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Publication numberUS3656861 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 18, 1972
Filing dateApr 15, 1970
Priority dateApr 15, 1970
Publication numberUS 3656861 A, US 3656861A, US-A-3656861, US3656861 A, US3656861A
InventorsZagar Irvin F
Original AssigneeWilfley & Sons Inc A
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Centrifugal pump with mating case plate volute halves and constant section impeller
US 3656861 A
Abstract
A centrifugal pump having front and back case plates with one-half of a volute wall formed on each of the front and back case plates, the volute wall halves corresponding diametrically and in length such that when the case plates are disposed in abutting confronting relationship in an assembled pump the volute wall halves cooperate to form a complete volute passage. A radial force balancing partition is provided between an impeller confined by the case plates and the volute wall. The force balancing partition is similarly comprised of identical mating halves formed on the front and back case plates. The case plates house or confine an impeller having a constant wall thickness or cross-section throughout to substantially eliminate thermal shock in the impeller. The impeller includes recesses or cut-out areas in the opposite faces thereof to yield substantially greater hydraulic performance while at the same time reducing wear caused by abrasion.
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

United States Patent Zagar [151 3,656,061 [451 Apr. 10,1972

1541 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP WITH MATING CASE PLATE VOLUTE HALVES AND CONSTANT SECTION IMPELLER [72] Inventor: Irvin F. Zagar, Denver, C010. [73] Assignee: A. R. Wilfley and Sons, Inc., Denver,

[22] Filed: .Apr. 15,1970 [21] Appl.No.: 28,735

[52] U.S.Cl ..4l5/l09,415/197,415/214, 415/213 [51] Int.Cl. ..F04d29/02,F04d29/66,F04d 29/00 [58] Field of Search ..415/204,206, 211, 109, 170 C, 415/196, 197, 200, 219, 34, 213

[56] References Cited UNITED STATES PATENTS 2,260,946 10/1941 Korte eta] ..415/206 2,955,540 10/1960 Pawlicki ..415/204 2,571,802 10/1951 Wilfley et a1 ..415/34 3,040,670 6/1962 Schenck et a1 ..415/169 3,043,229 7/1962 Atwood, Jr. et a1. .....415/204 3,115,097 12/1963 Zagaret a1 ..415/197 3,149,574 9/1964 Mill ..415/219 WWI 1oz 8 I E= l B i 11 is lllll VII/III! FOREIGN PATENTS OR APPLICATIONS Primary Examiner-Henry F. Raduazo AnomeyShoe'maker & Mattare 57 ABSTRACT A centrifugal pump having front and back case plates with one-half of a volute wall formed on each of the front and back case plates, the volute wall halves corresponding diametrically and in length such that when the case plates are disposed in abutting confronting relationship in an assembled pump the volute wall halves cooperate to form a complete volute passage. A radial force balancing partition is provided between an impeller confined by the case plates and the volute wall. The force balancing partition is similarly comprised of identical mating halves formed on the front and back case plates. The case plates house or confine an impeller having a constant wall thickness or cross-section throughout to substantially eliminate thermal shock in the impeller. The impeller includes recesses or cut-out areas in the opposite faces thereof to yield substantially greater hydraulic performance while at the same time reducing wear caused by abrasion.

19 Claims, 14 Drawing Figures 2 l Q "J E I a w lLll llim lllllllllli l 5 PATENTEDAPRMBIQIZ 3,656,861 I SHEET 10F 7 INVENTOR. IRVIN E ZAGAR ATTORNEYS PATENTEDAPR 18 I972 SHEET 2 BF 7 INVENTOR. IRVIN E ZAGAR %.A/M1 77m ATTORNEYS PATENTEDAPR 18 I972 SHEET 3 [)F 7 INVENTOR IRVIN F ZAGAR BY WM! 7 W ATTORNEYS PATENTEIJAPRIB QR 3,656,861

