US 3656687 A
For maintaining error-free records in hospitals and other environments, a master identification tab or device for a primary subject or object receives indicia including coded information and later the coded information is directly transferred to a dependent identification tab or device which in turn is affixed to a subordinate subject or object. Thus, manual transfer of information is avoided and high accuracy assured. Additional data may be recorded on the dependent identification tab. When the present system is used in hospitals, the primary subject may be a patient and the subordinate subject may be a prescription container, a specimen tube or the like.
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
United States Patent Romney et a1.
' [151' 3,656,687 51 Apr. 18, 1972 [541 DATA SYSTEM FOR MEDICAL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTS  Inventors: Russell H. Romney, 3259 Bon View Drive,
Salt Lake City, Utah 84109; Billy M. Jensen, 8129 South 1475 East, Sandy, Utah  Filed: Oct. 24, 1969  App1.No.: 868,982
Related US. Application Data  Continuation of Ser. No. 772,622, Nov. 1, 1968, abandoned.
 U.S.Cl ..234/2,234/78,234/131  Int. Cl. ..G06k 1/08  FieldofSearch ..234/76-78,45,
 References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 1,140,505 5/1915 Day ..234/45 1,285,837 11/1918 Swanson.... 1,476,273 12/1923 Swanson.... 2,906,335 9/1959 Love ..234/78 Primary Examiner-James M. Meister Attorney-Lynn 0; Foster  ABSTRACT For maintaining error-free records in hospitals and other environments, a master identification tab or device for a primary subject or object receives indicia including coded information and later the coded information is directly transferred to a dependent identification tab or device which in turn is affixed to a subordinate subject or object. Thus, manual transfer of information is avoided and high accuracy assured. Additional data may be recorded on the dependent identification tab.
When the present system is used in hospitals, the primary subject may be a patient and the subordinate subject may be a prescription container, a specimen tube or the like.
5 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures PATENTEBAPR 181972 3, 656,687
SHEET 1 BF 3 l. i 5 -l l INVENTORS.
RUSSELL H. ROMNEY BILLY M. JENSEN FIG. 4
ATTORNEYI 6 g 7 PATENTEDAPRWIQYZ I 3656,68?
SHEET 2 BF 3 RUSSELL H. ROMNEY BILLY M. JENSEN ATTORNEY PATENTEDAPP. 1 8197? SHEET3BF 3 RUSSELL H. ROMNEY BILLY M. JENSEN ATTORNEY:
. nArA SYSTEM non MEDICAL AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTS This application is a continuation of ourearlier filed copending US. Pat. application Ser. No. 772,622, filed Nov.
patients depends upon. proper correlation or referencef between each patient and hisor her medication, laboratory analysis, diet or the like. I
In current medical practice, patients inhospitals, clinics, etc., are commonly identified by a wristband, neck band, or the like, bearing the patient's name and otherdesired data. When samples -of blood or other, body fluids are taken, the identifying data for the'patient is copied manually onto the sample container. If the sample is subdivided, as is common A practice, the sub-samples likewise must be identified in similar ways. The transfer of data frompatient to specimens, and
from specimen to sub-specimen, etc., requires much time on the part of hospital attendants, nurses, etc. There is a critical shortage of such personnel and their time is urgently needed for other matters.
In spite of efforts to avoid mistakes in identity of patient and sample, etc., the current system of recording and transcribing medical data often results in error. Names or numbers are misread or copied wrong; serious consequences result when samples of blood, 'for example, are incorrectly identified.
. Mistakes in identity of babies withrespect to their mothers sometimes occur and are serious; mistakes in identification or recording of specimens and samples are more frequent and often lead toserious consequences.
Hence, there is urgent need for a simple error-free system 0 identifying primarypersons and subordinate elements, such as infants being correctly identified with their mothers, identifying blood and other specimens with the proper patients, identifying sub-specimens with main specimens and recording laboratory results with the proper patients, etc.
. Aside from prevention of errors, as recited above, there is need for a very simple but rapid and sure system for recording along line 6-6 of FIG. 3.
all data obtained in various and'sometimes numerous sample and sub-sample tests and analyses. Once properly recorded, it is most desirable to be able to transcribe, read or tabulate, assemble and/or summarize the data obtained. Current procedures in hospitals and clinics involve normally a human operator for each step of copying, transcribing, assembling, tabulating, etc., of such test data. Each step is subject to possible'human error.
BRIEF SUMMARY AND OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION A novel data system, comprising methods and apparatus, is provided for accommodating transfer of information from one identification device associated with a principal subject or object to another identification device associated with a subject or object subordinate to the principal subject or object. In.
health care applications, the initial identification device is fastened to a patient and receives information, at least some of which is in coded fonn, either before or after it is affixed to the patient. At least the coded information is transferred only at bedside by a novel encoding mechanism to subservient identification devices associated with subordinate specimen tubes, prescription containers, diet instructions, accounting statements, etc., so that transcription or like errors are not introduced.'
