. As will be explained in greater detail hereinafter, the positioning of the length sensor determines the length of copy sheet 121, cut from the roll of copy paper 119.

The length sensor 188 serves another purpose also. Upon the depression of the print button 84 (FIG. 2) to initiate the copying cycle, including the feeding of copy paper from its normal position along the copy paper path, a failsafe timing circuit jam check is energized. The timing circuit, which will be described in greater detail hereinafter, once energized, times out for a predetermined time period sufiicient to permit the movement of the leading edge of the copy paper from its normal position to sensor 188. If the paper reaches sensor 188, prior to the timing-out of the timing circuit, the copying cycle proceeds normally. On the other hand, if the copy paper should be detained for any reason without reaching the sensor 188 and the timing circuit times-out, a jam is indicated at service lamp 86 and lamp 96, and the copy-making instrumentalities of the machine are automatically shut down. Because the sensor 188 is movable toward and away from the normal position of the leading edge of copy paper 119, the timing circuit time-out period is sufficiently great to permit the copy material to reach sensor 188 at a point farthest from the initial position of the copy material, thus ensuring the normal movement of the copy material without a false jam alarm.

Further along the copy paper path 127 near the exit of exposure station 118, there is provided an exposure sensor 192. Sensor 192 is used to monitor the movement of the leading edge of a severed, charged copy sheet 121, proceeding along the copy paper path 127. Upon sensing the leading edge of a copy sheet 121, illumination of the original document and exposure of the copy sheet takes place. The copy paper is exposed while being moved through exposure station 118.

In addition to causing the exposure of the copy sheet to take place, second multi-stage jam check circuitry is actuated. The jam check circuit cumulative time out period is sufficient for an exposed copy sheet exiting the exposure station to pass through developer and fusing stations 152, respectively, and emerge from the latter station at the entrance'to the exit feed belts 170, 172. Located at the fuser exit is a fuser exit sensor 194. If the copy paper passes from the exposure station through the developer and fusing stations and reaches sensor 194 prior to the timing out of the jam check circuitry, actuated when the paper passed sensor 192, the circuitry is interrupted and the paper continues to pass into the nip of belts 170, 172. On the other hand, if the paper, for some reason (jam, etc. does not reach the sensor 194 within the timeout period, then a jam signal is provided and the operation of the feed rollers and copy processing instrumentalities is discontinued.

Once safely past the sensor 194, the completed copy sheet 121 is carried out of the machine at exit 184, and is stacked on the upper wall 28 in the area 104 provided therefor.

A more detailed description of the sensor and timing circuit arrangements will be given hereinafter when discussing the circuitry of copying machine according to the invention illustrated in FIG. 5.

FIG. 5 illustrates a preferred embodiment of the circuit diagram for a high speed copying machine according to the invention where-in conventional symbols are used to identify the various logic gates employed in the circuit, i. e.1 is an OR gateD is an NOR gate, and D is an AND gate.

Referring to the lower right hand comer of the circuit diagram, there is shown the input terminals 200,202, each connected through a respective circuit breaker or fuse 204, 206, to a 1 15 volt, AC source (not shown) for powering the circuit.

paper is A plurality of interlock switches 208, 210, 212, 214, 216, and 218, is provided to ensure that the instrumentalities of the machine are positioned correctly before the machine will function. When all stations of the machine are in a normal operational condition, and the exterior doors of the machine are closed, the above-mentioned switches are also closed, so that current flows via leads 220, 222.

Connected between lines 220, 222 are the contacts 80a, 80b of on-off switch 80 (FIG. 2). The momentary operation of switch 80 closes normally open contact 80a to in turn energize relay K1 through normally closed contact 80b and normally closed contacts K2a of the remote trip relay K2 to be discussed hereinafter. The energization of relay K1 closes relay contacts Kla, Klb to provide power via transformer 224 to low level power supply 226. A holding circuit through contacts Kla and normally closed on-off switch contacts 80b maintains relay Kl operated so that power continues to be provided to the power supply 226. Another momentary actuation of switch 80 causes normally closed contacts 801; to open, shutting down the machine.

Also connected to 115 volt power leads 220, 222, via leads 228, 230, is the Xenon supply 231 which supplies power to lamps 108, 110 (FIG. 4) during exposure. A pair of interlock switches 232, 234, connected to lead 230, ensures the operational preparation of the xenon supply 231 before power can be supplied thereto.