' SHEET NF 7 INVENTOR. Q IRVIN E ZAGAR ATTORNEYS PATENTEDAPR 18 1912 SHEET 5 OF I (Hill Ml: I I l l lllll fi E H i INVENTOR. IRVIN E ZAGAR JFJLgAD ATTORNEYS PATENTEUAPR 18 I972 SHEET 6 OF 7 INVENTOH. IRVIN E 2/1 GA R (ya/Ml 77m ATTORNEYS PATENTEUAPR 18 I972 3,556,861 SHEET 7 BF 7 INVENTOR. IRVIN E ZAGAR BY ATTORNEYS CENTRIIFUGAL PUMIP WITH MATWG CASE PLATE VOLUTE HALVES AND CONSTANT SECTION IMPELLER BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to centrifugal pumps and, more particularly, to a novel impeller and volute means therefor.

Manufacture of prior art pump volutes for centrifugal pumps involves quite high foundry costs due to the necessity of volute core manufacture and rejects caused by core shifting and other foundry losses due to complex casting manufacture.

Further, in materials not readily moldable with cores, such as in some types of plastic, as vinylidene fluoride and tetraethylene fluoride, severe sidewall reinforcement problems exist in the prior art volute configurations.

Moreover, a serious problem in the design of pump impellers is to make an impeller from relatively inexpensive materials suitable for a particular purpose which will not be subjected to severe thermal shock due to the varying thicknesses incorporated in prior art pump impeller designs.

OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION It is an object of this invention to achieve considerable savings in pattern making costs by eliminating the core necessary in conventional volute castings and to reduce foundry costs by eliminating volute core manufacture and rejects from core shifting, and other foundry losses due to complex casting manufacture.

Another object of this invention is to enable simple molds to be used in the production of volute configurations in materials not readily moldable with cores, such as in some types of plastic, as vinylidene fluoride and tetraethylene fluoride, and to increase hydraulic performance by eliminating compromises in conventional design of pump volutes and by providing additional features such as radial force balancing partitions in the case between the pump volute wall and the impeller.

Another object of the invention is to make the case plate volute design easily accessible for fabrication with wear resistant surfaces at specific locations within the case volute, such as ceramic tiles and tungsten carbide tiles, and to obtain smoother volute surfaces because of the easily reached volute shape.

A further object of the invention is to provide an impeller having a constant section or wall thickness throughout to render the impeller substantially free from thermal shock by improving heat transfer in the impeller to eliminate weakening of the impeller sections caused by expansion and contraction of the impeller sections due to temperature changes in the urn p Aribther object is to considerably reduce the weight and cost of the impeller when expensive materials are used in its construction and to substantially improve hydraulic performance and reduce wear caused by abrasion by providing cut-out areas or anti-recirculating vanes or ports on the front and rear shrouds of the impeller.

A further object is to render the impeller capable of ready manufacture from hard-to-form materials and to reduce the cost of the impeller by substantially eliminating the number of rejects due to multiple cores, core shifting and other foundry costs due to complex castings.

Another object is to enable compromises in impeller design relative to vane requirements, such as number, area, size, curvature and shape, with no loss in hydraulic efficiency.

Other object of this invention will become apparent from a study of the following detailed description and of the drawings, wherein like reference numerals refer to like parts throughout the several views.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS FIG 1 is an elevational view partly in section of a centrifugal pump according to the present invention.

FIG. 2 is a sectional plan view taken along the line 2-2 of FIG 1.

FIG. 3 is a sectional plan view taken along the line 3-3 of FIG. 1.

FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 are partial sectional views taken along the line A-A in FIG. 2 and showing the various joint configurations which may be utilized.

FIG. 7 is an exploded perspective view of the case plate volutes, case shell, and impeller.

FIG. 8 is a front plan view of the impeller according to the present invention depicting the pumping ports or vanes.

FIG. 9 is a top plan or edge view of the impeller according to the present invention.

FIG. 10 is a rear planview of the impeller depicting the expeller ports or vanes.

FIG. 11 is a sectional view taken on the line 11-11 in FIG. 10.

FIG. 12 is a sectional view in elevation of a conventional slurry handling impeller illustrating the large clearance between stationary and rotating parts.

FIG. 13 is a view similar to FIG. 12 of a slurry handling impeller according to the present invention showing how the clearance between the stationary and rotating parts is substantially reduced.

