US 3656563 A
Tubular casings are inserted beneath roadbeds by hammering on one end thereof, while rotating the casing to drive cutters at the opposite end thereof, and while maintaining a constant push or pressure on the casing in its direction of advancement through the earthwork. A winch-cable-pulley assembly is used to maintain the pushing force, such assembly operating to advance the hammer and the rotating mechanism along an elongated supporting frame structure. Dirt collecting inside the casing during insertion is removed prior to running of pipelines or the like through the casing.
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
llnited States Patent linne 1 3,6,563 [451 Apr, 1, 1972  APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR INSERTING CASING BENEATH ROADBEDS  Inventor: Charles F. Blinne, PO. Box 445, Poplar Bluff, Mo. 63901 22 Filed: Feb. 16,1970
21 Appl.No.: 11,749
 US. Cl ..l75/22, 175/53, 175/62  Int. Cl ..E2lb 11/02, E210 19/00  Field ofSearch ..175/22, 20, 53, 62, 162,171;
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 3,154,158 10/1964 2,719,708 10/1955 Compton ....173/l47 3,491,843 1/1 970 Rodriguez 175/53 Lincoln 173/147 3,162,254 12/1964 Rose 175/62 2,823,898 2/1958 Bankston ..175/22 2,990,022 6/1961 Muller et a1. 1 73/147 3,486,572 12/1969 Hamilton et a1. ..l75/53 3,508,619 4/1970 Huffman 173/147 Primary Examiner--James A. Leppink Attorney-Bradley and Wharton  ABSTRACT Tubular casings are inserted beneath roadbeds by hammering on one end thereof, while rotating the casing to drive cutters at the opposite end thereof, and while maintaining a constant push or pressure on the casing in its direction of advancement through the earthwork. A winch-cable-pulley assembly is used to maintain the pushing force, such assembly operating to advance the hammer and the rotating mechanism along an elongated supporting frame structure. Dirt collecting inside the casing during insertion is removed prior to running of pipelines or the like through the casing.
5 Claims, 13 Drawing Figures PATENTEBAPR 18 I972 SHEET 1 BF Charles F. B Iinne BY I ATTORNEYS.
PATENTEDAPR 18 m2 SHEET 20F 2 INVENTOR Charles F. Blmne ATTORNEYS.
APPARATUS AND METHOD FOR INSERTING CASING BENEATI-I ROADBEDS It is becoming increasingly more difficult for companies engaged in the laying of cross-country pipelines, cables and the like to obtain approval from proper authorities to dig up roadbeds which must be traversed. Accordingly, in one way or another, in lieu of ditching across the road, it becomes necessary to somehow force the piping or the like through the earthwork without in any way disturbing, undermining, or damaging the road surface or its underlying bed. One of the most practical solutions is to provide a casing within the embankment for receiving the pipeline or cable, but the matter of insertion of the casing has heretofore, for the most part, presented certain problems. Foremost among such problems are the time and expense factors.
It is therefore a primary object of my present invention to quickly and inexpensively insert tubular casings within the earthwork underlying roadbeds and other surfaces which cannot be disturbed either by law or by virtue of impossibility of obtaining consent of the land owner.
Another important object of the instant invention is to insert casings within earthwork of the aforementioned kind and purpose in a manner to eliminate the necessity of first drilling, boring or otherwise providing a hole in the ground and into which the casing is to be inserted.
Still another important object of my instant invention is to use the casing itself as the tool which is driven through the ground by proper forces imparted thereto.
A further object of the present invention is to provide apparatus that includes a hammering force, a constant pressure force, and a rotating force upon the casing, all acting simultaneously, to drive the casing through the ground beneath the roadway or the like.
In the drawings:
FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of one form of apparatus for inserting casing beneath roadbeds embodying my present invention and adapted for carrying out my novel method;
FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken on irregular line 3-3 of FIG. 1;
FIG. 4 is a fragmentary plan view similar to FIG. 2, certain I parts being removed and other components being in broken away cross section for clearness;
FIG. 5 is a fragmentary side elevational view similar to FIG. 1, certain parts being eliminated for clearness and illustrating casing rotating mechanism which may be used with the apparatus illustrated in FIGS. 1-4;
FIG. 6 is a cross-sectional view taken on irregular line 66 of FIG. 5;
FIG. 7 is an enlarged end view showing the earth-penetrating tool at the leading end of the casing;
FIG. 8 is an enlarged, vertical, cross-sectional view of the casing partially inserted and showing the abutment member at the trailing end of the casing;
FIG. 9 is a fragmentary end view similar to FIG. 7 showing a modified form of the tool;
FIG. 10 is a fragmentary, detailed, cross-sectional view taken on line 10-10 of FIG. 9;
FIG. 11 is a cross-sectional view through the earthwork illustrating the apparatus of FIG. 1 somewhat fragmentarily or schematically and showing the casing partially inserted;
FIG. 12 is a longitudinal cross-sectional view through the casing and illustrating a modified from of apparatus; and
FIG. 13 is a view similar to FIG. 11 illustrating the method of my invention when the apparatus of FIG. 12 is employed.
Apparatus 14 illustrated in FIGS. 1-4, 7, 8 and 11 of the drawings for inserting a casing 16 in earthwork 18 beneath a roadbed or the like 20 includes an elongated supporting frame-work broadly designated by the numeral 22. Framework 22 includes basically four longitudinal beams 24, the two lowermost of which may serve as skids for moving the apparatus 14, beams 24 being interconnected by a plurality of spaced uprights 26 and a number of crossheads 28.