A corona supply unit 236 used to power the corona charging unit 138, (FIG. 4) is connected across the 115 volt leads 220, 222, through a relay contact K4a of corona control relay K4. In addition, motor 185 (FIG. 4) which drives the copy material transport rollers and belts (FIG. 4) is connected between the 115 volt power supply leads 220, 222. A bias power pack 238 likewise is connected to the power lead 220 to provide a bias potential in the developer station 152 (FIG. 4).

It is to be understood that the low level power supply 226, powered through transformer 224 provides low level operating voltages on the order of +5 volts and +27 volts to the copying machine circuitry at various locations (not shown), through standard filter networks (not shown).

The circuitry of copying machine 10, includes a print button or switch 84 (FIG. 2) for initiating the copy process. For single copies, the switch 84 must be depressed each time a copy is to be made. In the event many copies of an original are to be made, the copy number selector 82 (FIG. 2) is dialed to the number of copies desired, and the count down counter 240 (FIG. 5) counts off one digit after the processing of each copy. To initiate the copying process for each copy during the multiple copy mode, there is provided a multiple copy enabling gate arrangement 242 (FIG. 5) including gates G1 and G2. This will be discussed in greater detail hereinafter.

Upon actuation of the on-off switch 80 to supply power to the copying machine circuitry, the remote trip timer 244 and the preset timer 245 shown in FIG. 5 in block form, each of which includes the usual timing circuit components known in the art, are supplied power from power supply 226. The timers 244, 245 immediately begin timing out. The preset timer time out" period is approximately 0.6 seconds. During this brief period, the logic of the machine circuitry is set at a normal state and made ready for operation. The copy paper transport control register 246 including gates TCl, TC2, is set to its normal state which in turn operate transport brake transistor driver 248. The last-mentioned transistor driver causes the copy roll brake 250 to be energized, thereby to prevent the movement of copy paper roll 120 (FIG. 4). The print light control and driver circuitry 252, including gates G3, G4 and transistor 253, and energizes via lead 254 print lamp 256, indicating the machine is ready to accept a copy command.

If no print command is given the copying machine, within approximately 25 seconds, the time out period for the remote trip timer 244, the last-mentioned timer via lead line 258, causes remote trip relay K2 to be energized. The energization of relay K2 opens contacts K2a in the holding circuit for relay Kl, to in turn de-energize the last-mentioned relay copy of an original positioned on the original sheet receiving table 30 (FIG. 3) along the top wall of the machine.

Upon depression of button 84, a pulse is received at the input 260 of gate G5. The output of gate G5 passes through RC network RC 1 to provide a position pulse at the input 262 of gate G6, which in turn provides a pulse to gate G7 at the input 264 thereof. A pulse at the output 266 of gate G7 is sent via lead 268 to the tailgate register 270, including gates TGl and TG2, of the tailgate register and timer circuitry 272, (shown in dotted lines). The register 270 changes states to begin the timing out of the timer portion 274 of the circuitry. The change of state in register 270 causes, via lead 276, gate G8 to supply a pulse at the output 278 thereof. The pulse emanating from RC circuitry RC2 which is approximately of an micro-second duration, travels over lead 280 to the input 282 of gate G9 and in turn from the output 284 thereof, along lead 286 to gate G10, An output from gate G10 over lead 288 changes the state of transport control register 246. A resulting signal over lead 290, renders transport brake driver 248 non-conductive and releases copy roll transport brake 250. The change of state of register 246 also causes, via lead 292, transport clutch driver transistor 294 to become conductive, operating roll feeder clutch 296 over lead 297 to begin the feeding of copy paper from roll (FIG. 4).

The output from gate G10 also provides, over lead 298, an operating signal to xenon and corona control register 300 including gates XCl, XC2. The changing of the state of register 300 accomplishes three things: (1) a signal is sent from the output 302 of gate XCl through gate G11 and over lead 304 to the input 306 of gate G12 of the corona control circuit 307. The output of gate G12 operates transistor relay driver circuitry 308 to energize relay K4 over lead line 310. The operation of relay K4 closes contacts K40 to operate the corona supply unit 236; (2) a signal from the output 312 of gate XC2 is sent via lead 314 to gate G13. The output of gate G13 is carried over lead 316 to the input of gate G4 in the print lamp driver circuitry 252 to in turn, turn off the print lamp 256 indicating a copy is being processed; (3) a signal from the output 312 of gate XC2 is established at the input 313 of gate G14 and the output of the last-mentioned gate provided over lead 318 to the xenon control transistor circuit 320 causes, via lead 322, the charging of xenon supply 231.