FIG. 14 is a partial sectional view taken along the line l4- 14 in FIG. 13.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT OF THE INVENTION As shown in FIG. 1, a base 1 has a frame F secured thereto as by cap screws or the like 2 and a case support bracket B is secured to the frame F by means of cap screws or the like 3. A pump housing or case C is secured to the forward portion of the case bracket B by means of suitable fasteners, such as cap screws or the like 4, and comprises a back housing wall 5 having a central shaft receiving opening 6 therethrough and a front housing wall 7 having a central intake opening 8 therethrough in axial alignment with the opening 6 through the back wall 5 and held in spaced relation to the back wall by means of an outer metallic case shell 9 interposed peripherally between the marginal edges of the front and back walls and secured therein by means of the fasteners 4 through the case bracket and fasteners 10 through the front wall 7.

A pump shaft 8 extends forwardly through opening 6 into case C and has an impeller I with a constant cross-section or wall thickness suitably secured to the forward end thereof. A stationary shaft seal housing 111 is secured by suitable fastening means to the rear face of back wall 5 in coaxial alignment over opening 6. The stationary shaft seal housing includes a stepped inner surface which cooperates with a correspondingly stepped outer surface on a shaft seal sleeve 12 to form a sealing labyrinth between the pump shaft and case. Suitable sealing means 13 and 14 are disposed on the forward end of the shaft seal sleeve and on the stationary seal housing, respectively, in cooperative association to provide a mechanical seal between the pump shaft and case. During operation of the pump, the shaft S is shifted axially to the left as viewed in FIG. 1 by suitable speed responsive weight actuator means (not shown) to disengage seal 13 from seal 14, thus preventing undue wear of the mechanical sealing parts when the pump is running. A suitable downwardly directed case drain 15 is in the lower portion of stationary seal housing 11 to drain material from the housing which leaks past the seal means.

A pair of confronting mating front and back case plates 16 and 17 is confined within the back and front housing walls 5 and 7 in surrounding relation to the impeller l. The back case plate 17 has one face 18 thereof substantially flat and in flush abutting contact with the front surface of back wall 5. A rearwardly extending annular projection 15 extends from the face 18 and is snugly received in opening 6 through back wall 5. A central opening 20 is formed through the projection for snug fitting receipt of the pump shaft S and has an axially notched or grooved inner surface which cooperates with axial projections on the impeller hub to form a labyrinth passage therewith, as more fully described in US. Pat. No. 3,115,097. The front case plate 16 has a similar flat front surface in flush fitting contact with the inner surface of front wall 7 and includes a cylindrical forwardly extending sleeve or projection 21 received snugly in inlet opening 8.

An inner case shell or liner 22 is disposed between the outer case shell 9 and the outer peripheries of the case plate sections 16 and 17, and has its opposite edge portions nested in notches or recesses 23 and 24 in the marginal edge portions of each case plate section 16 and 17, respectively. Annular gasket seals 25 and 26 are compressed between the peripheral marginal edges of the back and front housing walls and 7 and the opposite edges of the outer case shell 9 and between the peripheral marginal edges of the case plate sections 16 and 17 and the opposite edges of the inner case shell 22, effecting seals therebetween. A discharge opening 27 is formed from the case through the inner and outer case shells, as seen most clearly in FIGS. 2 and 3.

As seen most clearly in FIGS. 1, 2, 3, and 7, each case plate has a volute wall configuration thereon which is substantially the mirror image of the volute wall configuration on the other case plate. Additionally, each case plate has a balancing partition or wall thereon interposed between a portion of the volute wall and the impeller to balance radial forces generated by the impeller.