- while at the same time freeing It is a primary object of .the present invention to provide novel apparatus and methods for transferring infon'nation from one device to another.
Another'significant object of the present invention is to I facilitate the properv recording, transcription and tabulation of information between related subjects, or objects while positively preventing human errors or omissions. I
An additional important object of the present invention is to make available non-complex, reliable tools which can be wholly manually operable, if desired, and which will accurately transcribe data.
Another major object of the present invention is to provide novel apparatus and methodsfor the handling of medical data so that manualwriting or manual transcription or records is greatly reduced if not eliminated.
Another important object'of this invention is the provision of a novel datasystem for producing accurate medical records medical and clerical'personnel forothertasks.
Theseand other objects and features of the present invention will become more fully apparent fromthe following description and appendedclaims taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OFTHE DRAWINGS FIG. 1 is an'exploded view of a master tab, a data transfer punch and a slave tab, illustrating the general method of this FIG. 2 is a detail view'of a position controlling camor switch element. 7
FIG. 3 is atop plan view of the data transfer punch.
FIG. 4 is a side view of the punch of FIG. 3.
FIGQS is an enlarged sectional view taken substantially alongtheline 5-5 ofFlG. 3. A
FIG. 6 is a transverse sectional view taken substantially FIG. 7 is a horizontal sectional view taken substantially alongtheline7-7ofFlQ4 a v v r FIG; 8 is a sectional view takensubstantially along the line DETAILEDDESCRIP'I'ION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT Referring to the accompanying drawings, FIG. I shows an encoded master tab or principal identification device 11, a data transferring mechanism '21, and a slave tabor subordinate identification device 31. The master tab 11 is so designed and arranged that when it is inserted in the data transfer punch 21 certain slidable pins or punch elements 22 willbe activated and others will not be. Assuming that the secondary or slave tab 31 is placed above the pins on a platform 23 and that the overlying hinged head 24, mounted on a pivot pin 50, is. locked in place by a pivoted manual release latch 26, the pin or punch elements 22 will be forced .upwardly where perforations in data tab 11, indicated at 13, are filled with a solid element. Thus, the data represented by the filled holes 13 in master tab 11 will be transferredby actuation of the pins 22, or certain selected ones of them, to punch holes in and thereby encode the slave tab 31. The material The materialremoved by punching is forced into small openings 28 in the diagrammatic view showing a tab-latching feacover member 24.
taintiny solid pellets 15, as shown best in. FIG. 5. When the 36. It is these thin frangible elements which are broken out of the plate and forced the punch is closed.
upwardly into the perforations 28 when I It will also be noted from'FlG. 5 that whereas the master tab llhas rows of recesses, say, four in number, in its upper face,
it 'als'ohas other rows 18-of similar perforations in its lower I face. Some of these may have been selectively filled with solid pellets or balls 15 similar to those in the upper face. However, the indentations in the lower face are preferably staggered with respect to those'in the upper face. The reason for this is toprovide for reading the tab, which is made of translucent, transparent-or otherwise light, permeable material, by means of optical viewing equipment. The latter forms no part of the present invention butmay comprise Lucite or analogous fibers through which light can be passed even around curves, etc. By providing a sufficient number of such light transmitting elements all of the data elements in the tab may be viewed simultaneously, that is both those in the upper surface and those in the lower surface. With this arrangement, assuming four indentations in a transverse row and, say, 18 rows of such perforations totaling 72 on each face, a total of 144 encodable data elements are presented in a small master tab.
Because of the staggered arrangement of the data in the two faces of master tab 11 it is necessaryto provide for its .proper positioning in the lower jaw element 21.- When the upper face elements of data are tobe transferred to the slave tab, the tab 11 obviously should be in a position such that the data element properly underlie the slidable pin or punch elements 22. If the tab is reversed so that the elements on its reverse side are presented-to be transferred by theipunch elements, the posi- I tion of the slidable bar 72 must be shifted from the solid to the dotted position as shown in FIG. 6-sothat the master tab 11 can be inserted.
Referring to" FIG. 6, there is shown a transverse section of I the punching ordata transferring apparatus with the slave tab 31 lying on top of the slidable pins 22 iwhich, in thiscase, have no'tbeen moved. 1 Y ,A cam shaft or switch mechanism, indicated at 50in FIG.