When the copy roll transport control register 246 changed states to begin feeding copy paper from roll 120 (FIG. 4), a fail-safe timer mechanism or jam check 324 also was energized over lead 326 from the output of transistor driver 248. The function of the jam check 324 is to ensure that the moving copy paper from roll 120 reaches the paper length sensor 188 provided along the copy paper path of the copying machine (FIG. 4) without jamming. The timeout period of jam check 324, is such that copy paper traveling at the normal speed of the machine can reach the farthest possible setting of the length sensor 188 along the copy paper path 127 (FIG. 4).

In the event the copy paper gets jammed in the machine between its normal idle position, at the entrance to cutter 130 (FIG. 4), and the length sensor, the machine is stopped from further operation to prevent further jamming etc. In fact, if the jam check 324 times out" before the copy paper reaches length sensor 188 which preferably includes a photo responsive or the like device, a pulse appears at lead 328 and at the inputs 329, 331, to gate G15. The output from gate G15 carried over lead 330 causes the changing of state of the jam detecting register 332 including gates .IDl, JD2. An output signal from JD1 via leads 334, 336, respectively, causes malfunction detector circuitry 338, including gate G16 and transistor driver 340, to operate the service lamp 86 (FIG. 2)

and transistor driver 342 to operate via lead 343, jam lamp 96 (FIG. 1 and energizes the normally deenergized manual jam reset relay 1(3).

The output of gate G16 is also connected via lead 344 to the input of gate G12, and inputs 348, 350 of gate G17 which in turn is connected via lead 351 to the input of gate TC1 of the transport control register 246. Signals via the last-mentioned leads, serves to disable the feeding of copy paper from roll 120, resetting transport control register 246, to actuate brake 250 and deactuate feeder clutch 296, and the operation of corona supply 236, respectively. Once a jam is cured, manual reset button 98, which operates switch 98a (FIG. must be reset to once again reset relay K3. The latter must be done before the copying machine instrumentalities are functional.

If no jam occurs and the copy paper from roll 120 reaches the pre-positioned length sensor 188 prior to the timing out of jam check 324, when the leading edge of the copy paper is sensed by length sensor 188, a pulse is provided thereby along lead 352. The pulse is received at the length sensor circuit 354 at the input 356 to gate G18a, which in turn provides an output signal via lead 357 to gate G181). A pulse from the output of gate G181: along lead 358 is provided at the input of G19. An output signal from gate G19 provides, in turn a signal along lead 360 to gate G17 which causes transport control register 246 to be reset, via a signal along lead 351 to the input of gate TC1. The last-mentioned occurrence stops the feeding of roll feeder clutch 296 and applies brake 250. Simultaneously with the cessation of the feeding of copy paper by feed rollers I24, 126 (FIG. 4) (20 milliseconds later) the output signal from gate G19 is carried over lead 364 to gate G20 of the cutter control circuit 366, shown in dotted lines. An output signal from gate G20 over lead 368 to gate G21, causes an output pulse over lead 370 from the last-mentioned gate to cause transistor dirver 372 to conduct and operate cutter solenoid 374. The cutter 128 (FIG. 4) is rotated to sever a copy sheet 121 (FIG. 4) of a predetermined length from copy paper roll 120. In addition to actuating the cutter, the timing arrangement of jam check 324 is disabled so as not to indicate a jam condition. The signal which resets the jam check circuit is conveyed to jam check 324 via lead 326 from transport brake transistor driver 248. During the previously described occurrences, tailgate timer circuitry 274 continues to time out.

As the copy paper passed through the corona charging station 136 which was operated upon initiation of the copy making process it was charged. The now severed copy sheet 121, carried by the continually operated belts 140, proceeds toward sensor 192.( FIG. 4) to cause the exposure of the copy sheet as it moves through exposure station 118. From the time subsequent to the cutting of copy sheet 121 from copy roll 120, to the time the sheet reaches sensor 192, tailgate timer circuitry 274 times out and the tailgate register 270 is reset.