In FIG. 2, the expeller portion E of the Impeller I is shown and the volute wall 28 and balancing partition 29 on the from case plate 16 can be seen. The volute wall comprises a relatively short straight portion 30 in alignment with the outlet opening 27 and substantially flush with one side thereof and long spiraling portion 31 extending from the inner end of the straight portion 30 around the impeller I on an increasing radius to a position adjacent the outlet 27 and disposed at the periphery of the case plate in contacting relationship with the inner surface of the inner case shell or liner 22 through which the opening 27 is formed. The balancing partition 29 includes a substantially straight portion 32 disposed or positioned in the center ofthe outlet 27 and a curved or spiraled portion 33 having a decreasing radius extending from the straight portion between the volute wall 28 and the impeller I to a position on the side of the impeller substantially diametrically opposite the outlet from the pump. The shape and size of the balancing partition in relation to the volute wall is such that the output or pressure generated by the impeller is divided into a pair of substantially equal flow paths by the balancing partition to signiftcantly reduce the radial forces imposed on the impeller due to the pressure generated at the outlet from the volute configuration.

As seen in FIG. 3, the rear case plate 17 includes a substantially identical volute wall configuration 34 and balancing partition 35 thereon in surrounding relation to the impeller I and disposed such that the volute wall and balancing partition on the rear case plate are commensurate in length and diametrically equal to the volute wall and balancing partition on the front case plate whereby when the case plates are joined in assembled relation the volute wall 34 on the rear case plate is in mating abutting contact with the volute wall 28 on the front case plate and the balancing partition 35 on the rear case plate is in mating abutting contact with the balancing partition 29 on the front case plate to form a closed volute passage and a balancing partition dividing the outlet from the volute passage into two substantially equal portions. More than one partition or volute wall may be incorporated if desired or the partition may be omitted. The dimensions of the volute walls and of the partitions are determined by the particular performance desired.

Several embodiments of sealing means between the abutting confronting surfaces of the case plate sections 16 and 17 are shown in FIGS. 4, 5 and 6. In FIG. 4, a simple labyrinth passage seal means 36 is shown. In FIG. 5, a tongue and groove joint 37 is shown, and in FIG. 6, a simple flat sealing gasket 38 is interposed between the confronting abutting surfaces of the volute walls and balancing partitions on the case plate sections. Further, as shown in FIG. 6, the peripheral or volute portion of the case plate sections may be made separate from the central portions of the case plate sections and sealed thereto by gaskets or the like 39 and 40, thus making the volute replaceable without necessitating replacement of the entire case plate sections.

The impeller I according to the present invention is seen more clearly in FIGS. 7 through 11 and comprises in its preferred form a one-piece integrally fonned unit including pumping or impeller vanes or ports P and expeller vanes or ports E. The impeller is of the closed type and the pumping and expeller ports are formed along continuous straight lines and are disposed such that their center line axes or center lines are non-radial and offset with respect to the axis of rotation of the impeller. This construction is more fully described in US. Pat. No. 3,115,097.

This impeller is particularly unique and is an improvement over the impeller in US. Pat. No. 3,115,097 in that the pumping ports P and expeller ports E are raised from the opposite sides of a generally disc-shaped central or dividing wall 41 and are defined by walls 42 and walls 43, respectively. The walls 42 and 43 defining the pumping and expeller ports are substantially equal in thickness with each other and with the central or dividing wall 41. This construction achieves a constant wall thickness throughout the impeller substantially eliminating thermal shock or stresses in the impeller due to temperature fluctuations in the pump which, in prior art impellers, causes uneven expansion or contraction of impeller sections due to the difference in wall thicknesses throughout the impeller. Moreover, the recesses or areas A, between the pumping ports P and the recesses or areas A, between the expeller ports E act or serve as anti-recirculating cut-out areas. In other words, the raised portions defining the pumping ports P and the expeller ports E act much in the nature of vanes on an open type impeller and a substantial increase in the hydraulic head generated by the impeller is realized and additional suction pressure may be withheld without leakage. Moreover, the provision of the cut-out areas A, and A, on the front and rear shrouds of the impeller, or conversely, raising the pumping ports P and expeller ports E from opposite sides of dividing wall 41 enables the clearance between the impeller and the case plates to be decreased thus further contributing to the efficiency of the pump, while at the same time a substantial improvement in abrasion wear is realized due to the expulsion of particles by the anti-recirculating cut-outs A, and A from the surfaces normally given a large clearance to avoid the abrading action. This is illustrated in FIGS. 12 and 12 which show a conventional slurry handling runner or impeller I and a slurry handling impeller I according to the present invention, respectively.