.2, ispr ovided with two lobe elements 51 and 52 which are separated angularly for operation in slightly difierent degrees I of rotation. This cam shaft 50 also bears a manually operable actuator element 55 which is adaptedto indicate one of two positions, indicated S, and A, respectively, in FIG. 4. When the master tab is in a first position, it should be engaged in such a manner that its data elements'or holes will be aligned with the pins 22 and, as shown in FIG. 6', this requires that the slidable bar member 72-be shifted to the left relative to the base member 21. On the other hand, if the face shown at the I bottom of FIG. 6 should be put on top, the slidable bar 72 should be shifted to the right relative to thebase member 21 and the apparatusneirt to be described is certain that proper alignment is provided. .1 7 Referring to FIG. 6, it will be seenthat the cam element 52 islatched in an upper or clockwise position by a detent providedwithin the-manually operable indicator element 55,
arranged to make which may be rotated to select either the S or A positions,
FIG. 4. The master tab is provided with a notch 17in one side and a corresponding notch 19 inits other edge. See FIG. 1. It also is'slotted at 29 to receive a finger element 70 or.-71 in a longitudinally slidable bar 72. The latteris attached by a pin 73 to an eccentric element of the cam assembly 51,52. Hence,
when shaft 50 is rocked, the bar 72 can slide from the full line position, shown in FIG. 6, to the dotted line position. With this arrangement, finger 71, shown in the full line position, is engaging a notch or groove element29 on one side.. of the tab whereas in thedotted line position the element 70 engages the notch 29 on the other side of the tab. I
Means shown in FIGS. 7, 8 and 9 are provided for engaging the notch 17 or, selectively, the notch 19in the master tab 11, depending on which face of the .tab is up. Referring to FIG. 7, the'tab 11 is shown inserted in'the holder mechanism with notch 17 engaged by a detent memberj8l. The latter is mounted on a rocker arm- 83, pivoted on a pin 84 to the base member 21. Rocker arm 83' is urged in a counterclockwise direction about its pivot 84 by'a compression spring 86 which pushes against the upper end of the arm, as shown in FIG. 7.
A pivoted latch member 90, mounted on pivot pin 91, is
95,-FIG. 10. The upper end 96 of latch member'90 swings out of the way when the punch is closed, as shown in FIG. 10, so
that the latch or locking element 81 on lever 83 continues to engage the notch 17 in the tab l1. However, when the punch is opened the element 96 is held against a rigid stop element 97 and cannot yield. For anopening of the punch it pulls the lever 83 to 'the dotted line position, FIG. 7, and releases the tab which can then be removed. I
A pivoted pusher arm 101, mounted on a pin 102, is urged counterclockwise or to the left, asshown in FIG. 9, by a tension spring 103. When the tab 11 is released by rocking the lever 83 in the manner the tab from the machine.
The cam elements 51 and 52, previously mentioned, are designed to fit respectively in notches 111 and 112 on the slave tab 31. These notches are so positioned with respect to the separate endsof the tab31 that one or the other will en-- gage the tab and hold it in proper alignment for punching.
The slave tab 31 also has two pairs of holes, a" total of four, indicated at 113, 114, 115 and 116; The plate 23-on which the slave tab is placed for punching has two upstanding pins 118 which will project into holes 119, FIG. 5, when the die 24-is latched down in punching position. Depending on the area of tab 31 which is to be punched, one pair or another of the holes 113, 114', etc.. will be engaged over the pins 1 18 to hold the tab against lateral displacement. One or the other of the cam or detent elements 51, 52 is adapted-to be engagedin one orthe other of notches 111 and.1 12, depending on how the tab 31 is placed in the punching apparatus.- By these means appropriate area for punching are presented to the punchelernents. The
parts just described constitute a locking or holding mechanism one of two selected positions. Depending on the position of notch 111 or 112 with respect to the cam lobe or' switch elements 51, 52, one or the other of these will engage a notch 111, or 112, as a result of having manually rotated the actuator55 to one or the other of the positions indicatedat S and A in FIG. 4. By operating actuator element 55 and its pivot 50, the cam lobe 51 and 52 may be positioned to the appropriate notch position of tab 31. Depending on which lobe 51 or 52 is engaged in a notch in the slave tab, the master tab-11 will be keyed to one side or the other by the locking bar 72 which shifts right or left as the shaft 50 is rocked from one position to another. This arrangement assures that the master tab will al- P 1 ways be properly aligned with respect to the areas to be punched in the slave tab, and determines which side of the master tab will be facing upward.
As shown in FIG. 4, the punch operation is effected by V. squeezing together the handles'121 and 122 which normally are urged apart by a coiled compression spring 123 inserted in 1 member 23 which carries-the sliding punch pins 22. The upper handle is integral with thelower jaw member 21 which sup-- ports the master tab and which forcesthe punch pins upwardly through their guiding channels to efiect perforation of the just described, the pusher 101 ejects slave tab, the punching element being movable to openings 28 in the backing member 24. The latter, as previously noted, is pivoted and is independent of both handles but is latched down by latch member 61 during the punching operation.