The time out period for the tailgate timer 274 varies, depending upon the copy sheet length selected; i.e. by the positioning of length sensor 188. In every case, however, the time out period is greater than the length of time it takes for the copy paper to reach the length sensor 188. For a copy sheet length less than twelve inches, the time out period is approximately 1.2 seconds. For a copy sheet length greater then 12 inches, the time out period is increased to approximately bold 1.8 seconds. This is accomplished when the copy length selector knob 76 (FIG. 2) is moved to the desired length. Connected to the shaft of the manually operable knob 76 is a tailgate switch 362. At a length setting less than twelve inches switch 362 is in the position shown in FIG. 5. At a length setting greater than twelve inches, the switch armature 373 is moved upwardly as shown in the figure, to contact 375. At the two settings a resistance circuit 377 or 379, as the case may be, is incorporated via lead 381, into the tailgate timer circuit 274, thereby to alter the time out" period thereof. The time out periods are selected to maintain a predetermined distance between and thereby prevent the overlapping of successive copy sheets along the copy paper path of the copying machine according to the invention during the multiple copy .via gate G13, serves to relight the 10 mode. This will be explained in more detail hereinafter when discussing the multiple copy mode.

When the leading edge of the severed copy sheet 121 (FIG. 4) reaches exposure sensor 192, a signal emanating therefrom is sent over lead 376 to the input 373 of the first of a series of gates, G22a, 622b, G22c, G22d, G26, included in the exposure sensor circuit 360. A signal developed at the output 382 of gate G26 resets xenon-corona control register 300, causing, via xenon control circuit 320 and lead 384, the xenon supply to flash, exposing the copy sheet passing through exposure station 118. At the same time due to the resetting of register 300, a signal is carried over lead 385 to gate G11 and from there via lead 304 to the input 306 of gate G12 of the corona control 307 to in turn deenergize relay K4, turning off the corona control 236 and charging unit 138 (FIG. 4). In addition, a signal print lamp 256 indicating to the operator that another copy can be processed. Simultaneously with the operation of print lamp 256 the remote trip timer 244 is actuated over lead 388 to begin timing out.

The pulse developed when the copy sheet 121 tripped the exposure sensor 192, also causes a pulse at the output 393 of gate G22a. This pulse is carried over lead 395 to gate G23 whereat an output therefrom is produced and carried via lead 390 to the input of a series of jam check circuits 392, 394, 396. Each of the jam check circuits includes a register, such as that shown for jam check 396, comprising gates J C1, 1C2, and timer circuitry, such as 398. The jam checks 392, 394 have been illustrated in block form for simplicity and to avoid duplication of structure. The pulse via lead 390 sets the register (not shown) of jam check 392 and starts the timer circuitry thereof timing out. The jam checks 392, 394, 396, operate consecutively to check for the jamming of copy sheets between the exposure sensor 190 and the fuser exit sensor 194, (FIGS. 4 and 5).

Subsequent to the timing out" of the timer circuitry of jam check 392, the register thereof is reset, and it in so doing sets the register of the subsequent jam check 394. The last-mentioned jam check 394 in turn times out and thereafter sets the register of jam check 396. The provision of a series of jam checks operated consecutively permits the monitoring of several copy sheets in close succession along the copy paper path between the exposure sensor 192 and fuser exit sensor 194.

In the event a jam occurs between sensors 192 and 194, a signal is provided via lead 400 from jam check 396 to gate J D2 of the jam detection register 332 to change the state thereof and operate the jam lamp 96 and energizes manually resettable relay K3. At the same time, through gate G16, the malfunction lamp 36 is lighted indicating a jam has occurred. A signal via lead 344 to the input 348 of gate G17, to the transport control register 246, stops the further feeding of copy paper from roll by actuating brake 250 and deactuating feeder clutch 296.

If no jam occurs and the sheet reaches fuser exit sensor 194 safely, a signal emanating from fuser exit sensor 194, carried along lead 402 to the inputs 404, 406 of gate G27, serves to actuate totalizer circuit 408 to in turn via lead 409 operate totalizer counter 410. The last-mentioned counter totals the number of copies made by the copying machine 10 according to the invention, and may be used for billing purposes, etc.

During the course of travel of copy sheet 121 between exposure sensor 192 and fuser exit sensor 194, the copy sheet is developed at developer station 152 (FIG. 4) by the application of toner powder to the electrostatic image formed on the copy sheet at exposure station 118, and the toner powder is affixed to the copy sheet 121 in the fuser station (FIG. 4) by pressure fuser device 162 provided therein.