The impeller I shown in FIGS. 13 and 14 is a modification of the impeller shown in FIGS. 7 through 11 and comprises a slurry handling runner or impeller I having only pumping ports P. Material is cut away from the front and rear faces or shrouds of the impeller I forming cut out areas or anti-recirculating cut-outs A and A, which function in the same manner as do areas A, and A in the impeller I shown in FIG. 7 to improve both hydraulic performance and abrasion wear. The sections or walls 44, 45 and 46 are all substantially equal in thickness and the impeller I is substantially free from thermal shock and stresses just as in the previously described impeller The impeller of the present invention may be manufactured with facility of parts from hard-to-form materials, such as vinylidene fluoride and tetraethylene fluoride, Kynar, phenolics and the like. These materials are very expensive and the invention, because of a considerable reduction in material used due to the cut-out areas, also results in a substantial cost savings.

The impellerI need not be used with the case plate sections 16 and 17 but either could be used with other types of impellers or case plates.

In the specific impeller described, there are four pumping ports and eight expeller ports. The pumping ports are much larger in cross-section than the expeller ports and are shorter than the expeller ports in order to achieve the desired hydraulic characteristics. Of course, the number and size of the pumping and expeller ports could be varied depending upon the characteristics desired.

As this invention may be embodied in several forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof, the present embodiment is therefore illustrative and not restrictive, and since the scope of the invention is defined by the appended claims, all changes that fall within the metes and bounds of the claims or that form their functional as well as conjointly cooperative equivalents are therefore intended to be embraced by those claims.

1. A centrifugal pump having a case including front and back walls, a central rotatable shaft supported in said case, shaft seal means sealing said shaft with respect to said case, impeller means suitably fixed on said shaft, case plate means confined within said case, said case plate means comprising front and rear confronting mating case plate sections, the confronting faces of the case plate sections each having axially projecting volute wall means thereon extending toward one another, the volute wall means on the front case plate coinciding diametrically and in length with the volute wall means on the rear case plate and in mating abutting contact therewith in an assembled pump, said volute wall means positioned in surrounding relation to said impeller to form a complete volute in the pump, and a substantially cylindrical inner case shell interposed between the peripheral edges of thecase plate sections to define a chamber therewith.

2. A centrifugal pump as in claim ll, wherein a radial force balancing partition is on the confronting faces of said front and rear case plate sections, the force balancing partition on the front case plate coinciding diametrically and in length with the force balancing partition on the rear case plate, said force balancing partition interposed between at least a portion of said volute wall and said impeller to balance radial forces imposed on said impeller.

3. A centrifugal pump as in claim 2, wherein the front and rear case plate sections are sealed with respect to one another by labyrinth means on the abutting surfaces of the volute walls and force balancing partitions.

4. A centrifugal pump as in claim 2, wherein the front and rear case plate sections are sealed with respect to one another by tongue and groove seal means on the abutting surfaces of the volute walls and force balancing partitions.

5. A centrifugal pump as in claim 2, wherein the front and rear case plate sections are sealed with respect to one another by means of a flat sealing gasket interposed between the abutting mating surfaces of the volute walls and force balancing partitions.

6. A centrifugal pump as in claim 1, wherein a substantially cylindrical outer case shell is interposed between the marginal peripheral edges of the front and back walls.

7. A centrifugal pump as in claim 6, wherein said substantially cylindrical inner case shell is immediately radially inwardly of the outer case shell.

8. A centrifugal pump as in claim 7, wherein the outer case shell is sealed to the front and back walls and the inner case shell is sealed to the front and rear case plates by a pair of annular sealing gaskets interposed therebetween.

9. A centrifugal pump as in claim 8, wherein an inlet to the pump case is formed through the front wall and front case plate section and an outlet from the pump case is formed through the inner and outer case shells.

10. A centrifugal pump as in claim 7, wherein the front and rear case plate sections, the inner case shell and the impeller are formed ofa plastic material.