From the foregoing, it will be understood that the manually operated apparatus is capable of selectively positioning the master tab with either side up and with appropriate position of its data bearing elements when it is firmly latched in place. The slave tab, likewise, is securely and accurately positioned above the master tab where it is locked precisely in proper position so that appropriate elements can be punched to transfer the data, identification, etc. from the master tab to the slave tab. The master tab is so designed that data from both sides of the tab can be transferred to the slave tab. With a relatively small tab made of transparent plastic material and conoperative and inoperative data. elements, to slave tab having taining only 18 rows, with four elements in a row of indicia elements on one face, a total of 72 difierent elements may be punched onto the slave tab. By this arrangement, a considerable amount of information may be recorded on the master tab and transferred by a very simple operation to the slave tab. The latter may, for example, be secured by appropriate fastening to a container for a blood sample or to other appropriate materials.
The means by which the data are read out, interpreted and used form no part of the present invention. The invention envisions a system where the master tab is attached to the wrist band of a patient in a hospital, for example. It remains with that patient during the stay in the hospital or clinic. The data applied to the tab when the patient is admitted to the hospital identifies that patient completely and uniquely. When a sample is taken from the patient, for example, the punch device is used to transfer from the patients master tab to the slave tab or specimen tab 31 the identifying data which will completely associate the specimen tab with that particular patient so that no mistake can be made. The means by which the tab is secured to the patients wrist and the means by which the little spheres or particles are inserted in selected openings in the tab fonn no part of the invention. Of the present invention, likewise, the means by which the data on the master or original tab 11 are read form no part of the present invention, these matters being the subject of a separate application.
The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiment is, therefore, to be considered in all respects as illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore to be embraced therein.
What is claimed and desired to be secured by United States Letters Patent is:
1. Apparatus for transferring data from a dual faced master tab bearing operative and inoperative data elements, to slave tab having perforable data-indicating elements which comprises a punch having a multiplicity of reciprocable punch elements arranged individually to overlie individual data elements on the master tab, selective aligning means for positioning and positively holding the dual faced master tab in either of two positions dependent on which face of said tab faces the punch elements, means for positioning the slave tab with its perforable elements aligned with said punch elements, means for forcing the master tab against said punch elements whereby said operative data elements on the adjacent face of said master tab force the respective aligned punch elements to perforable data-indicating elements which comprise a punch having a mutiplicity of reciprocable punch elements arranged individually to overlie individual data elements on a master tab, means for positioning a slave tab with its perforable elements-aligned with said punch elements, latching and aligning means to hold both the master tab and the slave tab, said means being adapted to place the slave tab in one of two positions dependent upon the orientation of the master tab and means for forcing the master tab against said punch elements whereby said operative data elements on said master tab force the respective aligned punch elements to perforate saidslave tab.
3. Apparatus for transferring data from a master tab bearing operative and inoperative data elements, to slave tab having perforable data-indicating elements which comprise a punch having a set of slidable punch elements arranged individually to overlie individual data elements on a master tab, means for positioning a slave tab with its perforable elements aligned with said punch elements, a relatively fixed support for the slave tab, the set of slidable punch elements being mounted therein, a separate support for a master tab'pivoted to said fixed support, a separate hinged reaction member adapted to overlie said slave tab, means for latching said reaction member firmly to the fixed support, means for locking both the master tab and the slave tab in aligned positions for punching and means for forcing the master against said punch elements whereby said operative data elements on said master tab force the respective aligned punch elements to perforate said slave tab.
4. A method of correlating one subject or object with another subject or object comprising:
fastening a first identification device to one subject or object;
providing the first identification device with indicia defining the identity of the one subject or object;
using at least selected parts of the indicia of the first identification device while so fastened to the one subject or object to provide a second identification device with mechanically derived congruent indicia also defining the identity of the one subject or object; and
physically joining the second identification device to the other subject or object.
5. A method of correlating a health care patient with another subject or object subordinate to the patient comprising:
fastening a first identification device to a patient with a leash spanning therebetween;
providing the first identification device with indicia defining the identity of the patient;
bringing the patient and an indicia-transferring machine together at a common location;
placing the first identification device in the machine with the leash continuing to span between the first identification device and the patient;
placing a second identification device in the machine;
actuating the machine to sense and mechanically transfer at least selected parts of the indicia of the first identification device to the second identification device as patientidentifying indicia; physically joining the second identification device to the other subordinate subject or object.