Upon reaching the fuser exit sensor 194, the leading edge of copy sheet 121 enters the nip of rotating belts 170, 172. The copy sheet is held between the moving belts and carried thereby upwardly toward the exit station 102 of the copying machine to be deposited ultimately in a stack at the top of the copying machine (FIG. 4).

The remote trip timer which was started earlier, times out if no further copy processing command is given machine 10, to turn off the machine as described heretofore.

In the case of multiple copies of an original being processed by the copying machine, the operator selects by means of copy number selector 82 (FIG. 2), the number of copies desired. The copying process is initiated in the same manner as in the single copy mode, and the first copy is made as described above. However, when a single copy is requested, an inhibit signal from gate G28, connected to the tailgate register 270, is applied to the multiple copy enabling gates G1, G2. Thus, no signals can be transmitted to the last-mentioned gates and only one copy can be made. On the other hand, in the multiple copy mode, the count-down counter is set at a number greater than zero. Furthermore, the multiple copy request switch 412 is placed automatically in an operated condition so that armature 414 thereof makes contact with contact 416. Thus, each time the cutter control gate G20 is actuated, a pulse is sent via lead 418 to the input of gate G29 of the count-down control 420. Transistor driver 422 of the last-mentioned control operates count-down counter 240 via lead 424. The operation of count-down counter 240 sends a signal over lead 426, through the operated switch 412 to the input of gate G2 of the multiple copy gates 242, which in turn produces an output signal on lead 428 to the input of gate G22d, removing the inhibit, and enabling gate G22d for the multiple copy mode. This procedure takes place until the count-down counter reaches a setting. When this occurs, the copy inhibit is replaced and switch 412 is returned to a normal condition.

During the multiple copy mode, the xenon and corona control register 300 remains in a set state and the print lamp remains unlighted through the processing of the number of copies selected. The signal provided to flash the Xenon supply each time a copy is exposed emanates from gate G23 upon the copy sheet being sensed at exposure sensor 192. The signal is carried over lead 413 to the input of gate G14, which in turn via lead 318, and circuitry 320 causes the xenon supply to flash. In addition, the remote trip timer 244 is prevented from timing out until the corona control is unoperated, since the last-mentioned timer is controlled thereby over lead 388.

The removal of the inhibit on the print line permits a pulse to be generated each time the tailgate timer circuitry 274 times out. The pulse traveling over lead 430 to gate G28 provides a pulse to gate G1 of the multiple copy enabling gates. Gate G1 in turn generates a print pulse over lead 432 to the input 433 of gate G6 to reset the tailgate register 270 and begins the timer circuitry 274 operating again. This occurs for each of the selected numbers of copies, until the last copy is made.

As mentioned heretofore, the distance between copy sheets in the multiple copy mode is determined by the time out" period of the tailgate timer circuitry 274. The time out period is variable in accordance with the movement of the copy length selector knob 76. Thus, for relatively long sheets, (i.e. greater than 12 inches) a print pulse is provided by the tailgate circuitry approximately every 1.8 seconds until the last of the selected number of copies is made, and for sheets less than 12 inches in length, a print pulse is provided approximately every 1.2 seconds. Since the transport register is reset to stop the feeding of copy material when the copy material reaches the length sensor, prior to the timing out of the tailgate timer, (i.e. less than the time-out period) a safe distance is provided between successive copies, and no overlapping of sheets occurs.

The copying machine according to the invention is equipped to handle pre-cut copy sheets or ofiset-masters as well as roll fed copy paper from roll 120. In the case wherein it is desired to process copies on pre-cut copy sheets, manual infeed door 197 (FIGS. 2, 3 and 4) is opened so that the pre-cut sheets may be fed through a paper chute directly into the copy paper path of the machine. Upon opening door 197, switch contacts 434, 436 (FIG. 5) are operated to inhibit the operation of cutter 374. Also, via lead 438 the print switch is disabled so that an inadvertant actuation of the print switch causes no operation of the machine. 7

When the pre-cut sheet is inserted into chute 199, the manual bypass switch 201 causes a signal from gate 018a to be transmitted via lead 440 to the input 442 of gate XC2 of xenon and corona control register 300, and the remote trip timer 244 is disabled. The register changes states causing xenon supply 231 to charge corona unit 236, to tum on for the charging of the pre-cut sheet and to turn the print lamp 256 off. The last-mentioned register remains set until the lead edge of the pre-cut sheet reaches exposure sensor 192. In the time prior to reaching exposure sensor 192 the sheet is charged-up by passing through charging station 136 (FIG. 4).