11. A centrifugal pump having a case including front and back walls, a central rotatable shaft supported in said case, shaft seal means sealing said shaft with respect to said case, and impeller means fixed to said shaft within said case, said impeller means being formed of a material such as vinylidene fluoride or the like which is nonnally subject to thermal shock when subjected to temperature change, a plurality of closed pumping ports on the front of the impeller extending from adjacent the axis to the periphery and a plurality of closed expeller ports on the back thereof extending from adjacent the axis to the periphery, alternate cut-out areas on the front and back of said impeller between the pumping ports and between the expeller ports, respectively, whereby the walls of the impeller are of constant thickness between the front and rear cut-out areas and around the pumping and expeller ports in a plane normal to the impeller axis and in a plane radial to the impeller axis, respectively, so as to reduce thermal shock in the impeller.

12. A centrifugal pump as in claim 11, wherein there are fewer pumping ports than expeller ports, said pumping ports larger in cross-section and shorter in length than said expeller ports.

13. A centrifugal pump as in claim 12, wherein said pumping ports and said expeller ports are straight and are non radial and have their center lines or axes offset relative to the axis of rotation of said impeller.

M. A centrifugal pump as in claim llll, wherein said cut-out areas define anti-recirculating ports contributing to the hydraulic efficiency of the pump and reducing wear caused by abrasion by expelling abrasive material from between the stationary parts and the rotating parts.

15. A centrifugal pump as in claim lll, wherein the pumping ports and expeller ports are raised on opposite sides of a center or dividingwall and define therebetween the cut-out areas on the front and back of the impeller between the pumping ports and expeller ports, respectively, said cut-out areas defining anti-recirculating ports contributing to the hydraulic efficiency of the pump and reducing wear caused by abrasion by expelling abrasive material from between the stationary parts and the rotating parts.

116. A centrifugal pump as in claim 11, wherein said pump includes case plate sections confined between said front and back walls in surrounding relation to said impeller.

17. A centrifugal pump as in claim 16, wherein said case plate sections include front and back mating abutting volute wall sections, the front face of the back case plate having at least one forwardly projecting volute wall thereon and the back face of the front case plate having at least one rearwardly projecting volute wall thereon in mating abutting contact with the volute wall on the back case plate, said volute walls coinciding diametrically and in length to form a complete volute wall or passage in an assembled pump.

18. A centrifugal pump having an outer case including a front wall, a back wall, and a peripheral outer case ring; a central rotatable shaft supported in said case; shaft seal means sealing said shaft with respect to said case; an inner case including an annular, peripheral, inner case ring, and a pair of opposite, end case plates fitted to the opposite sides of said inner peripheral case ring and defining a chamber therewithin; impeller means carried by the shaft in said chamber; volute means on said case plates and extending into and across said chamber in abutting engagement with one another to form a complete volute and in at least partially surrounding relationship to said impeller; and force balancing partition means on said case plates extending into said chamber in abutting engagement and in operative relationship with said impeller and said volute means to balance radial forces imposed on the impeller generated by pressure at the outlet of said volute means.

19. An impeller for use in a centrifugal pump, said impeller formed of a material such as vinylidene fluoride or the like which is normally subject to thermal shock when subjected to temperature change, a plurality of closed pumping ports on the front of the impeller extending from adjacent the axis to the periphery thereof, a plurality of closed expeller ports on the back of the impeller extending from adjacent the axis to the periphery thereof, alternate cut-out areas on the front and back of said impeller between the pumping ports and between the expeller ports, respectively, the walls of the impeller being of constant thickness between the front and back cut-out areas and around the pumping and expeller ports in a plane normal to the impeller axis and in a plane radial to the impeller axis, respectively, so as to reduce thermal shock in the impeller.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification415/109, 415/227, 415/230, 416/223.00B, 415/208.3, 415/197, 415/214.1, 415/204, 415/131, 416/241.00R
International ClassificationF04D29/22, F04D29/42
Cooperative ClassificationF04D29/2294, F04D29/2277, F04D29/4286
European ClassificationF04D29/42P4, F04D29/22D4, F04D29/22D7