The casing 16 is initially supported within the framework 22 by a saddle 30 carried'by the two lower beams 24 adjacent the leading end of casing l6 and by a hammer 32 at the trailing end of easing 16, hammer 32 being provided with a fluid driven piston 34 for imparting intermittent blows onto the easing 16 at its trailing end. The uprights 26 carry a pair of spaced uppermost tracks 36 and a pair of lowermost tracks 38 extending longitudinally of the framework 22 for reciprocably receiving the hammer 32 through the medium of slides 40 and 42 respectively forming a part of hammer 32.
The piston 34 hammers upon an anvil 44 forming a part of the hammer 32, which anvil 44 is in turn releasably interlocked with an abutment member 46 having a plug portion 48 which receives and supports the trailing end of the casing 16.
A pair of cables SOconnected with the hammer 32 and with corresponding winches 52 driven by a motor 54 are trained around respective pulleys 56 carried by the framework 22 and beneath a roller 58. Still another cable 60 connected with hammer 32 and with a winch 62 driven by motor 64 is trained around a pulley 66.
The leading end of the casing 16 is provided with an annular ground-piercing tool 68, releasably attached to the casing 16 by pins 70 and having a sharpened cutting edge 72.
In operation, apparatus 14 is placed in pipeline ditch 74 suitably excavated to properly receive the apparatus 14 on one side of the earthwork l8, whereupon motor 54 is energized to rotate the winches 52 in a direction to pull upon the cables 50 and thereby shift the hammer 32 and therefore the casing 16 to a position placing the edge 72 of tool 68 into engagement with the earthwork 18. Thereupon, while the cables 50 continue to urge the casing 16 forwardly, the hammer 32 is energized to impart intermittent blows to the casing 16 through the use of piston 34 acting on anvil 44 and thereby upon the abutment member 46.
After the casing 16 emerges at the opposite side of the earthwork 18, the motor 54 and the hammer 32 are de-energized, whereupon the hammer 32 is returned along the tracks 36 and 38 to its starting position beneath the winches 52 by energization of motor 64 so as to rewind the cable 60 upon the winch 62.
Finally, the dirt 76 within the casing 16 is removed, the tool 68 taken off of the casing 16, and the apparatus 14 removed from the .excavation 74 through use of the lowermost skid means 24.
Essentially the same apparatus 14 is illustrated in FIGS. 5 and 6 of the drawings with the addition thereto of mechanism 78 for constantly rotating the casing 16 as it is hammered and pushed through the earthwork 18. Mechanism 78 includes a base 80 reciprocable upon the two uppermost beams 24 by means of trolley wheels 82 and carrying a prime mover 84 which drives the chain and sprocket wheel assembly 86. The base 80 is releasably coupled with the hammer 32 for reciprocation therewith by means of a hinge pin 88. The lowermost sprocket wheel of the assembly 86 is releasably clamped directly to the casing 16 and abutment member 90 has a suitable thrust bearing incorporated therein.
When mechanism 78 is employed it is desirable to use a modified form of tool 92 on the leading end of casing 16 as shown in FIGS. 9 and 10 wherein, in lieu of the edge 72, the tool 92 is provided with a plurality of angularly disposed carbide cutter elements 94 releasably held in place by set screws The above described method of my invention may also be carried out in the manner illustrated by FIGS. 12 and 13 of the drawings wherein the earthwork 18 is first drilled and at the same time a cable 98 is pulled therethrough, cable 98 having a head 100 that engages an abutment member 102 at the trailing end of casing 16. Cable 98 also passes through a centering unit adjacent tool 68 in the nature of a spider having radial wings 104 secured to casing 16 therewithin, the wings 104 being in turn provided with a tube 106 for receiving the cable 98.
Pulling of cable 98 forces the casing 16 through the earthwork l8, whereupon the tool 68, the abutment member 102, the cable 98, the wing members 104 and the accumulated dirt within the casing 16 are all removed.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. Apparatus for inserting an elongated cylindrical casing within an earthwork comprising:
an earth penetrating tool attached to the leading end of said casing; pusher means abutting the trailing end of said element, said pusher means comprising a member having a plug portion adapted to be received in telescoped relationship in the trailing end of the casing, and an abutment portion of greater cross-sectional dimension than the casing and integral with the plug portion, presenting a shoulder at the junction of said portions, said shoulder being disposed to engage the trailing end of the casing when the plug portion is received in the casing; cable means including a pair of cables coupled with said abutment portion of the pusher means on respective opposite sides of the latter for driving said casing through the earthwork from one side of the latter to the opposite side thereof when a pull in one direction is exerted on said cable means.
2. The invention of claim 1, wherein is included hammer means disposed axially of the casing for imparting intermittent blows in said one direction onto said abutment portion of the pusher means as the cable means is pulled.
3. The invention of claim 2; and
mechanism coupled with said casing for rotating the latter as the cable means is pulled and as said blows are imparted to the member.
4. The invention of claim 3,
said tool being provided with devices for cutting the earth during rotation of said element.
5. The invention of claim 1, wherein is included structure supporting the pusher means for reciprocation toward and away from said earthwork,