Upon the lead edge of the sheet reaching exposure sensor 192, the xenon and corona control register 301) changes states, causing the corona unit 236 to cease functioning, the xenon supply to flash exposing the pre-cut copy sheet via the optical system lens 114 (FIG. 4) to image the sheet, and the print lamp 256 turns on. In addition, the remote trip timer 244 is operated to begin timing out. Furthermore, the jam checks 392, 394, 396 are actuated via lead 390 to ensure the safe, jam-free passage of the copy sheet from the exposure station 118 to the fuser exit sensor 194 (FIG. 4). The latter is accomplished in the manner described earlier for a copy sheet severed from the roll 120 of copy material.

The copying machine 10 according to the invention, as mentioned earlier, is also equipped with an out of paper detector 444 operated by paper out sensor 186 (FIGS. 4 & 5). Sensor 186 provides a signal along lead 446 to gate P01 of the out of paper detector 444. An output signal from the last-mentioned gate serves to place transistor driver 448 in a conductive state. The transistor driver 448 in turn operates the add paper lamp 92. The signal along lead 446 serves also to provide at input lead 450 of gate G16 to the malfunction detector 338 to, in the manner described heretofore, light service lamp 86 on the top wall of the copying machine. In addition to lighting the lamps, an output from gate G16 along lead 344 resets the xenon and corona control register 300, to prevent operation of the corona unit 236 and the xenon supply 231. The transport register 246 is also reset, preventing operation of feeder clutch 296 which controls the movement of roll 120, etc. In addition, print lamp 256 is maintained in an off condition, and the print switch 84 is locked out and prevented from being operated.

An out of toner sensor 452 is included in the developer station 152 (FIG. 4) to indicate the depletion of toner mixture therefrom. Upon detecting the lack of toner material, a signal is generated at lead 454 to gate G16, shutting down the operation of the copying machine in the manner described above in the case of the out of paper detector 444. In addition, service and add toner lamps, 86, 94, respectively, are lighted.

Also, included in the developer station 152, but not shown or described herein, is an arrangement for maintaining the amounts of toner powder and carrier particles at a constant ratio to provide optimum print density, etc. A detailed explanation of such an arrangement may be found in US. Pat. No. 3,399,652.

Thus there is provided by the instant invention, a copying machine for processing at a relatively high speed (on the order of 60-70 feet per minute) copies of an original document. Through the utilization of xenon lamps in the illumination of an original to expose copy sheets as they pass through the exposure station as well as pressure fusing, the copy machine is able to process a copy with substantially no stoppage thereof. Because of the pressure fusing arrangement which requires no heat for fusing toner material to the surface of a copy sheet, the machine may be operated on household current and requires no warm-up period prior to processing copies.

While a particular embodiment of the copying machine according to the invention has been shown and described, it should be understood that the invention is not limited thereto since many modifications may be made. It is therefore contemplated to cover by the present application any and all such modifications as fall within the true spirit and scope of the appended claims.

What we claim is:

ll. A high speed, electrostatic copying apparatus for making copies of an original on sensitized copy material;

comprising, in combination:

means for receiving an original to be copied including an illuminating means for illuminating said original, having a xenon light source, wherein said original is maintained in a stationary, readily accessible position during the copying process;

a copy material supply station for maintaining a roll of copy material,

a copy material path along which said copy material passes from said roll;

a charging station located along said copy material path, downstream of said supply station including charging means for applying an electrostatic charge to said copy material,

a cutter station located along said copy material path, interposed between said supply station and said charging station, including cutter means for severing predetermined lengths of copy material from said roll;

a copy material exposure station located along said copy material path downstream of said charging station;

optical means for projecting a light image of said original from said original receiving means to said exposure station for imaging said charged copy material,

a developing station located along said copy material path downstream of said exposure station, and including a high speed magnetic brush developer for applying electroscopic developing powder to said imaged copy material;

a heatless fusing station located downstream of said developing station, comprising pressure means for permanently securing said electroscopic powder to the imaged copy material,

copy transport means for transporting said copy material substantially without stopping from said roll at said supply station, sequentially past said aforementioned fusing station;

sensing means disposed at said exposure station in the path of the continuously advancing lead edge of said copy material and actuated thereby, means responsive to the actuation of said sensing means for actuating said cutting means to sever a length of copy paper and subsequently flash said xenon source; and

control means for operating said charging means, developer and fuser, as described, to process said copy.

2. A high speed copying apparatus as claimed in claim 1 wherein said copy transport means includes a first transport arrangement for feeding copy material from said'roll through said cutting and charging station, toward said exposure station; a second transport arrangement operated independently of said first transport arrangement for transporting said copy material through said exposure station and a third transport arrangement for feeding copy material through said developing and fusing stations, said third transport means being operated independently of said first and second transport arrangements.

3. A copying machine as claimed in claim 1 wherein said illuminating means is raised above the upper surface of said copying machine and includes a raised portion having a planar surface receiving a transparent platen and an inclined surface connecting said planar surface and upper surface of said copy machine, and wherein said illuminating means further includes a cover portion movably, pivotally mounted on said raised planar surface and being movable to an open position exposing said raised portion and to a closed position covering said raised portion thereby to prevent light from escaping said illuminating means.

4. A copying machine as claimed in claim 3 wherein said cover portion includes a hingedly mounted door, said door being movable to open and closed positions while said cover portion remains in a closed position on said planar surface,

said door revealing said transparent platen when in said open position.

5. A high speed copying machine for making copies of an original on copy material, comprising, in combination:

an illumination station for receiving an original to be copied including a xenon illumination source for illuminating said original wherein said original is maintained in a stationary, readily accessible position during the copying process;

a copy material supply station including a roll of copy material;

a copy material from said roll;

a charging station located along said copy material path, downstream of said supply station including charging means for applying an electrostatic charge to said copy material;

a cutter station located along said copy material path including cutter means for severing predetermined lengths of copy material from said roll;

first copy transport means for feeding copy material from said roll past said charging and cutting stations,

a copy material exposure station located downstream of said cutting and charging stations,

optical means for projecting a light image of said original from said illumination station to said exposure station for imaging charged lengths of copy material severed from said roll;

second independent transport means being operated to transport said charged lengths of copy material past said exposure means for imaging as the latter are moved through said station;

. a developing station downstream of said exposure station along said copy path including developing means for applying toner particles to said imaged length of copy material;

a heatless fuser station located downstream of said developing station comprising;

pressure fuser assembly for permanently securing said toner particles to the imaged copy material;

third transport means for moving said copy material lengths through said developer and fuser stations; and

sensing means disposed at said exposure station in the path of the continuously advancing lead edge of said copy material and actuated thereby, means responsive to the actuation of said sensing means for actuating said cutting means to sever a length of copy paper and subsequently flash said xenon source.

6. A high speed copying machine as claimed in claim 5 wherein said pressure fuser assembly includes a pair of rollers in pressure, driving engagement with respect to each other, whereby developed copy material lengths are transported between said rollers thereby to fix said toner particles to said material by pressure applied by said roller pair thereto.

path along which said copy material passes

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Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3988061 *Aug 1, 1974Oct 26, 1976Addressograph Multigraph CorporationPressure fixing of toners
US4091765 *Feb 17, 1977May 30, 1978Vivian L. Lowthorp, Executrix of the Estate of Ernest C. Lowthorp, deceasedDeveloping and fusing apparatus
US4599289 *Mar 22, 1985Jul 8, 1986Canon Kabushiki KaishaPressure-fixable encapsulated toner
US4887133 *Sep 13, 1988Dec 12, 1989Ricoh Company, Ltd.Printer
USB493501 *Aug 1, 1974Feb 3, 1976 Title not available
USRE37157 *Feb 1, 1996May 1, 2001Ricoh Company, Ltd.Printer with face-down delivery of collated printed sheets at the top, and a manually removable PC/developer cartridge
EP0017514A1 *Apr 9, 1980Oct 15, 1980Xerox CorporationApparatus having a diagnostic mode of operation, and method of putting the apparatus into this mode
Classifications
U.S. Classification399/339, 399/386, 399/168, 399/267
International ClassificationG03G15/00, G03G15/26
Cooperative ClassificationG03G15/26
European ClassificationG03G15/26